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«Richard Bäk Administration of local government Carinthia Department of environment and technology Subdivision geology and soil protection phone: ...»

MASS MOVEMENT - CASE STUDIES

DEEP CREEPING MASS MOVEMENTS

2 case studies

Carinthia, Austria

Richard Bäk

Administration of local government Carinthia

Department of environment and technology

Subdivision geology and soil protection

phone: 0043-(0)50-536-31510

e-mail: richard.baek@ktn.gv.at

ARGE Alpen Adria

AG Bodenschutz, Lugano 2002 1 Dr. Richard BÄK

MASS MOVEMENT - CASE STUDIES

Geologische Übersichtskarte von Kärnten Geological overview of Carinthia landslide landslide ARGE Alpen Adria AG Bodenschutz, Lugano 2002 2 Dr. Richard BÄK

MASS MOVEMENT - CASE STUDIES

Content Landslide Gradenbach Morphology and geology History Monitoring Technical measures Landslide Reppwand Morphology and geology History Monitoring Technical measures

Monitoring, technical measures, controlling:

Forest-technical Service of Torrent and Avalanche Controlling, Villach/Carinthia, department of federal ministry of agriculture, forest, environment and water management ARGE Alpen Adria AG Bodenschutz, Lugano 2002 3 Dr. Richard BÄK Bundesamt und Forschungszentrum für Wald Institut für Lawinen- und Wildbachforschung, Abt. Wildbachhydrologie

MASS MOVEMENT - CASE STUDIES

ARGE Alpen Adria AG Bodenschutz, Lugano 2002 4 Dr. Richard BÄK

MASS MOVEMENT - CASE STUDIES

Kinematic and structural geology ARGE Alpen Adria AG Bodenschutz, Lugano 2002 5 Dr. Richard BÄK

MASS MOVEMENT - CASE STUDIES

Talzuschub Gradenbach Landslide Gradenbach ARGE Alpen Adria AG Bodenschutz, Lugano 2002 6 Dr. Richard BÄK

MASS MOVEMENT - CASE STUDIES

FLOOD 1965/66 Putschall Bundesamt und Forschungszentrum für Wald Institut für Lawinen- und Wildbachforschung,

–  –  –

Slide plane ARGE Alpen Adria AG Bodenschutz, Lugano 2002 12 Dr. Richard BÄK

MASS MOVEMENT - CASE STUDIES

History

• Initial postglacial mass movement • 1882 first report about flood and torrential mass transport • 1930 first regulating dams on the dispersal fan, destroyed by flood 1937, • 1957 destruction of regulating dams in the canyon by high pressure • 1965/1966 flood and mass transport (about 1,3 million cubic meter), destruction of the village Putschall • 1972 destruction of the dams • 1975 flood and mass transport, accelerated movement of landslide • 2001 accelerated motion rate by high groundwater level ARGE Alpen Adria AG Bodenschutz, Lugano 2002 13 Dr. Richard BÄK

MASS MOVEMENT - CASE STUDIES

Monitoring • 1968 hydrological measuring • 1975 measuring of springs and drainage systems (quantity, temperature, quality) • 1971 tracer test • 1979 measuring of groundwater level • 1980 geodetic measuring, extensometer, inclinometer • 1981 tracer test, hydrochemical survey • 1982 – 1986 geological/geotechnical mapping • 1998 research project: refraction seismic, microseismic, GPS measuring, gravitation anomalie

–  –  –

ARGE Alpen Adria AG Bodenschutz, Lugano 2002 19 Dr. Richard BÄK

MASS MOVEMENT - CASE STUDIES

Yellow triangle: seismic station Red points: microseismic epicentre ARGE Alpen Adria AG Bodenschutz, Lugano 2002 20 Dr. Richard BÄK

MASS MOVEMENT - CASE STUDIES

Technical solutions • 1930 first regulating dams on the dispersal fan, destroyed by flood 1937, 1942 • 1967 - 1971 concrete torrent regulating dams (ground dams), • 1975 destruction of the dams, drainage project • 1982 torrent regulating dams on the fan toward the canyon and new rock boulder dams in the canyon

• reforestation

• Total cost of regulating measures: about € 8 million

–  –  –

ARGE Alpen Adria AG Bodenschutz, Lugano 2002 22 Dr. Richard BÄK

MASS MOVEMENT - CASE STUDIES

ARGE Alpen Adria AG Bodenschutz, Lugano 2002 23 Dr. Richard BÄK

MASS MOVEMENT - CASE STUDIES

Längenschnitt über die Reppwand - Gleitung Longitudinal section of the landslide Reppwand ARGE Alpen Adria AG Bodenschutz, Lugano 2002 24 Dr. Richard BÄK

MASS MOVEMENT - CASE STUDIES

Seismischer Längenschnitt über die Reppwand Gleitung Seismic longitudinal section of the landside Reppwand

–  –  –

ARGE Alpen Adria AG Bodenschutz, Lugano 2002 28 Dr. Richard BÄK

MASS MOVEMENT - CASE STUDIES

ARGE Alpen Adria AG Bodenschutz, Lugano 2002 29 Dr. Richard BÄK

MASS MOVEMENT - CASE STUDIES

–  –  –

Abstract The landslide Gradenbach is situated in the NW of Carinthia at the border between the deepest tectonical unit of the Eastern Alps – Penninicum and the tectonical unit “zone of Matrei” (lower eastern alp nappe) above it. The second landslide occurs in the Carnic Alps (southern alpine unit) at the Italian border, called Reppwand landslide.

Landslide Gradenbach The scarp of the landslide situated on a SE orientated slope with 25 - 27° inclination is developed at about 2000 m sea level, the toe of mass movement in the canyon of the torrent Gradenbach downhill at about 1200 m.





The landslide mass consists of quartz phyllite, calc phyllite and calcareous schists, deformed by heavy tectonical stresses during the alpine orogeny. The foliation strikes NW – SE, dipping with 30 – 60° to SW. NW-SE and NE – SW striking joints weaken the rock mass.

The landslide mass is affected by deep stick and slide creeping with episodical accelerated movement rates, caused by high groundwater level and erosion at flood events of the torrent Gradenbach. The potential debris flow is about 1,300.000 m3.

The geological/geotechnical survey embraces geological/geotechnical and hydrogeological mapping, bore holes, seismic prospecting, tracer tests, deformation measuring (geodetic measuring, extensometer, invarwire measurements, inclinometer, stress at regulating dams) and hydrological/hydrogeological measuring (precipitation, outlet, quantity and quality of springwater, groundwater level).

Through refraction seismic prospecting a four layer model was obtained: Under two layers of sediments with different density the bedrock shows two loosening zones with different decrease of tightness of rock mass as a result of the opening of joints.

Tracer tests indicated the activity of joints and fault zones and proved two water permeability systems. The deep system with slow transmission (10 m/day) is directed to ESE, the system near the surface with more rapid discharge (60 m/day) trends to the south.

High precipitation and groundwater level corresponded with accelerated motion rates, measured by geodetic and invarwire measurements.

Research studies are continued by microseismical and gravimetrical survey and GPS measuring. They are supported by the Austrian Academy of Science.

Dams on the dispersal fan was constructed for the regulation of the torrent bed and in the canyon for reduction of torrent erosion. Deformable structures are used because of high stresses at the toe of landslide. The drainage system on the mountainside is successfully reducing movement rates.

Up to now monitoring and regulating measures required about € 8 million.

Reppwand landslide The deep creeping mass movement in the catchment area of torrent Oselitzenbach threatens the main road of the skiing area Naßfeld as well as villages on the dispersal fan because of high potential debris flow.

The Reppwand landslide is predominantly built up by Auernig formation, consisting of mudstones, sandstones and conglomerates, and the lower Hochwipfel formation, dominated by mudstones. Erosion at the toe of landslide by torrent during sustained regional precipitation caused devasting debris flows and accelerated movements on the slope.

The geological/geotechnical survey embraces geological/geotechnical and hydrogeological mapping, bore holes, seismic prospecting, tracer tests, deformation measuring (geodetic measuring, extensometer, invarwire measurements, inclinometer, stress and deformation at regulating dams) and hydrological/hydrogeological measuring (precipitation, outlet, quantity and quality of springwater, groundwater level).

Dams in the canyon were constructed for reduction of erosion and debris flow in the torrent bed. Deformable structures are used because of high stresses at the toe of landslide.

The flood of 1983 eroded about 70000 m3 of rock debris at the toe of landslide whichcaused an accelerating movement and destroyed the main road. The transfer of the r iver bed to the northern rocky slope by cutting the northern rock and depositing of 260000 m3 at the toe of landslide has reduced the deformation rate successfully.

Literature Brückl E., Bericht über seismische Untersuchungen im Bereich des Talzuschubes im Gradenbach, Mitteilungen der forstlichen Bundesversuchsanstalt, Heft 153, Wien 1984 Brückl E., Geophysikalische Untersuchungen an der Sackung Gradenbach, Projekt IDNDR-12 und IDNDR-19, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien 2002 Brunner F.K., GPS-Monitoring von alpinen Hangbewegungen, Projekt, IDNDR-18, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien 2001 Höltzl H., Moser M., Reichert B., Rentscherl K., Hydrogeologische Markierungsversuche in Massenbewegungen (Reppwandgleitung, Kärnten und Stubnerkogel, Salzburg), Beiträge zur Hydrogeologie, Graz 1994 Moser M., Angerer J., Seitz S., Geotechnische Untersuchungen im Rahmen des Verbauungsprojektes Oselitzenbach/Kärnten, Interpraevent, Bd.

3, S. 77 – 102, Graz 1988 Moser M. und Glawe U., Das Nassfeld in Kärnten – geotechnisch betrachtet, Abh. Geol. B.A., Band 50, S. 319 – 340, Wien 1994 Moser M. und Glumac S., Geotechnische Untersuchungen zum Massenkriechen im Fels am Beispiel des Talzuschubes Gradenbach (Kärnten), Verhandlung der Geol. B.A., Heft 3, S. 209 – 241, Wien 1983 Moser M. und Kiefer J., Die hydrogeologischen Verhältnisse und ihre Beziehungen zur Kinematik im Bereich des Talzuschubes Gradenbach, Kärnten, Steirische Beiträge zur Hydrogeologie, Bd. 39, Graz 1988 Weidner St., Kinematik und Mechanismus tiefgreifender alpiner Hangdeformationen unter Berücksichtigung der hydrogeologischen Verhältnisse, Dissertation der naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Erlangen, Erlangen 2000 Reports of Forest-technical Service of Torrent and Avalanche Controll, Villach





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