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«Other Networks Shared Distribution Portal System Resources E-WLAN BS BS BS Wireless Pico-Cell A Thesis submitted in partial Fulfillment of the ...»

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Grouping Wireless Picocells to build a

Local Area Wireless Infrastructure

Fast and efficient Local Mobility Management and Range Extension

Dipl.-Ing. Jost Weinmiller



Shared Distribution Portal






A Thesis submitted in partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the

Degree of Doctor of Engineering (Dr.-Ing.)

at the Technical University of Berlin July 2000 1st full Version: January 1998 2nd (revised) Version: January 1999 © Jost Weinmiller 1995-2000 all rights reserved D83 Grouping Wireless Picocells to build a Local Area Wireless Infrastructure Fast and efficient Local Mobility Management and Range Extension vorgelegt von Diplom-Ingenieur Jost Weinmiller Vom Fachbereich 12 - Elektrotechnik der Technischen Uniersität Berlin zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doktor der Ingenieurswissenschaften

- Dr.-Ing. genehmigte Dissertation


Vorsitzender: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Filbert Berichter: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolisz Berichter: Prof. Dr.-Ing. David Tag der wissenschaftlichen Aussprache: 5. April 2000 Berlin 2000 D 83 Grouping Wireless Picocells to build a Local Area Wireless Infrastructure Fast and efficient Local Mobility Management and Range Extension Dipl.-Ing. Jost Weinmiller Abstract The thesis presents a systematic investigation of solutions to provide efficient handover in a wireless- based LAN-type communication infrastructure in an in-door environment. The chosen architecture builds upon several wireless islands and interconnects them via a second networking infrastructure of a different type. Through this several cells are grouped together into a larger administrative unit of the dimensions of a common LAN. This architecture is advised since the coverage area of future cells will be very small (~10 meter) causing very frequent handover. In order to avoid the “expensive” handover on the network layer at such high frequency a single network with multiple cells is built up, allowing for a local area mobility management that can be more efficient and faster than network layer based solutions.

With respect to the increasing demand for support for traffic with real-time requirements in communication networks, the capabilities and the issues arising with real-time communication in the system in question are furthermore discussed. The thesis investigates the space for applicable strategies and identifies distinctive basic solutions. Specifications for those solutions are developed. The specified approaches have been compared and evaluated regarding their performance and their different functional properties, with the help of simulation. The thesis finishes with conclusive remarks.

Gruppieren von drahlosen Picozellen um eine lokale drahtlose Infrastruktur aufzubauen Schnelles und effizientes lokales Mobilitätsmanagement

–  –  –

Diese Dissertation stellt eine systematische Untersuchung vor von Lösungen für effizienten Hand-over in einer drahtlosen, LAN-basierten Kommunikationsumgebung in einer geschlossenen Umgebung. Die gewählte Umgebung besteht aus mehreren drahtlosen Zellen die mittels einer zweiten Netzwerkinfrastruktur verbunden werden Die Funkzellen werden dadurch zu einer größeren Einheit zusammengebunden, die den gängigen Dimensionen eines lokalen Netzes entsprechen. Diese Architektur wurde gewählt da die Reichweite zukünftiger Funkzellen sehr klein sein wird (~10 Meter) was zu sehr häufigem Handover führen wird. Um die aufwändigen Handover auf der Netzwerkschicht bei dieser hohen Rate zu vermeiden wird ein einzelnes lokales Netz bestehend aus mehreren Zellen aufgebaut, was ein Mobilitätsmanagement im lokalen Rahmen erlaubt und das dadurch effizienter und schneller ist als Lösungen auf Netzwerkschicht.

Hinsichtlich der steigenden Nachfrage nach Unterstützung für Echtzeitkommunikation in Kommunikationsnetzen, werden die offenen Fragen und diesbezüglichen Eigenschaften in solch einem System weitergehend diskutiert und betrachtet. Die Dissertation untersucht den Raum für hier anwendbare Strategien und identifiziert die Grundmechanismen, die ihnen zugrunde liegen.

Für die Lösungen werden Spezifikationen erarbeitet. Die spezifizierten Schemata wurden mittels simulativer Verfahren bezüglich ihrer Leistung verglichen und bewertet im Hinblick auf ihre unterschiedlichen Funktionalitäten. Die Dissertation schliesst mit abschliessenden Bemerkungen ab.

Acknowledgments First of all, I would like take the opportunity to express my strongest discomfort with the system-immanent weak position of the doctoral student in the process of promotion, leaving him in almost unlimited dependency to his advisor. This permits the latter to abuse his position in many ways, e.g. to pursue rather his own interest or by disrespectfully neglecting to advise over undue long timespans, while the doctoral student is left with no procedural means to ensure fair and timely treatment. This structural dilemma cannot be justified to aid good scientific education nor does it help the researcher to achieve scientific excellence.

Nevertheless I want to thank my advisor, Professor Adam Wolisz, who provided valuable input, guidance and motivation in the course of the work. The very enjoyable communicative and creative atmosphere, that he encourages among the members of the research group has proven to be most beneficial for this work.

I especially would like to thank Andreas Festag, who did very important work on the multicast protocol as part of his master thesis. His input, his major contribution in setting up the fundament for the simulation model and - most importantly - his reliability as a friend were indispensable for the success of this thesis.

Thanks are also due to all the members of the TKN-group, for their co-operation and help that made my life easier and enjoyable, especially mentioning my good friends Hagen Woesner and Frank Fitzek. Thank goes to Torsten Koehler in Stockholm for his help in proof reading.

Special thank goes to the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) for providing financial support within the priority research funding program ‘Mobile Communication’.

Table of Contents



Zusammenfassung (Deutsch)


Table of Contents

List of Figures


1.1............... Small Picocells for Wireless In-door LANs

1.2............... Problems

1.3............... Mobility

1.4............... Grouping Wireless LAN Cells to Form a Larger Architecture

1.5............... Issues

1.6............... Application Environment

1.7............... Current Products

1.8............... State of the Art / Contribution of this Thesis

2.........Alternate Architectures

2.1............... MAC Layer Approach - Forwarding




2.2............... MAC Layer Approach - Bridging

2.3............... Network Layer Approach - MobileIP

2.4............... Switching / VLAN Concept

2.5............... Mobility Management in GSM and other cellular networks

2.6............... Mobile ATM

2.7............... Transport Layer Approach

2.8............... Inter Access Point Protocol IAPP


3.........Distribution System:

3.1............... Metatask / Functional Requirement

3.2............... Subtasks




3.3............... Components of a Distribution System






3.4............... QoS Issues in a Distribution System



4.........Designs & Specifications

4.1............... General

4.2............... Systematic Classification of Schemes

4.3............... Periodic Table Scheme

4.4............... Periodic Search Scheme

4.5............... Noticing the Handover Event - Handover Latency

4.6............... Reactive Search Scheme

4.7............... Multicast based Scheme

5.........Simulation Model

5.1............... Criteria for Evaluation



5.2............... Simulation of Distribution Systems




6.........Performance Evaluation

6.1............... Simulation Parameter:

6.2............... Simulation Results










Curriculum Vitae Jost Weinmiller

List of Authors Publications

List of Figures Figure 1: Names and Locations in the Addressing Structure of the Internet Architecture.....22 Figure 2: Problem Space of Mobile Communication

Figure 3: Architecture for Extended Wireless LAN (E-WLAN)

Figure 4: Protocol Stack for E-WLAN with Distribution System

Figure 5: Forwarding: Direct Communication and Forwarded Communication

Figure 6: DECT Relais with Fixed Relais Stations (a) and Mobile Relais Stations MRS (b) 32 Figure 7: Hidden Terminal Scenario (a) and simulated station topology (b)

Figure 8: Throughput Hidden Terminal Setup IEEE 802.11(a) and Hiperlan (b)

Figure 9: Throughput Hidden Terminal Scenario RTS/CTS in IEEE 802.11

Figure 10: Performance without (a) and with (b) Forwarding in Hiperlan

Figure 11: Using Bridges to Interconnect Wireless Cells

Figure 12: General MobileIP Scenario

Figure 13: Using MobileIP to Interconnect Wireless Cells

Figure 14: Using LAN Switching to Interconnect Wireless Cells

Figure 15: Using ATM switches to Interconnect Wireless Cells

Figure 16: I-TCP Handoff Sequence

Figure 17: IAPP Protocol Stack

Figure 18: IAPP Handover exchange

Figure 19: Fixed and Variable Part of End-to-End Path in the Case of Local Area Mobility..54 Figure 20: Subtasks of a Distribution System

Figure 21: Packet Flow Diagram for a Mobile Sender and Fixed Receiver

Figure 22: Acknowledgment across a Distribution System

Figure 23: Application of New Address Space in the Hierarchy of Addresses

Figure 24: IEEE 802.11 Frame Format and Address Field Definition

Figure 25: Throughput and Delay with Time Bounded Traffic Hiperlan

Figure 26: Classification of Schemes

Figure 27: Periodic Table Scheme, Packet Flow

Figure 28: State Diagram Periodic Update Scheme, Mobile Station

Figure 29: State Diagram Periodic Update Scheme, Base Station

Figure 30: Periodic Search Scheme, Packet Flow

Figure 31: State Diagram Periodic Search Scheme, Mobile Station

Figure 32: State Diagram Periodic Search Scheme, Base Station

Figure 33: Location of possible Time-Outs due to Lack of Acknowledgments

Figure 34: IEEE 802.11 Frame Format and Address Field Definition

Figure 35: Reactive Search Scheme, Packet Flow

Figure 36: State Diagram Reactive Search Scheme, Mobile Station

Figure 37: State Diagram Reactive Search Scheme, Base Station

Figure 38: Multicast based Scheme

Figure 39: Multicast based Scheme, Packet Flow

Figure 40: Multicast Group Selection based on Different Strategies

Figure 41: Gain through Multicast Scheme

Figure 42: State Diagram Multicast Scheme, Base Station

Figure 43: Simulation Scenario - one Mobile Receiver, one Static Sender, 10 Cells.............103 Figure 44: Mapping of SDL to the PTOLEMY DE-Domain

Figure 45: Overall E-WLAN Model with 10 Cells and 2 Mobile Hosts

Figure 46: Model of Mobile Host

Figure 47: Model of Base Station

Figure 48: Exchange of Primitives between the Galaxies

Figure 49: Model of the Application Layer Galaxy

Figure 50: Model for wireless MAC Layer in Base Station

Figure 51: Model for wireless MAC Layer in Mobile Host

Figure 52: Model for wireless Physical Layer in Mobile Host and Base Station

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