«PACS-classification: 84.60.-h, 89.30.-g, 98.62.En, 12.20.-m, 12.20.Ds, 12.20.Fv Summary of a Scientfic Work by Claus Wilhelm Turtur Germany, ...»
It can also be seen, that the modes and the modes can be excited with different strength, but this is also an aspect of the magnetic field as a probe. And it must not influence the answer to the fundamental question about the energy density of the zero point oscillations of the vacuum. In the same way, the choice of the probe (magnetic or electric field) to interact with the zero point oscillations must not influence the energy density of the electromagnetic zero point oscillations of the vacuum. We have indeed to keep in mind, that different probes can excite oscillations differently, so we have to extract a measurable quantity from our result, which will allow a comparison with the result of the second way of calculation, which is done with an electric field as a probe.
Such a quantity is the birefringence of the vacuum, which several articles regard as the central quantity of measurement. This shall be determined now in order to create a possibility to compare the result of the first calculation with the result that will follow from the second calculation. This measurable quantity is the birefringence of the vacuum, which several articles regard as the central quantity of measurement (see above: [Lam 07], [Lig 03], [Rik 00], [Rik 03], [Riz 07], [Sch 07], [Zav 07]).
We achieve the comparability as following:
Also the difference, which represents the measurable birefringence, must lead to the same energy density of the vacuum, this is
3.3. New microscopic model for the electromagnetic part of the vacuum-energy 29
This measurable value, which results from fundamental considerations of the birefringence of electromagnetic waves in magnetic fields has to be kept it in mind for later comparison with the birefringence of electromagnetic waves in electric fields, which will be the result of the second way of calculation.
This is the energy density difference for birefringence, determined with an electric field as a probe. Of course, the field strength as an attribute of the probe had to be eliminated, so that the result is free from any information about the probe. Thus, both calculations no.1 and no.2 should come to the same result, because there is only one vacuum, for which both calculations are valid. The fact, that the solutions fulfil this criterion, demonstrates that we have indeed found a possibility to trace back the convergence problems of (1.29), (1.30) and 30 3. Theoretical fundament of the energy-flux (1.31) to other results found in literature. And it confirms our model of the propagation of electric and magnetic DC-fields with the model assumptions as described above.
For the sake of completeness, it should be mentioned again, that the calculation only gives the energy density of the electromagnetic zero point oscillations of the vacuum. This is not a general value for the total energy density of the vacuum. It does not contain any considerations of fundamental interactions other than the electromagnetic interaction and their mechanisms. This is said in order to remember, that we have been thinking only about the electromagnetic part of the vacuum-energy. Perhaps other fundamental interactions also have some contribution to the total vacuum-energy and might allow also the conversion of their parts of the vacuum-energy (into a classical form of energy) one day.
3.4. The energy-flux of electric and magnetic fields in the vacuum, regarded from the view of QED’s zero point oscillations Up to now, the model, which was introduced in section 3, is capable to explain the propagation of electric and the magnetic DC-fields in the vacuum. The only assumption it
needs is surprisingly simple and plausible:
From several literature references it is known, that the propagation of excited states n of electromagnetic waves (for n 1 ) in the vacuum is influenced by electric and magnetic fields. The assumption of our model is, to apply the same dependence on electric and magnetic fields also to the propagation of the ground state (for n 0 ).
This assumption looks logic and plausible. One of the consequences is, that the propagation of electric and magnetic DC-fields can be understood as an alteration of the wavelengths and frequencies of the ground state (these are the zero point oscillations).
But there are further aims of the present work, one of them is: We want to find a possibility to make the vacuum-energy manifest in the laboratory. There we need an explanation of the above mentioned energy-flux of the electric and the magnetic field and the propagation of these fields. As soon as this energy-flux is understandable, we can plan an experiment for the conversion of the vacuum-energy into mechanical energy.
The explanation of the energy-flux can be given as following:
Let us begin with an explanation of the propagation of the fields, this is an answer to the question by which means the vacuum permanently takes energy out of the field during the propagation of the field – and an answer to the question by which means the vacuum
permanently supplies the field source with energy. This can be explained as following:
energy-term corresponds to a certain event of vacuum polarisation. This is the case for those energy-terms which Heisenberg and Euler took into account same as for higher order energyterms corresponding to several higher-order effects of vacuum polarisation. The zero point oscillations give their contributions to all these energy-terms (otherwise, they would not be influenced by the fields), and the consequence is, that the field gives contributions to these energy-terms. Even if the events of vacuum polarisation are only temporarily in the time they occur, they permanently repeat with their certain amplitudes of probability [Fey 85], [Fey97], [Fey 49a], [Fey 49b], [Sch 49]. This describes a dynamic equilibrium situation, where a given number of several effects of vacuum polarisation happen within a given interval of time – always handling some energy within the vacuum. And the number of effects of vacuum polarisation happening within a given interval of time is influenced by an external field. The situation is a process of dynamical equilibrium, which can be shifted by an applied (electric or magnetic) field.
With other words: In our model, the field generates a lot of events of vacuum polarisation during its propagation (because of the field’s energy) – and this is just the amount of energy, which the field gives to the vacuum during its propagation. And this is necessary in order to enable the field strength to follow Coulomb’ law. And the energy necessary for the alteration of the number of vacuum polarisation events is the extracted energy from the field.
The way how the field source is supplied with energy from the vacuum follows the same
principle but to the opposite direction:
The events of vacuum polarisation take finite time and finite space, but they don’t have to follow the directions of the flux lines of the field. Thus they diffuse (perhaps statistically) to every direction and to everywhere in the space. Obviously they generate the loss of energy from the field during its propagation, which forms the observed energy-flux (see (1.12), (1.13), (1.14), (1.25) for electric fields and (1.18), (1.22), (1.23), (1.24) for magnetic fields), which transports energy through the vacuum and which also can be tapped by field sources.
This means that every field source is permanently supplied from this energy circulating around in the vacuum.
It is not obligatory, that an electrical charge is supplied with energy from its own field. (It can be supplied with energy from the field of some other charges as well.) But it is obligatory, that each electrical charge permanently takes more energy from the vacuum than its field gives to the vacuum. The reason is simple: The amount of volume filled with field grows permanently during time, and with it the field’s total energy (because the field strength remains constant at a given position). One of the consequences of this fact is, that growing
total energy will cause a growing number of events of vacuum polarisation during time. And:
The total field’s energy of all electric (and magnetic) fields in the universe permanently increases during time. (This might probably have a consequence for cosmology, perhaps for the expansion rate of the universe.) An explanation, which is not available in the moment, concerns the mechanism, by which the field source is able to convert the energy of the events of vacuum polarization into field energy. But such a background explanation is not necessary for the verification of the vacuum-energy as described in the experiment in section 4.
32 3. Theoretical fundament of the energy-flux In the notation of particle physics, the zero point oscillations are bosonic Quantum field fluctuations (because they are electromagnetic waves), and events of vacuum polarisation are fermionic Quantum field fluctuations (because they consist of particles like virtual electrons and positrons) [She 01], [She 03]. Their conversion (which is necessary for vacuum polarisation) consists of processes like virtual pair production and annihilation. Especially in electric and magnetic fields, the probability amplitudes for the conversion of those both types of Quantum field fluctuations depend on external field strength. Thus the distance to the field source has an influence on the number of such processes occurring in a given time interval.
Especially the energy going from the field to the vacuum follows the condition: The number of events of vacuum polarisation (connected with the probability amplitudes) is responsible for the amount of energy being converted from field-energy to vacuum-energy.
After all, we face the question, how an experiment should be designed in order to convert vacuum-energy into mechanical energy. In section 4 we will see, that one part of the experiment is a rotor, but how shall this rotor be built and what else do we need to get a machine, which extracts energy from the circulation of field’s energy and vacuum-energy ?
Of course, the answer has to be based on the field’s energy, because the energy converting movement of the rotor is finally driven by electrostatic forces (or in the case of the magnetic rotor by magnetostatic forces). In our model, some metallic rotor blades do interact with the
circulation of energy, namely as following:
That part of the circulating energy, which is contained in the field strength, alters the wavelengths of the zero point oscillations. This is evoked by the field source, because the field source produces the field. As known from the Casimir-effect, conductor plates block the field and with it the propagation of the zero point oscillations. The consequence is, that the wavelengths of the zero point oscillations are influenced by the field on this side of the conductor plate, which looks towards the field source, but on the opposite side (looking away from the field source), the field does not have any influence on the wavelengths of the zero point oscillations. This means, that the wavelengths of the zero point oscillations are different on both sides of the conductor plates, which is only possible with regard to energy conservation, if the conductor plates compensate the difference of the energy. As soon as the conductor plates absorb energy, they feel a force, which drives the rotor described in section
4. And the fact that the conductor plates really absorb energy from the field (and do not emit energy into the field) is clear, because at their side looking away from the field source, there is no field and thus no field’s energy. This means that the conductor plates prevent some space from getting field and field’s energy.
3.5. Comparision of the QED-model with other models 33 With other words: The conductor plates absorb exactly this amount of energy, which can not propagate into the space behind the plates. Finally, this absorbed energy is being transported with the energy-flux from the field source to the plates. And this is the energy, from which we
have to prove (in section 4) that it drives the rotor by the following mechanism: