«PACS-classification: 84.60.-h, 89.30.-g, 98.62.En, 12.20.-m, 12.20.Ds, 12.20.Fv Summary of a Scientfic Work by Claus Wilhelm Turtur Germany, ...»
In Hamburg in the 1920ies there has been an inventor’s organization named „Deutsche Erfinderhaus“, found by Heinrich Jebens. In 1933 this organization has been incorporated into the „Reichs-Erfinderamt”, located in Berlin, and Heinrich Jebens was made the director of this official organization. Because of this position he travelled to the United States in order to bring the honorary membership of his organization to Thomas Alva Edison. On his trip to the USA, Heinrich Jebens became acquainted to Nikolai Tesla, and Tesla invited him, to see his „Pierce Arrow“ driven by “free energy”. Jebens had to promise Tesla that he will never tell anybody from Tesla’s car as long as Tesla will be alive. After giving this promise, Jebens was allowed to inspect the inside of the car and to participate at a test-drive. Tesla was sitting at the right front seat, a chauffeur was sitting at the left front seat, and Jebens was sitting behind Tesla. The central part of the energy-supply was inside a suitcase with the dimensions of about 15 cm x 25 cm x 65 cm, and this suitcase, of which Jebens was not allowed to see the inner. Tesla took care about this suitcase personally by himself. Before they started, a mechanician had to mount the suitcase containing the free-energy converted at the right front of the car, and then Tesla pushed two metal rods into the suitcase in order to start the engine.
After the test-ride, Tesla took the suitcase again to personal supervision. Tesla told Jebens, that he had signed a document according to which he obliged himself to keep the information about his free-energy engine secret. He said, he got money for keeping the secret, but his life would be in danger, if he would not keep the secret. I only believe this story, because Klaus Jebens, the son of Heinrich Jebens told me personally, when I visited him in Hamburg.
Unfortunately, Heinrich Jebens kept his promise towards Tesla, and thus even Klaus Jebens did not know the functionning principle of Tesla’s engine. Later Klaus Jebens tried to rebuild Tesla’s free-energy converter (looking to Tesla’s patents), but Klaus Jebens was not successful to reproduce Tesla’s engine, even though he spent a lot of money for these trials.
Klaus Jebens did not have enough technical information. But one fact is clear for me: Since I 82 5. Outlook to the future met Klaus Jebens, I know that the story about Tesla’s free-energy converter is authentic and reality. Further information can be found in a book written by Klaus Jebens [Jeb 06].
• Casimir and work relating directly to him It is well known, that Hendrik Brugt Gerhard Casimir in 1948 postulated the force which was given his name later. The basis of this force are the zero-point oscillations of quantum theory which occur also with electromagnetic waves. According to his theoretically findings, a force between two parallel metallic conducting plates should occur even if they are electrically uncharged [Cas 48]. Only for very small distance between the plates, those forces should be noticeable. Thus, the expectation was that the plates have to be arranged in a distance in the sub-micrometer range, otherwise the Casimir-effect could not be experimentally verified. At the time of Casimir, the experimental challenge was immense, to mount two macroscopic plates that close to each other with adequate precision, and to measure the very small force between them. Consequently, Casimir’s considerations had not been taken serious for a rather long time. Also measurements performed independently by two experimental groups in 1956 and 1958 could not lead to acceptance for Casimir’s work, because the precision of the measurement was not good enough. One group was in Russia [Der 56] after theoretical preparation by [Lif 56], and the other group was [Spa 58] (whereas Spaarnay came to an uncertainty of measurement of about 100%). Only in 1997, nearly half a century after Casimir’s publication, and experiment done by Steve K. Lamoreux [Lam 97] came to a precision of about 5%. This had the consequence, that the Casimir-effect became accepted from there on. Since that time it is generally accepted that the zero-point oscillations of electromagnetic waves cause measurable forces, which we can feel in our macroscopic world.
In the very recent days, due to the upcoming Nanotechnology, the Casimir-effect begins to be of technological importance, because the Casimir-forces increase with the reciprocal of fourth A hc power of the distance between the surfaces ( F , with F force, 480 d A area of the casimir-plates, d distance of the casimir-plates ). Thus the Casimir-forces can dominate on very short distance [Lam 05]. Actually modern Nanotechnology more and more faces the problem, that surfaces coming too close to each other of touching each other are attracted so much, that they can be separated only destructive.
Such a clear confirmation of the energy of the zero-point oscillations arise hope, that we can find a way to use it not for destruction but for a production of energy without polluting our environment.
And here is an explanatory note for those who doubt:
Sometimes there is a counter-argument against the possibility to utilize the energy of the zero-point oscillations practically: The zero-point oscillations are the ground-state of energy, this is the lowest possible state. Thus it is impossible to go down to an even lower state, because there is no lower state. Because we can not get energy out of the ground-state, it is impossible to extract energy from the zero-point oscillations of the electromagnetic waves of the vacuum.
This argument is wrong. The reasoning is the following:
5.3. Investigations by others 83
- If the argument would be correct, Casimir also could not get energy out of the ground-state. But actually his effect does.
- But why can the Casimir-effect extract energy out of the ground-state ? Because some of the waves of the electromagnetic zero-point oscillations are switched off.
- The question is of course: Do we have several more possibilities to extract energy out of the ground-state of the zero-point oscillations ?
- The answer is rather simple: Energy can be extracted if the waves of the zero-point oscillations are switched off or if they are altered somehow.
- The above counter-argument would be sensible only, if it would be impossible to switch off or to alter the waves of the zero-point oscillations, as we know it from typically quantum mechanical systems (like the energy-spectra of the electrons in the atomic shell). But this is not the case for the zero-point oscillations of electromagnetic waves.
And this is beeing realized: The waves are switched off or altered:
- Casimir (and Lamoreux and many others) switch off some of the zero-point oscillations and convert their energy into classical mechanical energy.
- In the work presented here, the wavelengths of the zero-point oscillations are changed (by applying an electrostatic or a magnetostatic field), and the energy coming out by changing the wavelengths is converted into classical mechanical energy.
- Perhaps physicists will find several other ways how to manipulate the zero-point oscillations (not only the wavelength) in order to gain energy from them ?
• Stochastic Electrodynamics (SED) The basis is a philosophical attempt, namely the idea to explain well-known and proven quantum-mechanical effects without the application of the usual principles and formulas of quantum theory. Even if is often regarded as an “exotic approach”, its results fit into accepted physics without any contradictions. The considerations initiating Stochastic Electrodynamics originate from Trevor W. Marshall and T. Brafford in the early 1960ies, have been further conducted by Luis de la Pena and Ana Maria Cetto [Col 96], [Pen 96] and undergo a first bloom with Timothy H. Boyer [Boy 66..08]. A review is also given by Boyer in [Boy 80] and [Boy 85].
A second blossom comes to Stochastic Electrodynamics due to a group of Calphysics Institute (Bernard Haisch, Alfonso Rueda, Harold E. Puthoff, Daniel C. Cole, Michael Ibision, only to mention some of these scientists), when they begin to think about several very fundamental question in Physics (as for instance about the origin of the mass and inertia) and include Stochastic Electrodynamics into their considerations. Finally their work implies possible applications, such as utilization of the energy of the zero-point oscillations or deep space travel [Cal 84..06].
The approach of Stochastic Electrodynamics can be described roughly as following:
84 5. Outlook to the future Basic assumption is the postulate that the zero-point oscillations (which actually result from quantum theory) exist, and that their spectrum is the same as we know it from quantum theory. Further assumptions of quantum theory are not needed. If now the behaviour of this zero-point radiation and its interaction with all visible matter is regarded, of course matter absorbs energy from the radiation of the zero-point oscillations during all of the time of its existence and emits the same type of radiation at the same time, because each elementary particle does its zero-point oscillations. (By the way: This idea is very similar to the postulate of my work, that charged elementary particles (as sources of electric field) are supplied with energy from the vacuum.) On the basis of this approach, all phenomena known from quantum theory can be explained complete without the use and without the principles of quantum theory !
The black body radiation with its characteristic spectrum as a function of temperature results from the movement due to the zero-point oscillations of the elementary particles forming the body. Also the photo-effect is explained within Stochastic Electrodynamics. In the history of quantum mechanics, one of the prominent results was the explanation of the energy levels of the electrons in atomic shell. In the formalism of Stochastic Electrodynamics, stable states (at which electrons can stay) are achieved when the energy being emitted from the electrons because of their circulation around the nucleus, is identically compensated by the energy which they absorb from the zero-point radiation of the vacuum. (This contains an explanation, why the electrons do not fall into the nucleus because they lose energy due to their circulation. There is some analogy with Bohr’s first and third postulate, according to which stable states of shell-electrons are only possible for constructive interference of the electron-waves.) And finally it should be said, that the equilibrium between absorbed and emitted radiation (in Stochastic Electrodynamics) leads to the same discrete energy-levels as we know them from quantum mechanics.
Not only the results of quantum mechanics but also the results of quantum electrodynamics are reproduced with the formalism of Stochastic Electrodynamics, for instance such as the Casimir-effect, van der Waals – forces, the uncertainty principle (which has been derived the first time by Heisenberg) and many others.
For the sake of completeness it should be remarked, that Stochastic Electrodynamics of course explains the phenomena of nature on its own, not trying to reproduce the mathematical structure of quantum theory and even not in connection with the formalism of quantum theory. So for example the famous Schrödinger-equation, as a typical formula of quantum theory can not be derived with the means of Stochastic Electrodynamics, because such a formula simple is not a topic of Stochastic Electrodynamics. In this sense Stochastic Electrodynamics and Quantum Theory are two independently concepts, which describe the same phenomena of nature, but which have totally different philosophical background.
Of course Stochastic Electrodynamics is not as widespread as Quantum Theory. But it is in complete confirmation with all nowadays known phenomena of nature. Thus it is sensible to accept it for further considerations of “how to extract energy from the zero-point oscillations”, which can lead to interesting results, because new thoughts might emerge. Buy the way: The wrong counter-argument of ground-state energy quoted above is not a problem for Stochastic Electrodynamics, because it is obvious, that the zero-point radiation can be altered.
5.3. Investigations by others 85 By the way: Not only the work presented here proves, that it is possible to extract some energy from the zero-point oscillations of the quantum vacuum. Also in [Col 93] Daniel C.