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«PACS-classification: 84.60.-h, 89.30.-g, 98.62.En, 12.20.-m, 12.20.Ds, 12.20.Fv Summary of a Scientfic Work by Claus Wilhelm Turtur Germany, ...»

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▪ If this self-adjustment is working, the rotor runs into a global major minimum of the (electrostatic) potential being there ready for the conversion of vacuum-energy.

▪ If this self-adjustment is obstructed, the rotor runs into a secondary minor minimum of the (electrostatic) potential and is kept there not being ready for the conversion of vacuumenergy as long as it is kept there.

This perception is also confirmed by an experiment at which a rotor on a toe bearing (which fixes the axis of rotation) was mounted below a field source inside a vacuum chamber at a pressure of few 106 mbar [Bec 08/09] as shown in fig.30. A special feature of this vacuum recipient was a xy-manipulator, which allowed a lateral shift within the xy-plane that could be operated by hand (just by turning a hand wheel) in the time when the vacuum chamber was evacuated. Moving the rotor within the xy-plane in such manner gave the possibility to make the rotor spin for a fraction of a full turn (from few angular degrees up to three quarters of a full turn, but never a full turn or more), but it was not possible to obtain a permanent continuous rotation. After the experiment was finished, this became clear and the reason became understandable (the experiment of fig.29 was done later then the experiment of fig.30): The adjustment by hand is not able to produce a path as plotted in fig.29, so it was not possible to emulate the path of the self-adjustment mechanism by hand. It only would be possible, if we would know this path, but therefore a very special organized measurement would be necessary. When we move the rotor in xy-plane back and forth, the rotation goes back and forth, indicating, that the rotor blades are just kept within some secondary minor minimum of potential.

Fig. 30 shows the rotor, which was mounted inside the vacuum chamber and its attachment at a side flange of the vacuum chamber. During the operation of the rotor inside the vacuum, it is seen distinctly that the rotor wants to tilt. But the toe bearing was made with a rather long metal dome so that the rotor could not fall down. So the rotor tilted until the dome of the toe bearing touched the steel needle in the centre of the bearing. For the purpose of comparison, the diameter of the dome (beginning with 1.0 mm) was enlarged by drilling, but the principle remained unchanged: The rotor tilted as much as possible.

78 5. Outlook to the future

–  –  –

Conclusion:

The principle of the conversion of vacuum-energy is operable, it is explained in Physics and it is verified – as described in section 4. This means that the fundamental Physics of the conversion of vacuum-energy is developed and concluded with the present work.

Technical applications and implementations of the principle developed with the present work require an optimization of the setup, especially of the mechanical precision of the rotor, the

field source and their mounting together (relatively to each other) with the further development of the bearing. Also the homogeneity of the driving field is a requirement to future optimization. These suggestions for the future approach can be substantiated as following:

Obviously inhomogeneities of the field disturb the rotor with fixed axis at its continuous permanent rotation, because the field inhomogeneities keep the rotor at a position of a

5.2. Rotor with rigidly fixed axis of rotation 79 minimum of the potential – if there would not be any field inhomogeneities, there would not be any minimum of the potential, which could attract and hold the rotor. Consequently, it has a high priority to optimize the homogeneity of the driving (electric or magentic) field, if the rotor shall be operated with a fixed axis.

But in reality, the homogeneity of a field can never be ideally perfect, so the asymmetries of the rotor have to be minimized also. (But it is not possible to avoid asymmetries, because the working principle of the rotor needs asymmetries, for instance at the special assembly of the rotor blades with a special angle. It is only possible to avoid unwanted asymmetries.) The less unwanted asymmetries the rotor has, the less it will react to inhomogeneities of the field. But not only the shape of the rotor has to be optimized, but also its parallelism relatively to the field source. The plane of rotation has to be very exactly parallel to the field source, otherwise the rotor would be kept at a position at which one rotor blade finds its minimum distance to the field source. (This was also unproblematic for the swimming rotor, because it can only move always exactly on the flat surface of the liquid.) A further disturbing factor comes from the metallic inner surfaces of the vacuum chamber, which are asymmetric by principle because of flanges, tubes, windows, etc… And these metallic inner surfaces also guide the flux lines of the electric field. Perhaps it is worth trying to shield the rotor from the inner surfaces of the vacuum chamber, but then the symmetry of the shielding has to be done with good perfection in order to avoid field asymmetries due to the shielding.

Finally, a further possible optimization can be the choice of the bearing of the rotor. Up to now the fixation of the rotor’s axis was always done with a toe bearing (because it produces very low friction), which allows the rotor to oscillate laterally like a pendulum. Thus, the rotor can follow transverse forces to some degree, but not in the sense of the self-adjustment mechanism. With a double toe bearing or with a ball bearing this pendulum movement could be suppressed, but is this really a solution for the problem of the missing self-adjustment mechanism (at the fixed axis) ? Of course not, because it does not allow the rotor to find the global minimum of the potential by lateral movement.





The possible amplitudes of the lateral pendulum movement can be seen if they are not suppressed. This was additionally analyzed with a rotor hanging on the tip of a needle which was held by a magnet (by magnetic attraction) and which was driven by electrostatic forces.

(The field source was standing on the table below the hanging rotor.) As expected from fig.29 the rotor rotates (when the voltage is switched on) and it also performs a very strong tumbling motion, which is extremely irregular and not slow. (It can be asked whether this might be a chaotic motion.) As soon as the disturbing transverse forces are smaller then the driving forces from the conversion of vacuum-energy, the rotor will spin continuously and permanently. Future will show, whether the suggestions given above will already be enough to reach this goal. Despite all technical difficulties with the fixed axis of rotation, it should never be forgotten, that the principle for the conversion of vacuum-energy is invented and verified in Physics. It is clear that it works. And if mankind could not bring it forward to the fixed axis, the reason would not be the principle and not Physics but technical unhandiness.

80 5. Outlook to the future

5.3. Investigations by others The fact that measurable and useable energy can be extracted from the zero-point oscillations of quantum theory (which can be converted to a classical type of energy) is not yet accepted by everybody. However this lack of acceptation is somehow astonishing, because the extraction of energy from the zero-point oscillations is already theoretically understood and experimentally confirmed (as mentioned above) with the Casimir-effect to an accuracy of 5% in the measurements [Lam 97].

Furthermore the existence of some “dark energy” is well-known from its influence on the expansion of the universe because it is equivalent to a mass causing gravitation. It is now under discussion, whether this “dark energy” in the universe might perhaps be the same as the “energy of the zero-point oscillations” of quantum theory. In order to test, whether there is a connection between these both types of energy, [Bec 06] made a proposal which initiated an experimental investigation being under operation just now [War 09]. But independently of the fact whether the “dark energy” of the universe can be identified with “the energy of the zero-point oscillations” or not, it is well known from the Casimir-effect, that the mere space (this is the void) definitely contains the energy of the zero-point oscillations. The logical consequence is that the zero-point energy is at least one contribution to the “dark energy” of the universe.

Now, since the energy of the zero-point oscillations is recognized, it should be found, how we can get benefit of it. First of all, it is interesting how to convert this energy into a classical form of energy, which can be used for energy supply.

Two really nice books with an overview over the use of the zero-point energy should be mentioned. They are written by Tom Valone, and they reflect the actual state of development world-wide: [Val 08] is popular scientific book, whereas [Val 05] is made for scientists. Some of Valone’s references lead to some of the work reported on the following pages.

Let us come now to a description of several theoretical and experimental investigation with regard to the conversion of the zero-point energy of the vacuum or some other unknown energy like the dark energy of the universe. We will follow roughly a chronological order.

• Nikola Tesla The first who recognized the energy of the mere space and spoke about its utilization was the great Nikola Tesla. Already in 1891 he addressed the words to the American Institute of

Electrical engineering:

"Ere many generations pass, our machinery will be driven by a power obtainable at any point in the universe. This idea is not novel... We find it in the delightful myth of Antheus, who derives power from the earth; we find it among the subtle speculations of one of your splendid mathematicians... Throughout space there is energy. Is this energy static or kinetic.?

If static our hopes are in vain; if kinetic - and this we know it is, for certain – then it is a mere question of time when men will succeed in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of nature."

Today it is almost impossible to reproduce this part of Nikola Tesla’s work, which is concerned with the zero-point energy, at least because there are hardly any reliable

5.3. Investigations by others 81 publications available. It is said, that Tesla was able to transport energy trough the space of trough the surface of the earth (or trough the atmosphere ?). He got some patents for this type of energy distribution [Hee 00]. Furthermore it is known, that Tesla built up the „Wardenclyffe Tower“ on Long Island in 1903, from which is said, that he could distribute energy without any cables even on the long distance to Europe. It is said furthermore, that J.

P. Morgan stopped this development of energy distribution, because it was not clear how to put a meter on it to make an electricity bill [Val 08].

But this exploration does not characterize Nikola Tesla as a pioneer of the utilizazion of “free energy”, i.e. energy-source which are unknown up to now, such as for instance “zero-point energy”. Tesla’s connection to “free energy” can be supposed by an anecdote, according to which Tesla is said to be the inventor and builder of a car driven by “free energy”. This anecdote tells us, that Tesla should have taken a car „Pierce Arrow“, from which he removed the gazoline-engine and the tank and instead he mounted a special electromotor, being supported by an invisible source of energy. Tesla answered the question about the energysupply just with a short hint to the “ether” surrounding all of us. Unfortunately there are no reliable or scientific publications, nor in literature nor in internet. Only some amateurish report in the daily press of Buffalo in 1931 (where Tesla’s demonstration of the car is supposed to have taken place) are available. The car does not exist any further, and no components are found today. The historical tradition is so unclear, that I would have regarded

the whole story as a fairy-tale, if there would not be the following experience:



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