«PACS-classification: 84.60.-h, 89.30.-g, 98.62.En, 12.20.-m, 12.20.Ds, 12.20.Fv Summary of a Scientfic Work by Claus Wilhelm Turtur Germany, ...»
A suggestion for a solution might be the following conception: The earth moves in the ether similar like a car moves in the air – both motions causing eddy curls. The car causes such eddy curls in the surrounding air and the earth might cause such eddy curls in the surrounding ether. For the turbulent flow follows non-linear chaotic dynamics ([Arg 95], [Wor 93]), airflow sensors at the car can display weird flux-velocities and flux-directions, varying in time and position. In analogy, the earth’s motion might show chaotic ether-drift and vacuumenergy, perhaps with astronomical dimensions in time and space.
This conception would also explain, why some enginges for the conversion of vacuumenergy sometimes show results not reproducible in space and time, such as we know from the Coler-“Magnetstromapparat” and the “Stromerzeuger”. This also might give us an understanding, why vacuum-energy is discussed in the scientific community so controversially and consequently so seldom.
5.5. Outlook to imaginable applications If the present work should only be of importance for fundamental Physics, namely for the verification of the theoretical models described in the sections 2 and 3, then the successful experiments of section 4 would already be the final execution of all tasks. In reality, the
possible expected benefit of the work now begins:
Rotors for the conversion of vacuum-energy are driven by static fields, so they do not consume classical energy. They convert a type of energy, which was not respected very much up to now (which can be called vacuum-energy) into classical mechanical energy (mechanical rotation). This arises the hope for an application as an inexhaustible source of energy, which moreover has the advantage not to pollute our environment at all. How inexhaustible this source of energy really is, can be seen from the modern standard model of cosmology [TEG 02] [RIE 98], [EFS 02], [TON 03], [and many others], among whose statements we find also the consistency of our universe. According to this standard model the universe consists of
- 5 % well known particles, this is all matter, which mankind can see,
- 30 % invisible matter, these are elementary particles unknown up to now,
- 65 % vacuum-energy.
5.5. Outlook to imaginable applications 101 So mankind could have the largest dominant part of the universe as a source of energy – if we learn how to get it. Of course not everybody can imagine that this source of energy begins to be available for mankind (for instance [Bru 06]), but there is also very much substantiated work and there are many serious colleagues, who come to the result, that the conversion of vacuum-energy is indeed possible (for instance [Sol 03], [Sol 05], [Sol 06], but also [Kho 08], [Red 08], [Kho 07a], [Kho 07b], [Put 08], [Ole 99]).
A practical and profitable benefit can be achieved from vacuum-energy (of the universe) from the moment, at which vacuum-energy conversion will deliver more energy than its operation consumes. As soon as this condition is fulfilled, vacuum-energy rotors can be of essential benefit for power supply industry as well as for protection of the environment. We want to make some few considerations about the “economical and environmental benefit on industrial scale” now, beginning with a comparison of the two types of rotors presented in the present
▪ In the case of the magnetostatic vacuum-energy rotor this benefit presumes (after the endless rotation will work with a fixed axis), that the cooling of the superconducting rotor blades will consume less energy than the rotation inside a magnetic field of a permanent magnet produces. But the cooling of the superconductors requires liquid nitrogen, whose production needs energy. “Economical and environmental benefit” requires very good materials for thermal isolation, i.e. very good cryostats in order to minimize the amount of necessary liquid nitrogen.
▪ In the case of the electrostatic vacuum-energy rotor the main expenses of energy to drive the rotor are for sure not the losses of electrical energy to maintain the electric field and to keep it constant. This is already clear from the very simple setup in section 4.4. Things are going rather like that: “Economical and environmental benefit” requires very good vacuum chambers and energy saving vacuum pumps.
By the way, an interesting alternative for the field source could come under discussion: An electret. This is a material, which can permanently produce an electrostatic field similar to a permanent magnet which permanently produces a magnetic field. Same as the permanent magnet has to be polarized magnetically before producing a magnetic field, the electret has to be polarized electrically before producing an electric field. If it would be possible to find an electret which keeps its polarization for a long time, it could be interesting to investigate, whether such a material can drive an electrostatic rotor for the conversion of vacuum-energy with its field. The production of a suitable field strength should be imaginable, because there are electrets available which can produce many Kilovolts per centimetre.
Available electrets can be found rather often among plastics [Wik 08], [Mel 04], as for instance Teflon (=Polytetrafluorethylen), Polypropylen, Polyethylenterephthalat, Polytetrafluorethylenpropylen, Polypropylen, Polyethylenterephthalat (PET-foil), Polyvinylidenfluorid, but there are also remanent dielectrics available such as for instance Siliziumdioxid or Siliziumnitrid. Some of the mentioned materials have been tested in the present work. They have been electrically charged by rubbing their surface, and then they have been held over the rotor of fig.14 as a field source. The tests have not been quantitative. In some cases rotations have been observed, which normally starts rather speedy (this means with a large torque indicating a large field strength) and also ended rather abruptly. In the most cases, the angle of rotation was less than one full turn (less than 360°). This is a typical indication for an inhomogeneous charge distribution on the surface of the electret, which has the consequence that the rotor only finds the position of the minimum potential and comes to a 102 5. Outlook to the future standstill there. In very few cases rotations up to 2…3 turn have been observed [e9] (angle of rotation not being not reproducible). This might happen if the charge distribution on the surface of the electret is not too inhomogeneous. The problem is, that the electret is not a conductor and so the electrical charge can not distribute homogeneously on the surface by alone. We see that there are still many questions open before it will be clear, whether an electret can be used to drive a rotor for the conversion of vacuum-energy.
By the way: The electret which allowed a bit more than two full turns was an air-balloon made of an elastomer. It has been charged up by rubbing the surface with artificial leather so much, that electrical breakthrough occurred during the procedure of rubbing. The electrical charge was enough to keep the balloon at the ceiling of a room against gravitation for many hours (which can also be understood with the image-charge method explaining the attractive forces between the balloon (+q) and the ceiling (–q)). This also means, that the charge is not leaving the surface of the balloon. The rotation was reproducible but not the measurement of the angle. This should be due to the inhomogeneous charge distribution on the surface of the balloon, which also had the effect, that the balloon’s capability to stick to the ceiling depends on the orientation of the balloon.
If the electret is regarded as a remanent polarized dielectric (in analogy with the permanent magnet, which is a remanent polarized ferroelectric), the electret does not produce an electric current, it does not ionize gas molecules of the air (as soon as the breakthrough is over). This perception is confirmed by the fact that the balloon can stick to ceiling for many hours keeping its electrical charge. This demonstrates the quality of the isolation of the material. An estimation of the energy balance and energy sum is given in [e9] coming to the result that the electrical charge which might flow away from the balloon does not support the rotor with enough electrical power to explain its rotation, already confirming the “over-unity” criterion for the first time. But at that stage of the development, quantitative measurements had not yet been performed with a precision as shown in section 4, thus this result is just mentioned casually.
Possibilities to enhance the mechanical power with regard to technical applications:
Let us start with the question: How much engine power has been produced with the vacuumenergy-rotors up to now ?
▪ For the 46cm -rotor swimming on water (fig.12) the mechanical power was analyzed to be P 1.75 10-7 Watt. From (1.1) it is known, that part of this power might be due to the recoil of gas ions, but the order of magnitude is clear: P 107Watt have been converted from vacuum-energy. The voltage was in the range of 4... 7 kV. Further enhancement of the voltage speeds up the rotation and thus enhances the mechanical power.
▪ For the 51mm -rotor in the vacuum (fig.19) an estimation of the power was done on the basis of the fact that the attractive Coulomb-force lifts the rotor by about h 2... 3 mm when the voltage is switched on. The rotor sinks back by the same height, when the voltage is switched off. This can be observed under air in the same manner as in the vacuum. The mass of this rotor is m 2.02 Gramm, thus the mechanical work for lifting the rotor is about W 40... 60 Joule. The process takes roughly about t 1... 2sec., so the related mechanical power is at least P W / t 40 Joule / 2sec. 20 Watt (plus the power to surmount the friction due to the viscosity of the oil). The voltage for this test had been 16 kV.
5.5. Outlook to imaginable applications 103 ▪ The most important rotor (diameter of 64 mm) for the exact power measurement is analyzed in section 4.4. It produced a power of 1.5 0.5 10 7Watt at a voltage of U 29.7 kV. This is the power value with the most exact measurement, so it can be used for further considerations.
▪ An extrapolation to industrial dimensions (for “economical and environmental applications with benefit”) can be done only roughly in orders of magnitude. More precise values are not available in the moment. Therefore, we can use the proportionalities P U 2 and P R 2 as
If we assume a voltage at an order of magnitude of U 104 Volt as a realistic presumption and a rotor radius at an order of magnitude of R 101 m, the power at an order of magnitude
of P 106 Watt leads to the following imagination:
A serious problem for technical applications is the rather low energy-density and powerdensity. A 100kW-engine would need 10 rotors with a diameter of about 20 metric meters.
Thus, such an engine needs a vacuum-chamber with a diameter of about 30…40 metric meters, because due to the guidance of the flux-lines of the field, that vacuum-chamber has to be larger than the rotors by a certain amount of space. It would not be economically efficient, to use so much space for an engine producing 100kW – even though it is a converter of zeropoint energy with out any pollution to the environment, which can be driven from its own energy, not requesting any classical energy-input.
Remarkably larger than the energy-density, which can be technically realized by an electrostatic DC-field, is the energy-density, which can be technically realized by magnetic DC-field. The reason for this difference finally goes back to the problem, that electrostatic fields produce a breakthrough, if the field-strength would be too large. This causes a restriction to the field-strength of the electrostatic field; but there is no such restriction to the field-strength of the magnetic field. And the energy-density is being increased as a function of the field-strength.
The work presented here also contains the development of magnetic zero-point-energyconverter. Unfortunately the magnetic converter could not be built up, due to practical reasons in the laboratory, but if somebody would have the possibility and the equipment to built up such a magnetic rotor, it would be fine.