«PACS-classification: 84.60.-h, 89.30.-g, 98.62.En, 12.20.-m, 12.20.Ds, 12.20.Fv Summary of a Scientfic Work by Claus Wilhelm Turtur Germany, ...»
And why do I speak about the existence of so many patents and working devices to utilize free energy ?
Because there are some sources of energy unknown up to now, summarized as “free energy” devices, because they are freely accessible to everybody. They are working according to several different principles, invented on all continents of this earth. I demonstrate this, because I want to point out, that the exploration of free energy is developed much further than many of the users of “old fashioned” energy sources (such as oil, gas, carbon, nuclear energy) can imagine. Already the number of properly working free energy engines is impressive, which convert unknown energy into well-known classical energy. This demonstrates that mankind has an existing technology to produce energy without polluting
5.4. Discussion and Frequently Asked Questions 97 our environment. And this energy source is inexhaustible. But mankind decided with full awareness to reject the use of this free and clean energy. By rejecting free energy, mankind decided to pollute and destroy our earth. With full consciousness we destroy our habitat, although this would be completely unnecessary. I can only hope, that mankind will come to sanity, before we will not have any place to survive.
5.4. Discussion and Frequently Asked Questions ● Does this experiment contradict to the second law of thermodynamics ?
(This question was asked several times, the first time by [Mül 09].) No, there is no violation of the second law of thermodynamics (entropy principle).
The spinning rotor gains energy of rotation. This can be interpreted as an enhancement of a potential. Thus, somewhere else some potential must be reduced – according to the second law of thermodynamics. This is indeed the case: The extraction of zero point energy from the space itself corresponds to a reduction of the energy density of the space and to a reduction of its gravitative mass (following the energy-mass-equivalence). In terms of the Theory of General Relativity, the consequence is an alteration of the curvature of space-time, causing an alteration of the cosmological constant Λ. We can understand this in the context of [Pop 05] (preliminary studies in [Pop 00]), who theoretically demonstrates by solving Einstein’s field equations that the electrostatic field in combination with vacuum fluctuations has an influence on the curvature of space-time.
The situation can be summarized in short expressions as following: The curvature of spacetime can be regarded as the driving potential making the rotor spin. Extracting energy from the zero point oscillations of the quantum vacuum does alter the curvature of space-time.
By the way: If the situation is regarded from the “entropy” point of view, there is an exchange of entropy with the quantum vacuum, enhancing the entropy of the quantum vacuum. It will be an interesting topic of theory to formulate a relation connecting the curvature of space-time with a potential from which the vacuum energy is extracted by the rotor presented here. In any case it is clear that on the one hand energy dissipates from the quantum vacuum into the classical mechanical system, and on the other hand entropy dissipates from the classical mechanical system into the quantum vacuum.
● Could it be that the rotor is driven by thermal radiation (the experiments have been conducted under room temperature) ?
(The question was discussed the first time with [Lam 09].) For the experimental exclusion of this type of artifact, it would be necessary to repeat experiment at low temperature (for example below one Kelvin).
But in reality it is absolutely unlikely that the rotor might driven by thermal radiation, because this would be a violation of the second law of thermodynamics. If the rotor would be driven by thermal radiation, it would be able to extract thermal energy from one single thermal source (without any temperature gradient). The author of the present article is 98 5. Outlook to the future convinced that it is impossible to violate the second law of thermodynamics, and thus he is convinced that it is not thermal radiation which drives the rotor.
● The zero point oscillations of electromagnetic waves describe their ground state and thus the ground state of the vacuum. How is it possible to extract energy from the ground state ?
(The question was asked rather often and most detailed and precise by [Kis 09].) The perception behind this question is the idea that energy can only be extracted by transitions from one discrete energy level to an other - such as the transitions between the states 0, 1,…, n (by using operators to create or annihilate photons).
But this perception must not be applied here, same as it must not be applied to the
explanation of the Casimir-effect. In reality things behave very different, namely like this:
The Casimir-effect is explained because of the fact that some of the zero point oscillations (the resonant modes) are cancelled between parallel metallic plates. The energy of the ground state is reduced by the missing those modes being cancelled.
The conversion of vacuum energy described here is explained because of the fact that all zero point oscillations are altered a little bit (they are reduced in energy) due to an applied electric (or magnetic) DC-field. The energy of the ground state is reduced because the energy of each zero point oscillation is reduced.
● Is it possible to further develop the rotor of section 5.2 with rigidly fixed axis of rotation in such a way that it can perform continuous rotation ?
(This is a rather difficult complex of questions, which is very important for the author of the article presented here. Because of its importance for practical energy production, this topic is often discussed by practical engineers. The rigidly fixed axis of rotation is a necessary precondition for the possibility to transfer the energy of rotation from the rotor to any engine.) Let us have a look to section 5.2, especially to the rotor of fig. 27. As soon as the field source is charged up electrically, the rotor will spin until it reaches the minimum of the electrostatic potential. At this position it will tilt until it falls down due to lateral forces. In order to avoid that the rotor falls down as this position, the author developed a special guiding element on the basis of a toe-bearing with a long tube, taking up lateral forces (see fig. 30). But this guiding element does not change the situation that the rotor stops at the minimum of the electrostatic potential – it only prevents the rotor from tilting and falling down.
In order to find out, whether it is possible at all, to develop an electrostatic rotor with rigidly fixed axis, several experimentalists (resp. experimental groups) suggested independently from each other, with a momentum of rotation large enough to perform several revolutions within the electrostatic potential. By this means it should be possible (if the momentum is large enough) to overcome the maximum of the electrostatic potential several times. In this case the angular velocity of the rotor would not be constant during each single revolution, but
5.4. Discussion and Frequently Asked Questions 99 it should increase from revolution to revolution (namely while running through the same position every 360°) – as long as the driving torque due to the conversion of the zero point energy than the retarding torque due to friction.
Practical experience shows that it is not very easy to meet this condition. The problem is that it is necessary to build the rotor rather massive (and thus heavy) in order to get a large moment of inertia (otherwise the moment toe of rotation could not be large). Together with the momentum of inertia and with the mass of the rotor, the force and the torque of friction will be enhanced linearly. With other words: Some special mechanism (unknown up to now) has to be invented, which allows to transfer a large momentum of rotation to the rotor without enhancing the friction (of the movement). One group of experimentalists tried to overcome this problem practically using a magnetic bearing (with a rather heavy rotor), but unfortunately, up to now they have yet been able to solve the problem ([Taj 08/09]).
One suggestion might help to find a way for a very first test: This would be an assembly of a massive (heavy) electrostatic rotor, which can be started which a well defined and exactly reproducible momentum of rotation. This assembly of should undergo two parts of comparison: The first part of the comparison would be a rotation without any electrostatic field. The second part of the comparison would be the same type of rotation with the electrostatic field being switched on. If the angle of rotation increases together with field strength, this would be an indication that the rotor feels a driving force coming from the electrostatic field (in connection with the conversion of vacuum energy). But (and this is also problem of the experiment by [Taj 08/09]) this type of comparison requires an exact measurement of the torque due to friction in both parts of the comparison, because the result can only have some relevance or evidence with regard to the conversion of vacuum energy as long as it is sure that the electrostatic fields does not influence the friction at all. If the electrostatic field would influence friction, both parts of the comparison can lead to any results - increasing or decreasing the angle of rotation as a function of the electrostatic field.
● Vacuum-energy corresponds to some items existing in the vacuum. Wouldn’t this mean, that an absolute reference-frame can be attributed to the vacuum – in sharp contradiction to the Theory of Relativity, according to which an absolute rest-position of the vacuum can not be determined ?
No, a consequence like this can not be derived from the vacuum-energy. There are two
arguments supporting this point of view:
(1.) If those items, corresponding to the vacuum-energy are moving with the speed of light (such as the electromagnetic zero-point waves of the quantum-vacuum do), it is impossible by principle to determine any speed relatively to those items, namely due to the rules for addition of velocities following the Theory of Relativity. This means, that electromagnetic zero-point waves do not define any reference frame which allows to specify a movement relatively to the frame.
(2.) In reality the answer will become a bit more complicated, as soon as there are other itmes in vacuum moving with a different speed than the speed of light. Such “slow” items remind to the ancient ether, which was analyzed by the Michelson-Morley experiment. Interestingly, they found non-zero drift-velocities, which have been regarded as confusing, because they are much smaller than the velocity of the earth on its path around the sun. Because these 100 5. Outlook to the future results could not be interpreted, after some weird discussions in the community of physicists that ether was said to be inexistent. In [Mic 81], Michelson suspects some unknown measuring-errors, thus he does not take his result of non-zero drift-velocities serious.
Consequently he repeated the experiment together with Morley with higher precision and accuracy [Mic 87], coming to a drift-velocity of the earth relatively to the “ether” about 5% of the earth’s velocity relatively to the sun. The result was regarded as very strange, because it could not be interpreted or explained. Dayton Miller later improved the measurement ([Mil 33], [Joo 34]) confirming the existence of the ether-drift. doubted by Shankland [Sha 55]. An ether-drag hypothesis aroused, assuming, that the earth takes the ether with it, but this explanation was regarded as “not satisfying”. Even more later Shankland [Sha 55] and others doubted Miller’s values. The ambiguities finally led to the opinion to reject the existence of an ether. But this is not satisfying today an more, because vacuum energy needs a vacuumsubstance (which sometimes is calles “quintessence”), and this substance guides us back directly into the drift-problems making trouble with the Theory of Relativity.