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«S u e Cl e g g J a cq u e li n e Steve nso n J o h n W ill ot t Acknowledgements This project has depended on the support of many people, to whom we ...»

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Accounts of employers pressurising students, and failing to be flexible were also evident. Some previous research has looked to the ways in which curriculum can adapt to meeting the needs of students faced with employment (e.g. Smith et al., 2004). Our research, however, suggests that there nonetheless remain very real tensions that are not simply attitudinal, although of course there are varying degrees of recognition and curriculum adaptation. We have decided to make a recommendation that recognises many students will continue to need to work, but looks towards attempting to understand the ways in which employers might be brought into the debate. This recommendation is not entailed by our The Higher Education Academy 93 findings, rather our findings provoked us into the recognition of a gap in our knowledge and conceptualisations. Employers have clearly a stake in graduate attributes, but we know little, or nothing, about how they regard the neophyte graduates in their employment who are currently engaged in what for the student is an ECA.

Recommendation 4 Research is required that explores how employers regard their student employees and what, if any, attempts are made to recognise curricular pressures on students in relationship to what for them is an ECA.

Our final conclusion relates to the gendered nature of caring responsibilities and again in relationship to the general sociological literature, this presents no surprises. Women now make up over half the undergraduate higher education population and their participation might be accounted one of higher education’s success stories. However, differential participation by discipline/profession remains. Our survey data also indicate that women may be less likely to selfreport activities as ECA. Our final recommendation is, therefore, for more research into how gendered and other social judgements influence the valorisation of ECA. Our data were insufficient to identify any patterns in relationship to faith or ethnicity, although the examples we had of where religion was positively valued both came from the health area. We therefore suspect that recognition is highly complex phenomenon and relates to the intersections between class, race, gender and other forms of difference, rather than operating separately.

Recommendation 5 More research is required that addresses issues of intersectionality in relationship to the differential valuing of ECA.

We are aware that three of our five recommendations relate to calls for more research. The reasons for this are twofold: the relative lack of prior research, and our findings themselves, which revealed a complex, messy story. Our data are immensely rich and provide insight into the complexity of the meanings and valuing of ECA. We are cautious, therefore, of making firm policy or curriculum recommendations that are not entailed by our findings. Rather we hope the readers of this report will be stimulated to ask more questions of their own students, to consider more deeply the meaning of their curriculum, and to question their own definitions and valuing of the different forms of ECA.

The Higher Education Academy 94 References Adam, B. (1995) Timewatch: The Social Analysis of Time. Cambridge: Polity.

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Bourdieu, P. (1984) Distinction. A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste.

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The Higher Education Academy 95 Bourdieu, P. and Passeron, J-C. (1977) Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture. Richard Nice (tr.). London: Sage Publications.

Brine, J. (2006) Lifelong learning and the knowledge economy: those that know and those that do not – the discourse of the European Union. British Educational Research Journal. 32 (5), pp. 649-665.

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Christie, H., Tett, L., Cree, V.E., Hounsell, J. and McCune, V. (2007) ‘A real rollercoaster of confidence and emotions’: learning to be a university student.

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Clegg, S. (2006) The problem of Agency in Feminism: A Critical Realist Approach. Gender and Education. 18 (3), pp. 309-324.

Clegg, S. (2008) Economic calculation, market incentives and academic identity:

breaking the research/teaching dualism? International Journal of Management Concepts and Philosophy. 3 (1), pp. 19-29.

Clegg, S. and Bradley, S. (2006) Models of Personal Development Planning:

Practices and Processes. British Educational Research Journal. 32 (1), pp. 57Clegg, S. and Bufton, S. (2008) Student Support through Personal Development Planning: Retrospection and Time. Research Papers in Education. 23 (4), pp. 1-16.

Coffield, F. (ed.) (1997) A National Strategy for Lifelong Learning. Newcastle upon Tyne: Department of Education, University of Newcastle.

David, M.E., Ball, S.J., Davies, J. and Reay, D. (2003) Gender issues in parental involvement in student choices of higher education. Gender and Education. 15 (1), pp. 21-37.

Diamond, J.B., Randolph, A. and Spillane, J.P. (2004) Teachers’ expectations and sense of responsibility for student learning: The importance of race, class, and organizational habitus. Anthropology & Education Quarterly. 35 (1), pp. 75Dumais, S.A. (2002) Cultural capital, gender, and school success: The role of habitus. Sociology of Education. 75 (1), pp. 44-68.

Dumais, S.A. (2006) Early childhood cultural capital, parental habitus, and teachers’ perceptions. Poetics. 34 (2), pp. 83-107.

Ermisch, J., Francesconi, M. and Pevalin, D.J. (2004) Parental partnership and joblessness in childhood and their influence on young people’s outcomes.

The Higher Education Academy 96 Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A - Statistics in Society. 167 (1), pp. 69-101.

Gallacher, J., Crossan, B., Field, J. and Merrill, B. (2002) Learning careers and the social space: exploring the fragile identities of adult returners in the new further education. International Journal of Lifelong Education. 21 (6), pp. 493The Higher Education Academy (2007) Guide for Busy Academics No.5.

Enhancing student learning through voluntary work. Available from:

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29-44.

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495-519.

Kaufman, J. and Gabler, J. (2004) Cultural capital and the extracurricular activities of girls and boys in the college attainment process. Poetics. 32 (2), pp.

145-168.

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Continuum, University of East London.

Knight, P.T. and Yorke, M. (2002) Employability through the curriculum. Tertiary Education and Management. 8 (4), pp. 261-276.

Knight, P.T. and Yorke, M. (2004) Learning, curriculum and employability in higher education. London: Routledge Falmer.

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Leathwood, C. and O’Connell, P. (2003) ‘It’s a struggle’: the construction of the ‘new student’ in higher education. Journal of Education Policy. 18 (6), pp. 597Leeds Metropolitan University (2008) Widening Participation Profile Leeds Metropolitan University. Internal Document.

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Machin, S. and Vignoles, A. (2004) Educational inequality: The widening socioeconomic gap. Fiscal Studies. 25 (2), pp. 107-128.

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The Higher Education Academy 97 Putnam, R. (2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.

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