«PACS-classification: 84.60.-h, 89.30.-g, 98.62.En, 12.20.-m, 12.20.Ds, 12.20.Fv Summary of a Scientfic Work by Claus Wilhelm Turtur Germany, ...»
For the purpose of comparison, a measurement with an empty vacuum recipient was done first, without high voltage, without oil, without rotor. The values of the electrical current have been recorded automatically (electronically) in order to be available for a later computation of the integral average value. With a duration of measurement of 30 seconds, we come to an integral average current of I1 0.08 0.01 pA. This demonstrates the limit of the resolution and of the precision of the current measurement, which fits the requirements known from the comments to fig.24.
After putting the rotor on the oil in the oil tub into the vacuum recipient (before closing the top flange of the chamber), it has been checked that the rotor blades and the negative contact of the high voltage supply are connected properly as well as the fact that the field-source and the positive contact of the high voltage supply are connected properly. In the same way it was checked, that (still without the Picoamperemeter being connected and without grounding the vacuum chamber) the vacuum chamber, the field-source and the oil tub with the rotor are electrically disconnected (test with a Mega-Ohmmeter, Fluke). In reality, a very very small current between the field-source and the rotor is possible, as we can see later after analyzing the data, but the resistance is by several orders of magnitude too large for a detection with our Mega-Ohmmeter, and the leakage currents are small enough that they will not disturb the aim of our measurements. This indicates, that also the atoms of the residual gas in vacuum chamber (when being evacuated later) will transport less enough electrical charge, that the electrical power loss does not prevent the aim of our measurement. From this observation we can conclude that it is not necessary to improve the vacuum to a value better than given in fig. 22. To reduce the pressure even more would have been a problem because of the presence of the oil.
After the pre-tests of the electrical connections were finished, the top flange was closed, carrying the field-source. Now the high voltage supply was to be connected, but not the Picoamperemeter (still without evacuation of the chamber), so that and electrical field could be produced which activates the self-adjusting-mechanism of the rotor. Only after observing a rotation of the rotor, the vacuum pumps have been switched on. This rotation presumes substantial precision work to adjust all experimental parameters in an appropriate way, as for instance the amount of oil inside the tub, the distance between the rotor and the field-source, an adequate value of the voltage and so on… The coordination of experimental parameters has to be balanced properly, which was done by trial and error and is based on some practical experience in the laboratory.
Now the vacuum pumps have been switched on. At first we see a degas procedure of the vacuum oil, which is rather strong, because gas bubbles can elude only very slow from the oil because of the rather large viscosity of the oil. It is necessary to have a current limitation at the high voltage supply, because the residual gas will be conducting when the pressure passes the range of few millibars, where gas- and corona- discharges can be observed easily by optical visible luminous effects. The current limitation of the high voltage supply prevents the 64 4. Experiments to convert vacuum-energy into classical mechanical energy apparatus from being damaged. But on the other hand the high voltage supply can not be switched off completely during the beginning of the pumping procedure, because without any high voltage, the gas bubbles from the degas procedure of the oil might move the rotor to the side wall of the oil tube, where it would adhere because of the toughness of the oil. Only rather seldom, it is possible to get the rotor when sticking to the side wall of the oil tub away from this position just only by using the self-adjustment mechanism. In the most cases, a rotor sticking to the side wall of the oil tub can only be removed after aerating the vacuum recipient and beginning the whole procedure of the electric part of the measurement from the very beginning.
During the further evacuation of the chamber, the conductivity of the residual gas decreases (together with the visible gas- and corona- discharges), so that the necessity for the current limitation of the power supply will not exist any further. This means that the high voltage can be regulated from 0 to 30kV, according to the specification of the power supply and following the requirements of the rotor.
Only when the degas procedure of the oil is mostly done (visible from the number of gas bubbles in the oil), the pressure in the vacuum recipient will come down to the value of 4...5 104 mbar as said in fig.22. Now (after switching off the high voltage, which is now possible, because there are no more gas bubbles moving the rotor to the side wall of the oil container) all electrical connections are checked again and than all cables can be connected according to fig.22, also the Picoamperemeter, because the risk for large electric currents does not exist any further. At this phase of the experiment, the electrical cabeling is complete.
This is the moment to enhance the high voltage beginning from 0 Volt to a value that the rotor will again begin to rotate. If there are still some last gas bubbles in the oil, they will enhance the noise of the electrical signal of the current measurement (independently from the fact whether the voltage is high enough to make the rotor spin or not), which probably has is reason in the fact, that the bubbles move the rotor vertically, changing its distance from the field-source permanently back and forth. Because this electrical noise is rather strong, we had to wait with the measurement of the electrical current until this type of noise was over.
The voltage, which is necessary to make the rotor rotate, is higher than the voltage, which activates the self-adjusting-mechanism (except for the case that the rotor adheres at the side wall of the oil tub). Depending on the distance between the rotor and the field-source, the voltage for the self-adjusting-mechanism could be between 3 and 20 kV and the voltage for the rotation could be 5 and 30 kV. But these are not exact values like a result of the measurement. These values shall only give a feeling in which range the rotor is operated. If the rotor is sticking to the side wall of the oil tub, in some cases (not too often) it can be brought back in its working position by applying 30 kV, in order to produce a very strong force of the self-adjustment mechanism. But this includes the risk that the rotor is lifted out of the oil and will be flying directly towards the field source until it touches the field source.
4.4. “Over-unity” criterion for the exclusion of artefacts 65 With the rotor rotating, the voltage is measured and the current is recorded electronically again in order to get the data for the determination of the integral average value of the current later. The voltage was kept constant by the power supply. The current is statistically noisy with amplitudes up to some picoamperes, but with alternating algebraic sign, indicating the alternating direction of the current. This means that the electrical charges move statistically back and forth, not bringing electrical power into the rotor. This is the reason for the computation of the integral average value, because the charges going back and forth do not supply the rotor with power. (This is a DC-experiment.) But after evaluation of the data, the integral average value turned out to be not completely zero. This integral average value of the electrical current has to multiplied with the voltage in order to determine the electrical DCpower existing, which has to be compared with the produced mechanical power.
Data of a practical measurement: At a voltage of U 29.7 kV, the rotor rotated with a duration of about (1±½) hours for one turn. The integral average value of the current (duration of the measurement 90 seconds) was I 3 0.100 0.030 pA. The noise and with it the uncertainty of the integral average value is larger than it was without rotor, although the duration for the averaging was larger. The uncertainty of the integral average value is given as 1-sigma-intervall.
The algebraic sign of the electric current is not interpreted at all. It only indicates the direction in which the electric current passes the Picoamperemeter and thus it does not have any importance for the determination of the electric power loss.
The electrical power loss is P U I 29.7 103V 0.100 0.030 1012 A 2.97 0.89 109Watt.
It might be due to imperfect isolation, but its reason is not really important, because it is much smaller than the produced mechanical power, which is only Pmech 1.5 0.5 107 Watt.
For the sake of illustration, the result is plotted into the diagram of the power balance, coming from fig.24 to fig.25.
As can be seen, the electrical power loss is by about one and a half orders of magnitude smaller (this is the order of magnitude of a factor of 30) than the produced mechanical power.
Whatever reason the power loss has – one fact is obvious: The rotation of the rotor can not be explained by the electrical power. And because there is no other way, along which any energy and any power could be delivered to the rotor, the rotor can only be driven by vacuumenergy. This is the result of the presented experiment.
66 4. Experiments to convert vacuum-energy into classical mechanical energy
Annotations and discussion of the results The presented experimental setup was built up with uncomplicated technology, using material, which was available in the laboratory as far as even possible. Effort and expenses for complicated equipment was only spent for those components, for which such effort was absolutely inevitable because of functional reasons (as for instance for the vacuum recipient attached to a turbo molecular pump or for the measurement of the electric current with a precision of 1014 Amperes ). This approach allowed to test the quoted theory of the conversion of vacuum-energy very quick (the experimental part of the work was done within a bit less than one and a half years), as it would not have been possible with long preliminary lead time such as it would have been necessary for the application of financial aid, for complicated constructions, for buying complicated devices, and so on.
The fact, that the result is so clear and unambiguous despite the simplicity of the setup (without the artefacts possibly arising from complicated machines), confirms the quoted theory of the conversion of vacuum-energy into classical mechanical energy in a strong way.
4.4. “Over-unity” criterion for the exclusion of artefacts 67 Such a clear result encourages to perform now further developments and investigation, to put more effort into further experiments with the goal to get all experimental parameters under clear control (instead of the trial and error which could not be avoided in several cases up to now). If such a detailed knowledge of the machine for the conversion of vacuum-energy could be developed, it should also be possible to enhance the mechanical engine power being converted from the vacuum-energy. It gives hope that it should be possible to enhance the mechanical power to a range, which is capable for practical applications. This hope arises from the proportionality, which says, that the engine power is being enhanced with the square of the diameter of the rotor. This enhancement of the mechanical power might be accompanied by a reduction of the gas pressure in the vacuum, so that the electrical power loss will be even reduced.
The physical principle of the presented energy source is proven with the present work, but now the application as an energy source is visible, which might allow to get some of the vacuum-energy out of the space of the universe – if it is possible to enhance the converted power enough.
The clearness of the results presented here should hopefully inspire other scientific groups of fundamental experimental physics and of engineering sciences to reproduce the experiment, and first of all, to optimize it. Of course, there will be several experimental difficulties to be overcome, but it looks worth being done. In section 5 there will be some consideration regarding future experimental difficulties and optimizations.
68 5. Outlook to the future
5. Outlook to the future