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«Version 2014 International Software Testing Qualifications Board Copyright Notice This document may be copied in its entirety, or extracts made, if ...»

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Certified Tester

Foundation Level Extension Syllabus

Agile Tester

Version 2014

International Software Testing Qualifications Board

Copyright Notice

This document may be copied in its entirety, or extracts made, if the source is acknowledged.

International

Certified Tester Software Testing

Foundation Level Syllabus – Agile Tester Qualifications Board

Copyright © International Software Testing Qualifications Board (hereinafter called ISTQB®).

Foundation Level Extension Agile Tester Working Group: Rex Black (Chair), Bertrand Cornanguer (Vice Chair), Gerry Coleman (Learning Objectives Lead), Debra Friedenberg (Exam Lead), Alon Linetzki (Business Outcomes and Marketing Lead), Tauhida Parveen (Editor), and Leo van der Aalst (Development Lead).

Authors: Rex Black, Anders Claesson, Gerry Coleman, Bertrand Cornanguer, Istvan Forgacs, Alon Linetzki, Tilo Linz, Leo van der Aalst, Marie Walsh, and Stephan Weber.

Internal Reviewers: Mette Bruhn-Pedersen, Christopher Clements, Alessandro Collino, Debra Friedenberg, Kari Kakkonen, Beata Karpinska, Sammy Kolluru, Jennifer Leger, Thomas Mueller, Tuula Pääkkönen, Meile Posthuma, Gabor Puhalla, Lloyd Roden, Marko Rytkönen, Monika Stoecklein-Olsen, Robert Treffny, Chris Van Bael, and Erik van Veenendaal; 2013-2014.

Version 2014 Page 2 of 43 31 May 2014 © International Software Testing Qualifications Board International Certified Tester Software Testing Foundation Level Syllabus – Agile Tester Qualifications Board Revision History Version Date Remarks Syllabus v0.1 26JUL2013 Standalone sections Syllabus v0.2 16SEP2013 WG review comments on v01 incorporated Syllabus v0.3 20OCT2013 WG review comments on v02 incorporated Syllabus v0.7 16DEC2013 Alpha review comments on v03 incorporated Syllabus v0.71 20DEC2013 Working group updates on v07 Syllabus v0.9 30JAN2014 Beta version Syllabus 2014 31MAY2014 GA version Version 2014 Page 3 of 43 31 May 2014 © International Software Testing Qualifications Board

–  –  –

Table of Contents Revision History

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements

0. Introduction to this Syllabus

0.1 Purpose of this Document

0.2 Overview

0.3 Examinable Learning Objectives

1. Agile Software Development - 150 mins

1.1 The Fundamentals of Agile Software Development

1.1.1 Agile Software Development and the Agile Manifesto

1.1.2 Whole-Team Approach

1.1.3 Early and Frequent Feedback

1.2 Aspects of Agile Approaches

1.2.1 Agile Software Development Approaches

1.2.2 Collaborative User Story Creation

1.2.3 Retrospectives

1.2.4 Continuous Integration

1.2.5 Release and Iteration Planning

Fundamental Agile Testing Principles, Practices, and Processes – 105 mins.

2.

2.1 The Differences between Testing in Traditional and Agile Approaches

2.1.1 Testing and Development Activities

2.1.2 Project Work Products

2.1.3 Test Levels

2.1.4 Testing and Configuration Management

2.1.5 Organizational Options for Independent Testing

2.2 Status of Testing in Agile Projects

2.2.1 Communicating Test Status, Progress, and Product Quality

2.2.2 Managing Regression Risk with Evolving Manual and Automated Test Cases..................24

2.3 Role and Skills of a Tester in an Agile Team

2.3.1 Agile Tester Skills

2.3.2 The Role of a Tester in an Agile Team

Agile Testing Methods, Techniques, and Tools – 480 mins.

3.

3.1 Agile Testing Methods

3.1.1 Test-Driven Development, Acceptance Test-Driven Development, and Behavior-Driven Development

3.1.2 The Test Pyramid

3.1.3 Testing Quadrants, Test Levels, and Testing Types

3.1.4 The Role of a Tester

3.2 Assessing Quality Risks and Estimating Test Effort

3.2.1 Assessing Quality Risks in Agile Projects

3.2.2 Estimating Testing Effort Based on Content and Risk

3.3 Techniques in Agile Projects

3.3.1 Acceptance Criteria, Adequate Coverage, and Other Information for Testing

3.3.2 Applying Acceptance Test-Driven Development

3.3.3 Functional and Non-Functional Black Box Test Design

3.3.4 Exploratory Testing and Agile Testing

3.4 Tools in Agile Projects

3.4.1 Task Management and Tracking Tools

3.4.2 Communication and Information Sharing Tools

3.4.3 Software Build and Distribution Tools

3.4.4 Configuration Management Tools

–  –  –

3.4.5 Test Design, Implementation, and Execution Tools

3.4.6 Cloud Computing and Virtualization Tools

4. References

4.1 Standards

4.2 ISTQB Documents

4.3 Books

4.4 Agile Terminology

4.5 Other References

5. Index

–  –  –

Acknowledgements This document was produced by a team from the International Software Testing Qualifications Board Foundation Level Working Group.

The Agile Extension team thanks the review team and the National Boards for their suggestions and input.

At the time the Foundation Level Agile Extension Syllabus was completed, the Agile Extension Working Group had the following membership: Rex Black (Chair), Bertrand Cornanguer (Vice Chair), Gerry Coleman (Learning Objectives Lead), Debra Friedenberg (Exam Lead), Alon Linetzki (Business Outcomes and Marketing Lead), Tauhida Parveen (Editor), and Leo van der Aalst (Development Lead).





Authors: Rex Black, Anders Claesson, Gerry Coleman, Bertrand Cornanguer, Istvan Forgacs, Alon Linetzki, Tilo Linz, Leo van der Aalst, Marie Walsh, and Stephan Weber.

Internal Reviewers: Mette Bruhn-Pedersen, Christopher Clements, Alessandro Collino, Debra Friedenberg, Kari Kakkonen, Beata Karpinska, Sammy Kolluru, Jennifer Leger, Thomas Mueller, Tuula Pääkkönen, Meile Posthuma, Gabor Puhalla, Lloyd Roden, Marko Rytkönen, Monika Stoecklein-Olsen, Robert Treffny, Chris Van Bael, and Erik van Veenendaal.

The team thanks also the following persons, from the National Boards and the Agile expert community, who participated in reviewing, commenting, and balloting of the Foundation Agile Extension Syllabus: Dani Almog, Richard Berns, Stephen Bird, Monika Bögge, Afeng Chai, Josephine Crawford, Tibor Csöndes, Huba Demeter, Arnaud Foucal, Cyril Fumery, Kobi Halperin, Inga Hansen, Hanne Hinz, Jidong Hu, Phill Isles, Shirley Itah, Martin Klonk, Kjell Lauren, Igal Levi, Rik Marselis, Johan Meivert, Armin Metzger, Peter Morgan, Ninna Morin, Ingvar Nordstrom, Chris O’Dea, Klaus Olsen, Ismo Paukamainen, Nathalie Phung, Helmut Pichler, Salvatore Reale, Stuart Reid, Hans Rombouts, Petri Säilynoja, Soile Sainio, Lars-Erik Sandberg, Dakar Shalom, Jian Shen, Marco Sogliani, Lucjan Stapp, Yaron Tsubery, Sabine Uhde, Stephanie Ulrich, Tommi Välimäki, Jurian Van de Laar, Marnix Van den Ent, António Vieira Melo, Wenye Xu, Ester Zabar, Wenqiang Zheng, Peter Zimmerer, Stevan Zivanovic, and Terry Zuo.

This document was formally approved for release by the General Assembly of the ISTQB® on May 31, 2014.

–  –  –

0. Introduction to this Syllabus

0.1 Purpose of this Document This syllabus forms the basis for the International Software Testing Qualification at the Foundation ®

Level for the Agile Tester. The ISTQB provides this syllabus as follows:

 To National Boards, to translate into their local language and to accredit training providers.

National Boards may adapt the syllabus to their particular language needs and modify the references to adapt to their local publications.

 To Exam Boards, to derive examination questions in their local language adapted to the learning objectives for each syllabus.

 To training providers, to produce courseware and determine appropriate teaching methods.

 To certification candidates, to prepare for the exam (as part of a training course or independently).

 To the international software and systems engineering community, to advance the profession of software and systems testing, and as a basis for books and articles.

The ISTQB® may allow other entities to use this syllabus for other purposes, provided they seek and obtain prior written permission.

0.2 Overview The Foundation Level Agile Tester Overview document [ISTQB_FA_OVIEW] includes the following

information:

 Business Outcomes for the syllabus  Summary for the syllabus  Relationships among the syllabi  Description of cognitive levels (K-levels)  Appendices

0.3 Examinable Learning Objectives The Learning Objectives support the Business Outcomes and are used to create the examination for achieving the Certified Tester Foundation Level—Agile Tester Certification. In general, all parts of this syllabus are examinable at a K1 level. That is, the candidate will recognize, remember, and recall a term or concept. The specific learning objectives at K1, K2, and K3 levels are shown at the beginning of the pertinent chapter.

–  –  –

1. Agile Software Development - 150 mins.

Keywords Agile Manifesto, Agile software development, incremental development model, iterative development model, software lifecycle, test automation, test basis, test-driven development, test oracle, user story Learning Objectives for Agile Software Development

–  –  –

1.1 The Fundamentals of Agile Software Development A tester on an Agile project will work differently than one working on a traditional project. Testers must understand the values and principles that underpin Agile projects, and how testers are an integral part of a whole-team approach together with developers and business representatives. The members in an Agile project communicate with each other early and frequently, which helps with removing defects early and developing a quality product.

1.1.1 Agile Software Development and the Agile Manifesto In 2001, a group of individuals, representing the most widely used lightweight software development methodologies, agreed on a common set of values and principles which became known as the Manifesto for Agile Software Development or the Agile Manifesto [Agilemanifesto]. The Agile

Manifesto contains four statements of values:

 Individuals and interactions over processes and tools  Working software over comprehensive documentation  Customer collaboration over contract negotiation  Responding to change over following a plan The Agile Manifesto argues that although the concepts on the right have value, those on the left have greater value.

Individuals and Interactions Agile development is very people-centered. Teams of people build software, and it is through continuous communication and interaction, rather than a reliance on tools or processes, that teams can work most effectively.

Working Software From a customer perspective, working software is much more useful and valuable than overly detailed documentation and it provides an opportunity to give the development team rapid feedback. In addition, because working software, albeit with reduced functionality, is available much earlier in the development lifecycle, Agile development can confer significant time-to-market advantage. Agile development is, therefore, especially useful in rapidly changing business environments where the problems and/or solutions are unclear or where the business wishes to innovate in new problem domains.

Customer Collaboration Customers often find great difficulty in specifying the system that they require. Collaborating directly with the customer improves the likelihood of understanding exactly what the customer requires. While having contracts with customers may be important, working in regular and close collaboration with them is likely to bring more success to the project.

Responding to Change Change is inevitable in software projects. The environment in which the business operates, legislation, competitor activity, technology advances, and other factors can have major influences on the project and its objectives. These factors must be accommodated by the development process. As such, having flexibility in work practices to embrace change is more important than simply adhering rigidly to a plan.



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