# «PACS-classification: 84.60.-h, 89.30.-g, 98.62.En, 12.20.-m, 12.20.Ds, 12.20.Fv Summary of a Scientfic Work by Claus Wilhelm Turtur Germany, ...»

It should be mentioned, that the force according to (1.55) is only a rough approximation, because our calculation of F up to now gives the total force between the charge q and the infinite plane z : z x, y y. In reality, our rotor is not infinite but it is finite, so we have refine our calculation. For the determination of the force actually working on the rotor-blade covering a finite part of this plane, we again want to turn our attention to fig.8 showing a projection of the assembly. And now we have to calculate which percentage of the electric flux through the whole plane z : z x, y y will pass the finite blade from which we can determine the force onto this finite blade. Let us begin this calculation by writing the electrostatic potential of the charge and the image-charge, valid for the space between the

**plane z : z x, y y and the charge q :**

From there we calculate the percentage of the electric flux through the rotor-blade relatively to the electric flux through the total plane z : z x, y y, where the last mentioned is of course a convergent improper integral. This was done in a numerical approximation, leading to a result of about 4 0.5 %. This means, that the force acting onto the finite rotor-blade can be estimated to be about 4 0.5 % of the total force F, with a precision sufficient for

4.2. First experiments for the conversion of vacuum-energy 41 the first planning of an experiment. Consequently, we get the y-component of the force acting on each single finite rotor-blade as onto each single rotor blade Fy 3.93 105 N 4% 1.6 106 N, (1.58) and thus the force onto all three rotor blades 3 Fy 4.7 106 N, (1.59) as far as causing a torque driving the rotor.

At least we want to know the torque, with which the charge q turns our rotor-blades. Therefore, we have to take into account, that the force 3 Fy does not act onto one single point, but its action is distributed along all points of which the surface of the rotor blades consist. The calculation of the torque is a simple mechanical problem, which does not need a detailed demonstration here. Its result is a torque of about M tot 9 108 N m, (1.60) which is given as “approximately” because of the numerical approximation of (1.58) and (1.59). This example of calculation demonstrates distinctly, to use a bearing with very low friction. The realization of such a bearing will be an important task for the practical realization in the experiment.

The physical principle of the electrostatic driven rotor, which converts vacuum-energy (from the flux of the propagation of an electrostatic field) into mechanical energy of a rotation, is now invented. It shall be emphasized here that the development of the functioning principle only needs two fundamental assumptions: One is the validity of Coulomb’s law and the other one is the validity of the image-charge method.

As soon as the electrical charge is mounted above the rotor, the rotor is accelerated until the forces of friction (or the forces of a mechanical utilization) are the same strong as the driving Coulomb-forces. When this condition is reached, the rotor spins with constant revolution speed (angular velocity).

4.2. First experiments for the conversion of vacuum-energy With regard to the expectation of a very small torque, the geometry of the practical setup for an experiment has to be optimized, with two aspects being of special importance, namely a maximization of the driving torque and a minimization of the friction. Otherwise, the driving torque would not surmount friction at all, resulting in a standstill of the rotor.

A very simple rough estimation already allows to recognize, that a rotor with a diameter of 20cm and a torque as given in (1.60) of less than 107 N m is not capable to surmount the friction of a normal standard ball bearing. So we have to regard the two optimizations as said

**above:**

**First part: Maximization of the driving torque:**

42 4. Experiments to convert vacuum-energy into classical mechanical energy The spatial distribution of the field producing charge, i.e. the shape and the position of the field source, has not been optimized up to now, so that there is a lot of possibility for optimization. For the purpose of the calculation of the torque produced by different types of field sources, two different types Finite-Element-Algorithms have been used. The first algorithm was self-made [Pas 99]; it calculates the forces on the basis of finite charge elements (on the surface of the field source) and finite image-charge elemets on the rotor blade using Coulomb’s law giving the forces between those pairs of charges. The second algorithm was the commercial FEM-program ANSYS [Ans 08], whose working is based on potential theory. Two applications of two different algorithms - this has the purpose to provide a possibility the check the results.

The self-developed algorithm is based on the application of the image-charge method and on Coulomb’s law according to section 4.1. Therefore, the field source was subdivided into finite charge elements and the rotor blade was subdivided into finite image-charge elements, so that finite Coulomb-forces between all pairs of charges and image-charges have been calculated. For each finite Coulomb-force, the torque has been calculated taking its radius of rotation into account. The sum of all these finite torques gives the total torque driving the rotor. A check on self-consistency was done by calculating the electrical potential and the electrical field-strength according to (1.57), which additionally provides the possibility to assure, that there will not be a field strength above the electrical breakthrough in the practical experiment.

For the Finite-Element-Program ANSYS, the input does not consist of a rotor and a field source, but it consists of the space filled with field. Those positions which are occupied by the rotor and the field source are given as boundary conditions, namely as an electrical potential or as an electrical charge located at the surface of the space being modelled. ANSYS calculates the potential and the field strength in space being filled with finite elements, and from there force- and torque- values on the surfaces of the model can be calculated.

Because the algorithm ANSYS had limited availability [Ihl 08], the optimization was done with the self-developed algorithm. Therefore, the geometry of the field source and of the rotor have been changed as well as the geometrical location of both, relatively to each other.

ANSYS was only used to check the results of the own algorithm. Both methods are numerical approximations, both converge with increasing number of finite elements, and both come to the same results within their numerical uncertainty. So ANSYS confirmed the results of the self-made algorithm.

It was found that a flat disc is a good field source if its diameter is a bit larger than the diameter of the rotor. An example therefore is shown in fig.9, which produces a torque of approximately M=1.2 10-5 Nm, which is remarkably larger than the torque of the simple setup in section 4.1, fig.8. And the electrical voltage to reach this torque in fig.9 is only U 7 kV between field source and rotor. A field source, which is a little bit larger than the rotor, is sufficient with regard to the torque. A field source much large than the rotor does not further enhance the torque.

4.2. First experiments for the conversion of vacuum-energy 43

For the purpose of a further optimization of the geometry, a systematic variation of the parameters “voltage” and “rotor radius” have been analyzed, leading to the following

**proportionalities:**

▪ Torque M U 2, and thus: driving power P U 2 (with U electrical voltage) ▪ Torque M R 2, and thus: driving power P R 2 (with R diameter of the rotor).

These proportionalities have been deduced while adjusting the distance between rotor and field source in such manner, that the maxima of the field strength have been kept below a constant limit (below the electrical breakthrough of air). This has the sense to avoid electrical breakthrough.

44 4. Experiments to convert vacuum-energy into classical mechanical energy With the knowledge of these proportionalities, it is possible to get a quick estimation of the size of the rotor necessary for a requested torque.

**Second part: Minimization of the friction of the bearing:**

For the first approach, it is quite usual to think about a mechanical bearing. But it is necessary to be very careful to minimize its friction, and it causes several further problems, which will be topic of section 5.

For a mechanical tribological pairing, the forces of friction FR are proportional to the force FN normal (perpendicular) to FR (in the plane of the surfaces in contact). In our case, this is the force with which the rotor lies on the bearing because of its mass [Stö 07]. The factor of proportionality is the coefficient of friction , which is H for static friction at the beginning of the rotation and G for dynamic friction during the rotation. So the force of friction is FR FN. (1.61)

This is the basic formula to analyze and compare the operational capability of several types of bearings with regard to the experiment of the electrostatic rotor to convert vacuum-energy into classical energy of rotation. The goal of the following comparison will be the minimization of the friction. Only if it is possible to reduce static friction to a torque below the value of fig.9, it is sensible to conduct the experiment.

**Consequently, the comparison of the low friction bearing comes to the resumée:**

According to (1.65), (1.66) and (1.67) all three analyzed types of bearing should applicable for the planned experiment in principle, because they produce a braking torque less than the driving torque of M=1.2 10-5 Nm (see fig.9). But as a matter of fact, the input values for the comparative analysis are ideal conditions. It is not possible to predict, how real condition deviate from such ideal conditions. This was the reason for the following approach: Let us start with the lowest friction, the fluid bearing (= hydrostatic bearing). After this will be successful done, it is possible to expand the experiment to other bearings.

Hydrostatic bearing does not allow a large speed of rotation, but if there is a small driving torque at all, it allows low speed of rotation. And this is enough for the verification of the principle of the conversion of vacuum-energy (section 4). After the successful completion of the conversion of vacuum-energy with the hydrostatic bearing, it is possible to start with a toe bearing, because the hydrostatic bearing is not the first choice for technical applications. But the development of a rotor with a toe bearing to technical maturity is still under optimization (section 5), and threre are several questions to be answered.

The first realization of the hydrostatic bearing with a swimming rotor was done on the surface of water (later other realizations have been done on oil), at which a rotor with three blades was put onto Styrofoam floating bodies as shown in fig.12. It was found that this type of bearing has some further practical advantages, which are very helpful for the success of the experiment. One advantage is the fact, that the swimming rotor on the water surface is adjusted always exactly horizontally, so that the rotor can not tilt relatively to the field source.