«Tagungsband 5. Forum für den lichttechnischen Nachwuchs 21. bis 23. September 2001 Dörnfeld/Ilm Veranstalter: Technische Universität Ilmenau ...»
Lux junior 2001
5. Forum für den lichttechnischen Nachwuchs
21. bis 23. September 2001
Technische Universität Ilmenau
PF 100565, D-98684 llmenau
Tel. (03677) 8469-0, Fax (03677) 842463
und Deutsche Lichttechnische Gesellschaft e. V. (LiTG)
Die Veranstalter danken allen,
die diese Veranstaltung finanziell unterstützt haben:
Zumtobel Staff GmbH, Dornbirn Heraeus Noblelight GmbH, Hanau Hella KG Hueck & Co., Lippstadt Städtische Werke AG, Kassel LICHTDESIGN GmbH, Köln BEGA Gantenbrink Leuchten, Menden BLV Licht- und Vakuumtechnik, Steinhöring Energie-Aktiengesellschaft Mitteldeutschland, Kassel LMT Lichtmeßtechnik GmbH, Berlin Thorn Licht GmbH, Dortmund Reiher GmbH, Braunschweig Handwerkskammer, Erfurt Ingenieurbüro Dr. Roessler, Hamburg Der Druck des Tagungsbandes wurde vom Verein zur Förderung des Fachgebietes Lichttechnik e. V.
Inhalt Schulungsvorträge Lightintrusion Dr. D. Schreuder, Leidschendam (NL) Dr. habil. H.-D. Witzke, Hanau (D) IR- und UV-Strahlungsquellen für industrielle Anwendungen Zur Entwicklung des Wirkungsgradverfahrens A. Stockmar, Celle (D) Aktive Light - die sinnvolle Veränderung des Lichts P. Dehoff, B. Junghans, Dornbirn (A) Die Beleuchtung des Reichstages und der Bundeskanzleramtes Dr. W. Roddewig, Berlin (D) Lighting and Crime Prevention W. van Bommel, Eindhoven (NL) Lichtlenksysteme mit Tageslichteinkopplung Prof. H. Kaase, A. Rosemann, Berlin (D) Tagungsbeiträge Electronik Ballast´s Evaluating and Choosing Criteria W. Kedziora, M. Pelko, Poznan (PL) Grundlagenuntersuchungen und erste Ergebnisse bei der Verbesserung technischer Eigenschaften von Hochspannungsleuchtröhren (HSLR) C. Blankenhagen, D. Gall, J. A. Schäfer, G. Hartung, J. Sommer, Ilmenau (D) Method of Measurement of the Ingnition Time of a Fluorescent Lamp Connected to an Electronic Ballast A.-D. Constantinescu, M.-G. Caracas, I. Costea-Marcu, B. Grad Bukarest (RO) Computer Aided Design of Reflectors for Lighting Fixtures S. Platikanov, P. Tzankov, R. Vasilev, Gabrovo (BG) Zustand und Tendenz der Entwicklung der lichttechnischen Software in Bulgarien K. Velinov, Sofia (BG) Funktionalität von Lichtplannungsprogrammen - Anforderungen der Zukunft B. Junghans, K. U. Dingeldein, Dornbirn (A) Planung der Beleuchtung nach DIN – Nur langweilig?
J. Minnerup, Arnsberg (D) Steuerung der Displayleuchtdichte bei Tunneldurchfahrten und Schlagschatten T. Weiß, Ilmenau (D) Operational Changes of Road Lighting Luminaires M. Zalesinska, A. Gandecki, Poznan (PL) Blendungsbewertung in der Außenbeleuchtung H. Kschischenk, Dresden (D) Vergleichende Beurteilung des Blendungsverhaltens von adaptiven KfzScheinwerfersystemen in Kurven S. Wolf, D. Gall, Ilmenau (D), F. Ewerhart, Hildesheim (D) Vergleich unterschiedlicher Kriterien für die Bestimmung der Sichtweite von KfzScheinwerfern S. Völker, Lippstadt (D) Untersuchungen zum Kontrasterinnerungsvermögen P. Bodrogi, Veszprém (H), R. Nolte, D. Gall, Ilmenau (D) Electronic Cinema - zu lösende Probleme, Perspektive und optische Aufgabenstellungen T. Q. Khanh, P. Geissler, München (D) Farbmanagement in der Digitalen Filmproduktion A. Kraushaar, Ilmenau (D), T. Q. Khanh, P. Geissler, München (D), Die Untersuchung der Eigenschaften der Entladungslichtquellen bei nichtnominalen Parametern in Zusammenhang mit der Dimmung der Straßenbeleuchtung A. Smola, D. Gasparovsky, F. Krasnan, P. Polak, D. Siskova, S. Tabisova, Bratislava (SK) Warschau Opera House Floodlighting M. Gorezewska, M. Lagiewka, Poznan (PL) Die Steuerung der Lichtverteilung im Raum und die Akzeptanz des modernen Büroarbeitsplatzes D. Polle, A. Pickelein, Lüdenscheid (D) Legato Langzeitmessung - Energieeinsparpotentiale von Stehleuchten R. Lickert, Villingen-Schwenningen (D) Innovative Lichtquellen durch LED-Technologie R. Heinz, Hamburg (D), K. Wachtmann, Münster (D) Keine halben Sachen - Einsatz von LED´s als Leuchtmittel in Rettungszeichenleuchten A. Willing, Schesslitz-Burgellern (D) Postervorträge Metamorphosen des Lichts in der Meß- und Simulationspraxis W. Jordanow, Ilmenau (D) Variability Ellipses for Memory Colour Matching P.Bodrogi, T. Tarczali, Veszprém (H) Mathematical Models for the Colorimetric Characterisation of AM LDT Flat Panel Monitors P. Bodrogi, B. Sinka, T. Ondro, Veszprém (H) Einsatz genauer CCD-Kameras für die Erfassung von Ausstrahlcharakteristiken und Farbabweichungen an Scheinwerfersystemen F. Schmidt, U. Krüger, Ilmenau (D) Light intrusion Dr. D. A. Schreuder Leidschendam, The Netherlands
1.1. Preface The goal of this paper is to provide an introduction to the subject areas of intrusive light and light pollution. Although the principles of the phenomena as well as the general approach to solve the problems is quite clear, there is not always consensus about the numerical values of the acceptable limits for intrusive light. In many cases, the discussion in national and international committees is far from finished. It is not always clear in which way the discussions will develop. Thus, the recommended values quoted in this paper are the responsibility of the author.
1.2. Outdoor lighting
All outdoor lighting is functional, its function being the enhancement of the visibility and/or of the aesthetics. The judgement whether the lighting installation fulfills it purpose is made on the basis of cost/benefit considerations (Schreuder, 1998; CIE 2001). The effectiveness of the lighting is the degree to which the function is fulfilled; the efficiency the degree to which the benefits surpass the costs. The benefits are two of a kind: monetary and nonmonetary, and so are the costs. The monetary benefits are primarily the costs of (avoided) accidents, traffic jams, criminal offenses and the related economic losses. Secondly the monetary benefits that are related to the economic activities, enhanced by good, beautiful and effective lighting (a.o. City Beautification; Schreuder 2001a). Thirdly, the nonmonetary benefits: avoiding personal loss and grievance from traffic accidents and reducing fear for crime (Schreuder, 2000). The beneficiaries are usually individual persons or
companies. The costs include firstly the direct monetary costs of the lighting equipment:
installation, maintenance and energy use, and the indirect costs like the waste of energy and materials in manufacturing the equipment, the toxic waste from discarded lamps and ballasts, etc. These costs are usually carried by the authorities. Further, the non-monetary costs (use of energy, scarce natural resources etc.). And finally, the negative environmental influences, causing discomfort and annoyance - what we have termed 'light intrusion'.
Good lighting design ensures that the light comes where it is needed, and does not fall elsewhere. If not, the light is 'spilled', which may cause considerable economic and environmental losses (Schreuder, 1995). The light, the money and the energy are simply wasted. Furthermore, spill light from outdoor lighting installations usually is a major cause of disturbance and discomfort for many persons, also for those that have nothing to do with the activities for which the lighting is installed. The light invades into the private sphere of people; it intrudes into the living space of people who do not have any interest in the lighting in the first place. This is 'intrusive light' or 'light trespass'. The overall effects are termed 'light pollution'.
2. Intrusive light Intrusive light has victims. A 'victim matrix' is given in table 1, which includes both the victims as well as the major types of lighting installations that may cause the intrusive light.
In Table 1, the term 'industry' is supposed to include 'general area lighting' as well. The two groups of 'victims' that receive most attention are the residents and the stronomers.
Residents suffer most when the light invades their private life, when it falls directly into the living space. In many cases it relates to light falling into bedrooms, but also to light intruding into living rooms or private gardens. Astronomers are restricted in their possibilities to make accurate observations. Astronomers include both the professionals and the amateurs, but also the much larger group of persons who enjoy the darkness. Their main concern is the more diffuse type of light pollution that arises from light emitted upwards and scattered in the atmosphere. This scattered light causes the diffuse 'urban sky glow'.
The light may be emitted upwards directly from the luminaires or indirectly by reflection from the lighted surfaces like e.g. roads. A third important group of 'victims' is termed 'nature life' in Table 1. It includes plants but mainly insects, birds and mammals.
The term 'road users' speaks for itself. For brevity the heading might be considered to include rail transportation as well. See for details of this matrix and the way in has been used in drafting the recommendations for the Netherlands: NSVV (1999); Schreuder (1999).
This paper deals with outdoor lighting. One might discern three major classes of outdoor
• the purely utilitarian lighting like e.g. road traffic lighting, lighting of industrial complexes or sports facilities etc. Their purpose is to ensure adequate visibility for the tasks to be performed in those situations. The main aspects are the promotion of safety and security. The characteristics are described under the heading 'functional lighting' (Schreuder, 1970, 1974, 1994, 2001; Van Bommel & De Boer 1980)
• amenity lighting like e.g. the lighting of pedestrian malls, residential streets, floodlighting of public buildings etc. where visibility aspects are important but the promotion of the feeling of well-being ('amenity') is equally important. Crime prevention and the reduction of criminal acts are prevalent, more in particular the promotion of feeling secure (the subjective crime aspects). Apart from the functional requirements as indicated earlier, a major goal of amenity lighting is to enliven the surroundings (Schreuder, 1989, 2000, 2001).
• decorative lighting like e.g. illumination of Christmas trees, laser beam displays, floodlighting of fountains and trees. Their function is exclusively to enliven the scene. In this respect, the lighting is 'functional' as well, but its function is rather different from the safety and security aspects mentioned earlier. Details on this type of lighting may be found in the proceedings of recent lighting conferences like e.g. CIE (1999), Anon.
(2000). See also Coho (1967).
Because outdoor lighting is essentially functional, 'switching out the lot' is never a good solution to fight intrusive light, as it might conflict with the primary functions of lighting.
Quality lighting is the obvious answer. The requirements for quality lighting are considered by the International Lighting Commission CIE (CIE, 1997; 2000; 2001a).
3. The environmental approach towards reduction of light intrusion
The consequences of light pollution are not equally severe at all places in the world; this implies that the light intrusion restriction measures do not need to be equally stringent for all places. For this, 'the world' it divided into zones. Zoning is a well-established practice to establish a base for environmental regulations. Zones are defined as areas where specific activities take place or are planned and where specific requirements are recommended for the restriction of obtrusive light. The International Lighting Commission CIE has proposed a zoning system that is specifically focussed on this purpose (CIE, 1997). Zoning does not stop environmental pollution, but it may serve as a frame of reference for anti-pollution legislation and regulation.
CIE has proposed a Zoning System for general purposes (CIE, 1997, 2001a). The system is closely related to the system of zoning that is in use in many countries. The zones are characterized by their Zone rating (E1... E4). A description is given in Table 2.
It should be noted that the original CIE publication gives a different and less concise description (CIE 1997). In the newer CIE draft, industrial or residential rural areas have been given as examples of Zone E2 (CIE 2001a). Agricultural rural areas seem to be a more relevant example.