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«S u e Cl e g g J a cq u e li n e Steve nso n J o h n W ill ot t Acknowledgements This project has depended on the support of many people, to whom we ...»

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Accounts of employers pressurising students, and failing to be flexible were also evident. Some previous research has looked to the ways in which curriculum can adapt to meeting the needs of students faced with employment (e.g. Smith et al., 2004). Our research, however, suggests that there nonetheless remain very real tensions that are not simply attitudinal, although of course there are varying degrees of recognition and curriculum adaptation. We have decided to make a recommendation that recognises many students will continue to need to work, but looks towards attempting to understand the ways in which employers might be brought into the debate. This recommendation is not entailed by our The Higher Education Academy 93 findings, rather our findings provoked us into the recognition of a gap in our knowledge and conceptualisations. Employers have clearly a stake in graduate attributes, but we know little, or nothing, about how they regard the neophyte graduates in their employment who are currently engaged in what for the student is an ECA.

Recommendation 4 Research is required that explores how employers regard their student employees and what, if any, attempts are made to recognise curricular pressures on students in relationship to what for them is an ECA.

Our final conclusion relates to the gendered nature of caring responsibilities and again in relationship to the general sociological literature, this presents no surprises. Women now make up over half the undergraduate higher education population and their participation might be accounted one of higher education’s success stories. However, differential participation by discipline/profession remains. Our survey data also indicate that women may be less likely to selfreport activities as ECA. Our final recommendation is, therefore, for more research into how gendered and other social judgements influence the valorisation of ECA. Our data were insufficient to identify any patterns in relationship to faith or ethnicity, although the examples we had of where religion was positively valued both came from the health area. We therefore suspect that recognition is highly complex phenomenon and relates to the intersections between class, race, gender and other forms of difference, rather than operating separately.

Recommendation 5 More research is required that addresses issues of intersectionality in relationship to the differential valuing of ECA.

We are aware that three of our five recommendations relate to calls for more research. The reasons for this are twofold: the relative lack of prior research, and our findings themselves, which revealed a complex, messy story. Our data are immensely rich and provide insight into the complexity of the meanings and valuing of ECA. We are cautious, therefore, of making firm policy or curriculum recommendations that are not entailed by our findings. Rather we hope the readers of this report will be stimulated to ask more questions of their own students, to consider more deeply the meaning of their curriculum, and to question their own definitions and valuing of the different forms of ECA.

The Higher Education Academy 94 References Adam, B. (1995) Timewatch: The Social Analysis of Time. Cambridge: Polity.

Adam, B. (2003) Reflexive Modernisation Temporalized. Theory Culture and Society. 20 (2), pp. 59-78.

Adnett, N. and Slack, K. (2007) Are There Economic Incentives for Nontraditional Students to Enter HE? The Labour Market as a Barrier to Widening Participation. Higher Education Quarterly. 61 (1), pp. 23-36.

Archer, L. (2007) Diversity and equality in higher education: a critical reflection on the ab/uses of equity discourses in higher education. Teaching in Higher Education. 12 (5&6), pp. 635-653.

Archer, M.S. (2007) Making our Way through the World: Human Reflexivity and Social Mobility. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ashworth, P., Clegg, S. and Nixon, J. (2004) Widening Participation: diversity or inequity? The 12th Improving Student Learning Symposium: Improving Student Learning: Inclusivity and Diversity. Birmingham, 6-8 September.

Auster, C.J. (2008) The effect of cohort on women’s sport participation: An intergenerational study of collegiate women ice hockey players. Journal of Leisure Research. 40 (2), pp. 312-337.

Ball, S.J., Davies, J., David, M. and Reay, D. (2002) ‘Classification’ and ‘judgement’: Social class and the ‘cognitive structures’ of choice of higher education. British Journal of Sociology of Education. 23 (1), pp. 51-72.

Barnett, R. and Coate, K. (2005) Engaging the Curriculum in Higher Education.

Buckingham: SRHE and Open University Press.

Barrie, S.C. (2004) A research-based approach to generic graduate attributes policy. Higher Education Research and Development. 23 (3), pp. 261-275.

Barrie, S.C. (2006) Understanding what we mean by generic attributes of graduates. Higher Education. 51 (2), pp. 215-241.

Bernstein, B. (2000) Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity: Theory, Research, Critique. Oxford: Rowan & Littlefield.

Blasko, Z. (2002) Key skills: the graduate perspective. CHERI Higher Education Digest. 42.

Bosco, S.M. and Bianco, C.A. (2005) Influence of maternal work patterns and socioeconomic status on Gen Y lifestyle choice. Journal of Career Development.

32 (2), pp. 165-182.

Boughey, C. (2007) Educational Development in South Africa: From Social Reproduction to Capitalist Expansion? Higher Education Policy. 20 (1), pp. 5-18.

Bourdieu, P. (1984) Distinction. A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste.

Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Bourdieu, P. (1986) The Forms of Capital. In: Richardson, J.G. (ed.) Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. New York: Greenwood Press, pp. 241-258.

The Higher Education Academy 95 Bourdieu, P. and Passeron, J-C. (1977) Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture. Richard Nice (tr.). London: Sage Publications.

Brine, J. (2006) Lifelong learning and the knowledge economy: those that know and those that do not – the discourse of the European Union. British Educational Research Journal. 32 (5), pp. 649-665.

Brown, P. and Hesketh, A.J. (2004) The mismanagement of talent – employability and jobs in the knowledge economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chia, Y.M. (2005) Job Offers of Multi-national Accounting Firms: The Effects of Emotional Intelligence, Extra-curricular Activities, and Academic Performance.

Accounting Education: an International Journal. 14 (1), pp. 75-93.

Christie, H., Tett, L., Cree, V.E., Hounsell, J. and McCune, V. (2007) ‘A real rollercoaster of confidence and emotions’: learning to be a university student.

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Clegg, S. (2004) Critical Readings: Progress Files and the production of the autonomous learner. Teaching in Higher Education. 9 (3), pp. 287-298.

Clegg, S. (2006) The problem of Agency in Feminism: A Critical Realist Approach. Gender and Education. 18 (3), pp. 309-324.

Clegg, S. (2008) Economic calculation, market incentives and academic identity:

breaking the research/teaching dualism? International Journal of Management Concepts and Philosophy. 3 (1), pp. 19-29.

Clegg, S. and Bradley, S. (2006) Models of Personal Development Planning:

Practices and Processes. British Educational Research Journal. 32 (1), pp. 57Clegg, S. and Bufton, S. (2008) Student Support through Personal Development Planning: Retrospection and Time. Research Papers in Education. 23 (4), pp. 1-16.

Coffield, F. (ed.) (1997) A National Strategy for Lifelong Learning. Newcastle upon Tyne: Department of Education, University of Newcastle.

David, M.E., Ball, S.J., Davies, J. and Reay, D. (2003) Gender issues in parental involvement in student choices of higher education. Gender and Education. 15 (1), pp. 21-37.

Diamond, J.B., Randolph, A. and Spillane, J.P. (2004) Teachers’ expectations and sense of responsibility for student learning: The importance of race, class, and organizational habitus. Anthropology & Education Quarterly. 35 (1), pp. 75Dumais, S.A. (2002) Cultural capital, gender, and school success: The role of habitus. Sociology of Education. 75 (1), pp. 44-68.

Dumais, S.A. (2006) Early childhood cultural capital, parental habitus, and teachers’ perceptions. Poetics. 34 (2), pp. 83-107.

Ermisch, J., Francesconi, M. and Pevalin, D.J. (2004) Parental partnership and joblessness in childhood and their influence on young people’s outcomes.

The Higher Education Academy 96 Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A - Statistics in Society. 167 (1), pp. 69-101.

Gallacher, J., Crossan, B., Field, J. and Merrill, B. (2002) Learning careers and the social space: exploring the fragile identities of adult returners in the new further education. International Journal of Lifelong Education. 21 (6), pp. 493The Higher Education Academy (2007) Guide for Busy Academics No.5.

Enhancing student learning through voluntary work. Available from:

http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/resource_database/id70_guide_f or_busy_academics_no5 [7 December 2009].

Hodkinson, P. and Sparkes, A.C. (1997) Careership: A sociological theory of career decision making. British Journal of Sociology of Education. 18 (1), pp.


Holdsworth, C. (2006) ‘Don’t you think you’re missing out, living at home?’ Student experiences and residential transitions. Sociological Review. 54 (3), pp.


Kaufman, J. and Gabler, J. (2004) Cultural capital and the extracurricular activities of girls and boys in the college attainment process. Poetics. 32 (2), pp.


Kimura, M. et al. (2006) Ethnicity, Education and Employment. London:

Continuum, University of East London.

Knight, P.T. and Yorke, M. (2002) Employability through the curriculum. Tertiary Education and Management. 8 (4), pp. 261-276.

Knight, P.T. and Yorke, M. (2004) Learning, curriculum and employability in higher education. London: Routledge Falmer.

Lave, J. and Wenger, E. (1991) Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Leathwood, C. and O’Connell, P. (2003) ‘It’s a struggle’: the construction of the ‘new student’ in higher education. Journal of Education Policy. 18 (6), pp. 597Leeds Metropolitan University (2008) Widening Participation Profile Leeds Metropolitan University. Internal Document.

LTSN Generic Centre (2002) Guide for Busy Academics No.1. Personal

Development Planning. Available from:

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LTSN Generic Centre (2003) Guide for Busy Academics No.3. Using Personal

Development Planning to Help Students Gain Employment. Available at:

http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/resource_database/SNAS/Guide _for_Busy_Academics_No3 [7 December 2009].

Machin, S. and Vignoles, A. (2004) Educational inequality: The widening socioeconomic gap. Fiscal Studies. 25 (2), pp. 107-128.

Moss, D. (2004) Creating space for learning: conceptualizing women and higher education through space and time. Gender and Education. 16 (3), pp. 283-302.

The Higher Education Academy 97 Putnam, R. (2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Quality Assurance Agency (2001) Guidelines for HE Progress Files. Available



01.pdf [7 December 2009].

Reay, D. (2004) ‘It’s all becoming a habitus’ Beyond the habitual use of habitus in educational research. British Journal of Sociology of Education. 25 (4), pp.


Reay, D., David, M.E. and Ball, S. (2005) Degrees of Choice: social class, race and gender in higher education. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham.

Redmond, P. (2006) Outcasts on the inside: graduates, employability and widening participation. Tertiary Education and Management. 12 (2), pp. 119-135.

Reich, R.B. (1991) The Work of Nations. London: Simon & Schuster.

Reich, R.B. (2002) The Future of Success. London: Vintage.

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