«PACS-classification: 84.60.-h, 89.30.-g, 98.62.En, 12.20.-m, 12.20.Ds, 12.20.Fv Summary of a Scientfic Work by Claus Wilhelm Turtur Germany, ...»
With the large Coulomb-forces perpendicular to the plane of rotation, this is an important advantage. But the main advantage of the swimming rotor is, that the rotor can freely move laterally on the water surface. This is important, because the attractive Coulomb-forces between the rotor and the field source initiate a self-adjustment mechanism of the rotor relatively to the field source. The attraction of the Coulomb-forces has the consequence that the rotor always finds its way into the minimum of the electrostatic potential (created by the field source). This self-adjustment mechanism is very important, because a rotor with rigidly fixed axis of rotation and imprecise adjustment (of this axis) within the electrostatic potential will only rotate until a rotor blade finds the minimum of the electrostatic potential, and at this position the rotation will stop at all. As a matter of logic, it is clear, that this condition is reached after less than one turn (of rotation) if the rotor is not perfectly adjusted. Only a rotor with very exact adjustment can follow an endless rotation (which would require a very exact manufacturing of the rotor). And the described self-adjustment mechanism effectuates always a perfect adjustment, and does this by alone (even if the assembly of the rotor is not extremely exact).
It could be mentioned that the voltage necessary to initiate the self-adjustment mechanism is less than the voltage necessary to drive the rotor, so that it is possible to enhance the voltage slowly beginning from zero, and to adjust the rotor first before the rotation begins. But in practice, there is no problem to apply a voltage from the very beginning with starts the selfadjustment and the rotation in the same moment.
4.2. First experiments for the conversion of vacuum-energy 47
The practical execution of the experiment is the following:
In order to have an extremely lightweight construction (also for the minimization of friction), the rotor blades have been made of aluminium foil with a thickness of approx. 10 m, which has been mounted on a frame of balsa wood with the use of cyanoacrylate adhesive glue. The rotor blades have been fixed to each other with two-component adhesive (Stabilit Express).
In the centre of the rotor, an iron rod (diameter 2.2 mm) has been fixed to mark the axis of rotation. All rotor blades have been connect electrically with each other and with the iron axis with thin copper filaments (thickness approx. 60 m ), and the iron axis was long enough to be in electrical connection with the water. By this means the rotor was electrically grounded during the time of its rotation and the grounding did not give noticeable mechanical forces onto the rotor.
In this configuration, the rotor was put onto the surface of the water, and then the field source was mounted above the rotor with horizontal adjustment (parallel to the surface of the water).
Then the water was electrically connected to ground and the field source to the high voltage supply. It is important to keep all electrical cables, which have voltage very far away from the rotor (several meters), otherwise they would cause an inhomogeneity of the electric field, which prevents the rotor from rotating. When switching on the voltage, at first the selfadjustment began and then the rotation. Fig.13 shows the observation of an exemplary measurement, at which the time was recorded (under optical observation) which the rotor needed to pass steps of rotation of 60°, i.e. its angle of rotation was n 60 n .
The statistical distribution of the data is due to lateral movements of the rotor during its rotation in connection with the self-adjustment mechanism of the lateral position on the surface of the water. (Of course, the convection of gas (of the air) was carefully avoided in order to exclude driving forces due to any wind.) 48 4. Experiments to convert vacuum-energy into classical mechanical energy
Furthermore it should be mentioned, that the electrical voltage between the field source and the rotor decreased during time. In the example of fig.13, the following happened: At the beginning a voltage of U 7 kV was applied, and the rotor began to rotate. After approximately half an hour, 6…8 revolutions have been fulfilled, and the data acquisition started at a moment at which the voltage was U 6 kV. During the following hour of data acquisition, the voltage further decreased to U 4.5 kV. Consequently, the angular velocity of the rotation also decreased during time, as can be seen in fig.13.
We now see a numerical estimation of the results, especially of the machine power
corresponding to the energy converted from vacuum-energy:
The rotor itself has a weight of m 8.7 Gramm, but three Styrofoam cuboids (each of m 0.56 Gramms ) additionally perform the rotation. Thus, the moment of inertia is approximately J 3.2 10-4 kg m2. A torque of M 1.2 10-5 Nm leads to an angular acceleration of about 2.1 sec.2. The average angular velocity observed in the measurement was about 0.84 sec. This means that the rotor already reaches its final angular velocity after less than 0.4 seconds of acceleration. Such a short phase of acceleration could not be measured in this experiment. But the average engine power taken from the vacuum could be found to be about P 1.75 10-7Watt, which finally was absorbed by the water via friction.
This was the very first proof for the operational capability of the electrostatic rotor to convert vacuum-energy into classical mechanical energy. On the one hand this is important for the fundamental science of Physics, but on the other hand it might offer a possibility for the energy supply of the future, because a precise mechanical fabrication of the setup and good electrical isolation (in order to minimize the loss of electrical charges from the field source) arises the hope, that more energy can be extracted from the vacuum.
4.2. First experiments for the conversion of vacuum-energy 49 A second experimental verification of the conversion of vacuum-energy was begun with rotors of several diameters on toe bearings [e12]. One of them is shown in fig.14. The toe bearing consists in a glass dome rotating on the tip of a steel needle. Such a bearing can be bought easily within a standard Crooke’s radiometer at a glass manufacturer. The rotor blades are made of the same material as those in fig.12, of aluminium foil on a frame of balsa wood.
Each of the blades has a surface of 3.5 cm x 6.0 cm; they are rotating in a plane with a distance to the field source of approx. 3.8 … 4.0 cm; this distance is altered during the rotation).
Tests with grounded rotor-blades and an electrically charged field source display the
▪ Field source brought to a potential of 1100 Volt 4 revolutions per minute.
▪ Field source brought to a potential of 1400 Volt 12 revolutions per minute.
▪ Further enhancement of the voltage enhances the speed of rotation remarkably.
An exact adjustment of the field source relatively to the rotor is of great importance and has to be done very carefully, because the rigidly fixed axis of rotation does not allow the selfadjustment mechanism, which we know from the swimming rotor. Therefore the plane of the rotation has to be adjusted parallel to the field source (which is a flat disc), and the axis of rotation has to be adjusted as close as possible to the minimum of the electrostatic potential below the field source. If these conditions are not fulfilled good enough, the rotor rotates only for an angle less than 360° and then comes to a standstill at the position where it finds the minimum of the electrostatic potential. Only if the driving force (coming out of the vacuumenergy) is larger than Coulomb-force stopping the rotor in the minimum of the potential, the rotor will rotate enduring. (An angular momentum might help to overcome to minimum of the potential if the average of the driving Coulomb-force is larger than Coulomb-force stopping the rotor in the minimum of the potential.) The angular speed mentioned after fig.
14 can only be reached with very good adjustment and changes very strongly if the adjustment is changed only a little bit.
The value of the high voltage was rather moderate (the rotation begins at 1100 Volt depending on the quality of adjustment) in order to avoid the ionization of gas molecules of the surrounding air, because the recoil of gas ions had to be suppreseed as much as possible 50 4. Experiments to convert vacuum-energy into classical mechanical energy [Dem 06]. A technical application of the recoil of gas ions is known from [Bro 28] and [Bro 65] (Biefeld and Brown) and this is not what shall be observed in the present work. To be really sure to exclude the influence of gas ions, that rotor is brought into the vacuum later – and it rotates there. If should be annotated, that Biefeld and Brown use much higher field strehgth than it was done in the experiment presented here.
Very first preliminary thoughts for the exclusion of recoils of gas ions have been already presented in [e9]. Further tests are published in [e13]. The last mentioned publication shall be referenced here, its central idea is the alteration of the shape of the rotor blades as can be seen in fig.14.
▪ If the attractive Coulomb-forces are dominating, the rotor of fig.14 spins clockwise, same as the altered rotor of fig.15.
▪ But on the contrary if the forces from recoils of gas ions would dominate, the rotation would be different. Gas molecules are ionized at the regions with large field strength, which are found at the top edges of the rotor blades. Ions generated there would follow the gradient of the electrical field and be accelerated into the direction of this gradient. Thus the recoils would make the rotor of fig.14 spin clockwise but the rotor of fig.15 counter-clockwise.
▪ The conducted observation confirms the first mentioned behaviour going back to the dominance of the attractive Coulomb-forces, not to the recoils. This indicates that the Coulomb-forces really exist.
A definite exclusion of the recoil forces of gas ions is reported in the following section 4.3, where the gas molecules of the air have been removed by making a vacuum.
4.3. Experimental verification under the absence of gasmolecules In principle both of the following forces are under discussion in our experiment with the rotor
for the conversion of vacuum-energy:
(a.) attractive Coulomb-forces (going back to the conversion of vacuum-energy), (b.) forces due to recoils of ionized gas molecules.
4.3. Experimental verification under the absence of gas-molecules 51 The test of fig.15 does not for sure exclude the force of (a.). But the fact, that an alteration of the shape of the rotor blades (from fig.14 to fig.15) does not influence the direction of the rotation, demonstrates that the attractive Coulomb-forces are really present. The geometrical precision of the setup is not good enough to allow a quantitative estimation of both mentioned forces relatively to each other. For this purpose, the experiment had been brought into the vacuum. The quantitative estimation deduced from the vacuum experiment is reported at the end of section 4.3, and first of all: If the rotor rotates within the vacuum, the existence of the force (a.) is proven for sure. This is the purpose of section 4.3.
The reported tests under air (with room pressure) have not been regarded as a complete proof for the existence of the attractive Coulomb-forces of (a.) due to the conversion of vacuumenergy. Some colleagues did not accept this test. In order to get a proof, which is regarded as a safe verification for the attractive Coulomb-forces by everybody, the experiment of [Kna 08/09], [e14] with the rotor in the vacuum was performed. But before this experiment is described, we want to have a short glance to some other preliminary work, from which the background of the successful experiment (described afterwards) can be understood.
This preliminary work was done with a rotor made of an iron sheet rotating on toe bearing as can be seen in fig.16. The rotor has been manufactured by bending and cutting the sheet material, followed by deburring and polishing. The toe of the toe bearing was a steel needle.