«A Joint Project of the EEI and AEIC Meter Committees March 2011 © 2011 by the Edison Electric Institute (EEI). All rights reserved. Published 2011. ...»
Smart Meters and Smart Meter
Systems: A Metering Industry
An EEI-AEIC-UTC White Paper
A Joint Project of the EEI and AEIC
© 2011 by the Edison Electric Institute (EEI).
All rights reserved. Published 2011.
Printed in the United States of America.
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Edison Electric Institute 701 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20004-2696 Phone: 202-508-5000 Web site: www.eei.org Smart Meters and Smart Meter Systems: A Metering Industry Perspective Table of Contents Acknowledgements
2. Executive Summary
3. An Overview of Smart Meters and Smart Meter Systems
3.1 Definition of Smart Meter and Smart Meter Systems
3.2 Smart Meter System Benefits
3.3 The Role of Utility Metering Operations
3.4 The Smart Grid and Smart Meter Systems
3.5 Smart Meter Technologies
4. Deployment of Smart Meter Systems
4.1 Selection of Smart Meter Systems
4.2 Customer Care and Communications
4.3 Meter and System Certification and Acceptance
4.5 Smart Meter Installation
4.6 Data Management
5. Post Deployment Operations and Maintenance
5.1 Operational Compliance
5.2 Meter System Maintenance
6. Smart Meter System Issues
6.1 Meter Accuracy
6.2 Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure
6.3 Smart Meter Security
Acknowledgements This report was conducted with the oversight of the Edison Electric Institute (EEI) and Association of Edison Illuminating Companies (AEIC) Metering Committees and the Smart Meter Report Project Team.
We would like to acknowledge the contributions of the core team consisting of:
We would like to give special thanks to the leadership of the EEI and AEIC Meter and Service Committees for the support necessary to make this project a reality. We also thank the many EEI & AEIC members, vendors, and other meter professionals who provided input and feedback towards the completion of this report. The report could not have been completed without the input this group so generously provided.
1. Introduction The following industry discussion of Smart Meters and Radio Frequency (RF) Issues was prepared by the member company representatives from the following organizations.
Edison Electric Institute (EEI) The Edison Electric Institute (EEI) is the association of U.S. Shareholder-Owned Electric Companies. Our members serve 95 percent of the ultimate customers in the shareholder-owned segment of the industry, and represent approximately 70 percent of the U.S. electric power industry. Organized in 1933, EEI works closely with all of its members, representing their interests and advocating equitable policies in legislative and regulatory arenas.
The Association of Edison Illuminating Companies (AEIC) AEIC was founded by Thomas Edison and his associates in 1885. AEIC encourages research and the exchange of technical information through a committee structure, staffed with experts from management of member companies.
AEIC's members are electric utilities, generating companies, transmitting companies, and distributing companies – including investor-owned, federal, state, cooperative and municipal systems – from within and outside the United States. Associate members include organizations responsible for technical research and for promoting, coordinating and ensuring the reliability and efficient operation of the bulk power supply system.
AEIC's Six Technical Committees are: Load Research, Meter and Service, Power Apparatus, Power Delivery, Power Generation and Cable Engineering. AEIC also provides highly valued literature on load research and underground cable specifications and guidelines.
Utilities Telecom Council The Utilities Telecom Council (UTC) is a global, full-service trade association dedicated to creating a favorable business, regulatory, and technological environment for members. Founded in 1948, UTC has evolved into a dynamic organization that represents the broad communications interests of electric, gas, and water utilities; natural gas pipelines; other critical infrastructure entities and other industry stakeholders.
Visit www.utc.org for more information on UTC and its services.
The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the Smart Meter and Smart Meter Systems; how they are planned, certified, deployed, operated and maintained. It emphasizes these processes, as well as applicable standards, and due diligence used by utilities to assure the accuracy, integrity, security, strength and safety of this current technology. Also discussed is the role of the metering professionals in these projects and the Smart Meter’s position in the national Smart Grid initiative.
While this paper highlights and discusses many of the more prominent approaches and processes used in deploying, operating, and maintaining Smart Meter systems, it does not attempt to describe or discuss all
existing or potential processes or industry best practices. The activities and practices discussed throughout this paper are used to help define a broad range of factors that should be considered in planning and deploying Smart Meter Systems. Significantly, each Smart Meter project has a different set of demographics and assumptions, and should be designed to meet the needs of the specific utility and its customers.
Accordingly, this paper is presented as a resource for understanding and applying Smart Meter Technologies and Systems.
2. Executive Summary Smart Meters and Smart Meter Systems are being deployed throughout North America, and utilities are continuing their efforts to improve grid reliability and promote energy efficiency while providing improved services to their customers. However, concerns have been raised regarding not only the accuracy, security and integrity of these meters, but also with respect to the potential impacts of radio frequency (RF) exposure on the public. Hence, this paper provides a basic overview for understanding how the electric utility industry seeks to ensure the appropriate level of accuracy, safety, and security. It also makes evident that before being accepted and deployed Smart Meters must meet a number of national standards and comply with state and local codes designed to ensure proper operation, functionality and safety.
Meter Accuracy While there are technological differences between Smart Meters and older mechanical metering devices, 1 the electric industry exercises the same due diligence and precision for ensuring the accuracy of Smart Meters as it has to older mechanical metering devices for revenue billing application. The accuracy of Smart Meters, both in development and practice, has been confirmed to improve on the older electro-mechanical meter technology. All meters, regardless of technology and design, are required to meet national standards such as ANSI C12 for meter accuracy and operation before being installed.
Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure Several Smart Meter Systems operate by transmitting information wirelessly. However, this has raised some concern about the health effects of wireless signals on electric consumers and the general public. However, studies show the RF exposures of Smart Meters are lower compared to other common sources in the home and operate significantly below Federal Communications Commission (FCC) exposure limits.2 Additional discussions explain how the location, distance from the transmitter, shielding by meter enclosures, attenuation of building materials, direction of RF emissions, and transmit duty cycle significantly reduce exposure to consumers. It also includes a review of the conclusions of several Smart Meter RF studies and actual measurements of Smart Meter RF emissions to support this conclusion. Other observations included
All smart meter radio devices must be certified to the FCC’s rules.
Tests simulating multi-family metering locations containing several meters in close proximity have shown RF exposure levels dramatically less than FCC limits.
The FCC limits on maximum permissible exposure (MPE) for application to the general public were set using safety factors fifty times lower than the levels of known effects.
Exposure levels drop significantly (1) with the distance from the transmitter, (2) with spatial averaging, and (3) in living spaces due to the attenuation effects of building materials.
See Section 3, Overview of Smart Meters and Smart Meter Systems.
See Section 6. Smart Meter System Issues
Due to shielding of the meter enclosure and signal patterns, RF exposure from the rear of a metering location is nominally 10 times less than in front of the meter and dramatically below FCC limits, not including the spatial averaging and building material attenuation reductions. 3 For measurement and calculation purposes some studies use a 100% duty cycle parameters.
However, the maximum operational Duty Cycle for Smart meter systems is less than 50% to prevent message traffic congestion and collisions. The typical Duty Cycles for Smart Meter Systems is between 1% and 5%.
An RF exposure comparison of a person talking on a cell phone and a person 3 and 10 feet from a continuously operating Smart Meter would result in Smart Meter RF exposure 125 to 1250 times less than the cell phone.4 In test environments simulating operational conditions, for power (250 mWatt - 2 Watt), duty cycle (2%-5%) at close distance (1 foot) from in front of the transmitter, Smart Meters produce very low RF exposure to the consumer, typically well under 10 % of the FCC exposure regulations.
In Addition, before utilities accept and deploy Smart Meters, these devices must meet a number of national standards and comply with state and local codes designed to ensure proper operation, functionality and safety. In particular, Smart Meter and Smart Meter installations are typically designed to conform with and certified to comply with: 5 ANSI C12.1, 12.10, and 12.20 standards for accuracy and performance NEMA SG-AMI 1 “Requirements for Smart Meter Upgradeability” FCC standards for intentional and unintentional radio emissions and safety related to RF exposure, Parts 1 and 2 of the FCC's Rules and Regulations [47 C.F.R. 1.1307(b), 1.1310, 2.1091, 2.1093].
Local technical codes and requirements Utility specific and customer beneficial business and technical requirements The electric utility industry is continuously developing standards and guidelines to improve the safety, accuracy and operability of meters and associated metering devices. An example of these continuing improvement is NEMA SG-AMI 1 “Requirements for Smart Meter Upgradeability” released in September 2009 to support the needs of developing the Smart Grid.