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Others clarified that an objective to keep geoengineering as a “plan B” did not necessarily mean strict sequencing in the sense of prohibiting geoengineering research until the point when geoengineering was needed or wanted. Instead, “plan B” was meant as indicating a political priority. It was also noted that so far almost all reports and policy suggestions emphasise that reducing emissions should be the priority. This could be undermined if, for instance, funding for research would be redirected significantly towards geoengineering. Even if the funding going towards geoengineering was considerably less than that for mitigation, such redirection could send an important policy signal away from mitigation.

One specific instance of the moral hazard could be potential demands for obtaining credits for geoengineering activities, e.g. under the climate regime. It was argued that the LC/LP approach had solved this problem within its remit, because deployment was not allowed a permit for research required that there was no (commercial) gain from the research activity.

Other points raised inclued:

• Whether the chance of securing intellectual property rights were a different type of moral hazard. It was suggested that this could be another reason for differentiating between geoengineering techniques.

• One way to address the moral hazard could be that for each amount of funding for geoengineering, another set amount had to go into mitigation.

8.2.8 Research

Participants discussed whether there was a premature focus on governance of deployment instead of governance of research. One participant described the relationship in terms of control of research and prohibition of deployment. How to address research was not a irrelevant, as it had implications for where funding might go to. On the other hand it was pointed out that this was an issue for funding bodies and that funding for geoengineering was currently only a fraction of funding for research into mitigation and adaptation. One participant said that there were examples of research restrictions under international law and that there was no general privilege for research. A stepwise approach as in EU regulation of GMO could be a suitable model.

Other points discussed included:

• A clear line was needed that indicated which activities were allowed without prior permission. Whether the objective to coordinate science and research in order to obtain valid results was a minor issue compared to other, more relevant governance objectives.

• UNCLOS provided detailed rules on research.

• The work under LC/LP had brought together different actors and discipines

• A suggested governance model for research presented by participants. The regulatory approach was general prohibition pending a permit. The concept was based on the LC/LP for marine issues, while leaving open the forum for SRM and atmospheric techniques. It suggested binding decisions for marine geoengineering and recommendations for SRM and atmospheric techniques.

Options and Proposals for the International Governance of Geoengineering

• Some participants suggested that the science community generally had concerns about the CBD.

Options and Proposals for the International Governance of Geoengineering 9 References

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Winter, Gerd, Klima-Engineering : last exit oder exitus? Zeitschrift für Umweltrecht 10/2011 (2011), pp. 458-466.

Zedalis, Rex J., Climate Change and the National Academy of Science’s Idea of Geoengineeing:

One American Academic’s Perspective on First Considering the Existing International Agreements, European Energy and Environmental Law Review 19.1 (2010), pp. 18-32.

Options and Proposals for the International Governance of Geoengineering

9.2 List of treaties

–  –  –

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