«PACS-classification: 84.60.-h, 89.30.-g, 98.62.En, 12.20.-m, 12.20.Ds, 12.20.Fv Summary of a Scientfic Work by Claus Wilhelm Turtur Germany, ...»
Cole and Harold E. Puthoff come theoretically to the result, that this type of energy can be utilized. A suggestion how to gain this energy is shown in the US-patent [Hai 08].
• Vacuum-fluctuation Battery by Robert L. Forward Already in 1984 Robert L. Forward developed his idea of a “vacuum-fluctuation battery“ [For 84]. According to his suggestion, this would be a spiral coil made of a conducting foil (see Fig. 31) which is charged electrically. If the spiral is small enough (e.g. with micromechanical manufacturing) that the individual convolutions come close to each other in the submicrometer range, two forces will arise: A repulsive Coulomb-force (due to the electrostatic charge) and an attractive Casimir-force (due to the close distance of the spiral convolutions). It would be possible now to apply exactly such amount of electrical charge, that the Casimir-forces and the Coulomb-forces hold themselves exactly in balance.
If on the contrary slightly less electrostatic charge is applied, the spiral will be compressed by the Casimir-forces, so that the energy of the electrostatic field increases due to Casimir-force.
This additional field-energy (of the electrostatic field) is extracted from the zero-point oscillations of the vacuum.
But in the opposite, if some additional electrostatic charge is applied, the spiral will expand.
This is the procedure, which Robert Forward calls “recharging the battery”. An oscillation of the spiral length would lead to an alternating current. Robert Forward now poses the question, whether the Casimir-forces are conservative or not [For 96], which has a direct influence on the question, whether on the basis of his suggestion zero-point energy can be converted into electrical energy or not. It looks like the Casimir-forces are not conservative.
As a consequence of his considerations, Robert L. Forward points out the possibility the use the zero-point energy of the vacuum as an energy source. But the setup requires micromechanical manufacturing technology. Thus it could not be analyzed experimentally up to now. Nevertheless his idea to support the Casimireffect by electrical means resembles to the method introduced in my work (which does not require micromechanics).
• Manipulation of the Casimir-forces and Casimir-Energy Several recent investigations demonstrate that Casimir-forces can be manipulated by suitable techniques (e.g. like different materials for the surfaces, differently shaped surfaces, suitable cavities, suitable distances, etc.…). The manipulation can be so drastically, that it is even possible to switch between attractive and repulsive forces (see for example [Mun 09]).
Fabrizio Pinto has got an US-patent regarding the modulation of the strength and the direction of Casimir-forces between two surfaces [Pin 03]. Therefore he uses two Casimirplates. For one plate the dielectric properties are most important, for the other plate its magnetic properties are most important with regards to Pinto’s construction. Now the dielectric and the magnetic material properties can be influenced for instance with a laser (via Kerr effect, via Pockels-effect for dielectric properties and via Faraday-effect, via CottonMouton-effect for the magnetic properties, and so on…). This gives a possibility to alter the Casimir-forces. The influence of the material properties of the surfaces can be so extensive, that not only the strength of the Casimir-force can be altered, but even its direction can be changed between attraction and repulsion. Pinto’s theoretical computations as well as his thought-experiments come to the result, that it should be possible to develop closed paths along which the total work is not zero. With other words: It should be possible to arrange a Casimir-setup with Casimir-forces in a way, that a non-conservative cycle is possible. And this cycle, according to Pinto can be arranged in a way, that it produces classical energy (coming from the zero-point oscillations of the vacuum) [Pin 99]. As soon as it would be possible to build a machine, which allows passing this cycle endlessly, a continuous conversion of zero-point energy into classical (mechanical) energy would be possible.
Similar results can also be seen from Werner Sprenzel and Sven Mielordt in 1985 [Spr 85], but at this time they did not have exact quantitative computations like Pinto has.
For a concrete realization of a Casimir-engine, Pinto suggests micromechanical manufacturing because of the very small dimensions in the range of 50… 100 µm. The Casimirplates would have to oscillate with a frequency in the range of about 10kHz. The energydensity coming from his suggested machine should be expected to be in the range of about 10µJoule/cm², corresponding to net power of half a nanoWatt with plates of about 1 cm².
It should be mentioned that also [Cou 99] theoretically expects the possibility to manipulate Casimir-forces by the use of magnetic fields.
It might be that Casimir-forces could be really controllable. Experiments can be expected with interest.
5.3. Investigations by others 87
• Energy from quantum-noise Noise contains energy. Electrotechnicians use it, when they build noise-generators. For instance thermal noise of a pn-junction can be amplified to an arbitrary strength. Of course it is no problem, to extract energy from such thermal noise. This leads to the question, whether noise stimulated by the zero-point oscillations of quantum theory can be a used for the extraction of energy as well, perhaps after being rectified.
If one wants to prove the extraction of energy from the quantum-noise, thermal noise must be suppressed. Because the intensity of quantum-noise is not very high, this has the consequence, that it’s measurement requires cooling to the temperature of absolute zero (T=0K). The noise remaining at this temperature is for sure not thermal noise. At T=0K, the only noise is quantum noise (for instance due to zero-point oscillations).
Thus the task is well defined:
A possibility has to be found in order to verify the movement of charge carriers in the direct proximity of the temperature of absolute zero. Already at the early 1980ies, Koch et. al.
analyzed the quantum noise in Josephson junctions at first theoretically [Koc 80] and then experimentally [Koc 82]. It is not yet clear, whether this noise originates from the zero-point oscillations of electromagnetic waves in the vacuum. Christian Beck suggests an experiment which he hopes to clarify this question ([Bec 05] and [Bec 06]). If a connection between the noise in Josephson junctions and the zero-point quantum-noise would turn out be existing, consideation about a possibility to extract energy from it will be necessary. The problem is the very low energy-density of the zero-point quantum-noise. Tom Valone thinks about the possibility to investigate, whether it might be possible to rectify such quantum-noise with some very special diodes in order to get an electric current out of it [Val 08].
• Rotating spheres by Wistrom and Khachatourian Certain parallels can be drawn between their work and the vacuum-energy rotor presented in the publication here, even though Wistrom and Khachatourian do not yet have theoretical explanations for their observations and although they do not yet have quantitative measurements of their machine-power.
Already in 2001 (published in 2002) Wistrom and Khachatourian of the University of California ([Wis 01], [Wis 02]) found forces between electrostatically charged spheres, which can not be explained the classical theory of Maxwell's electrodynamics. Similar like in my work a supplement to Coulomb’s law is necessary to explain the rotation of the rotor, Wistrom and Khachatourian need a supplement to Coulomb’s law to explain the rotation of their spheres. Details: My supplement necessary for explanation of the vacuum-energy rotor is the Theory of Relativity, supposing that the speed of light is an upper limit to every speed at all, and from there concluding that also electrostatic fields (and magnetostatic fields the same) propagate with finite speed, not faster than the speed of light. The supplement to Coulomb’s law, which Wistrom and Khachatourian need to calculate the forces and torques in their experiment are based on the Gaussian law, which they apply to the electrostatic potential. On this basis they are able develop a proportionality-equation for the torque, 88 5. Outlook to the future coming to the result quoted in (1.70). This can be seen in analogy to equation (1.53) … (1.60) stated above.
An illustration of their setup is shown in Fig.32, which is a reproduction of a drawing in their original publication [Wis 01].
What Wistrom and Khachatourian still have to find is an explanation for the origin of the energy driving the rotation of their spheres. They say, that any electric current is negligible, and they furthermore state that the torque is caused by electrostatic reasons. They also say that there are no magnetic fields acting onto the spheres. The spheres only perform rotations but no translations. The observed torque makes two of the three spheres spin until finally the wires on which those spheres are hanging are twisted so much, that the torque caused by the torsion of the wires do stop the rotation of the spheres. It should be mentioned that the torque acting on the electrostatically charged spheres remain there over many hours and days, which was tested for a period of time of even 200 hours. This demonstrates that there is some energy driving the spheres, which does not exhaust the electric power of the electric charge brought to the surfaces of the spheres.
The theoretical determination of the torque as stated above, and given in (1.70), is in agreement with the experimental observation, which can be understood as an additional confirmation of the fact that the forces really have electrostatic nature. Unfortunately Wistrom and Khachatourian up to now did not do a quantitative measurement of the machine power for the comparision of the electric power and the mechanical power. But from the fact, that the electrostatic charge is not lost during more than a full week of time, it can be concluded, that the produced mechanical power is more then electrical power loss (due to imperfections of the isolation).
By the way: [Hen 04] checked the theoretical computation of the Coulomb-forces and the torque given in (1.70), but they could not confirm the result of Wistrom und Khachatourian.
Nevertheless they did not contradict the experimental result of Wistrom und Khachatourian, as stated by [Taj 08]. An upcoming discussion (by [Hen 04]) about possible asymmetries as a reason for the rotation of the spheres is unfounded, because the spheres perform many hundreds of full rotations before they are stopped by the torque caused by the wires, as it was reported by personal observation of the setup in operation by [Rei 09]. Asymmetries in the setup can only cause a rotation of less than one full turn (i.e. less than 360°) by principle.
As a survey it can be said that the observations by Wistrom and Khachatourian confirm the results of the work presented here, although their theoretical considerations are not yet complete and although the confirmation of the conversion of vacuum-energy by quantitative measurements of the electrical power and the produced machine power is still to be done.
• Vacuum-rotor by NASA and Gravitec. Inc.
Among all the work referred to in section 5.3., this is the investigation most close to mine.
There was a cooperation between the American space agency NASA and Gravitec Inc in the year 2003, peforming tests inside the vacuum chamber NSSTC LEEIF at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Due to confidential reasons, the results have been published only in December 2007 [Nau 07]. The setup was an asymmetric capacitor, which was built in a way that one plate of the capacitor was fixed at an axis mounted on a rotating arm with a torsion wire used as a rotational axis. The torsion wire with the asymmetric capacitor plate was connected with a high voltage supply, which was variable from 0 kV to 45 kV. The voltage could be applied under atmospheric pressure as well as under a vacuum of 1.72 106 Torr. It was applied between the torsion wire with the capacitor plate on the one hand and the all the other parts of the vacuum chamber on the other hand.
The observed results have been the following: