«CSAAR (7: 2010: Amman) Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development \ Edited by Steffen Lehmann, Husam Al Waer, Jamal AI-Qawasmi. Amman: The Center ...»
Arup is also a market-Ieader and probably the first to incorporate any decisions in the firm overall approach to doing business even whilst auditing its own projects. When sustainability took on the stage, the firm took onboard commercial risks and restructured how business is conducted and restructured their internal organization to meet the requirements. But as a truly global firm, it had to be a trend-setter as weIl, so an extreme make-over was designed to keep the firm in front of others. It is evident that the Arup has a strong internal driver that kicks in to preserve its alpha-leadership as part of its business development protocols.
Perkins and Will are predominantly an international architecture practice looking and relentless workil)g towards establishing a well-rounded design practice. The firm has part of its business core the green plan and LEED, to the extent that 90% of their staff is LEED eertified as GAs or PAs. Currently, the firm is aleader and reference on LEED issues while other firms are tuning their business models to follow that of P+W. To escape potential business stagnation the firm is expanding and diversifying their core business to leap from architecture into diversified design approaches with a common theme of sustainability attached to it. The firm is truly global in its presence, but more prominent as a reference on sustainable architecture (LEED, green plan ete.).
The commercial driver to expand beyond their eurrent status requires expansion in their business development targets.
The third firm, Dar Al Handasah, is a strong regional player with international presence. It is a multi-diseiplinary and privately owned eonsultaney firm that is following the sustainability trend. Dar's eore business and main involvement is in mega-projects with publie or government profiles; add to that Mustapha Madi historically and culturally conservative context, the market place for the firm is a slow pace prone-to-change. The regional market is slowly evolving and identifying sustainability as a cornerstone for development and recognition, accordingly Dar is recognizing an opportunity to maintain its regionalleadership by adopting sustainability into its business. The commercial market driver has trickled a change in the firm's multi-disciplinary practices to reaflirms its regional role as a folIower of international trends.
4 The Challenge
In comparison, the three consultancy firms are weil known and established businesses that have been servicing clients for more than fifty years. Lately, they are all involved in producing sustainable developments for their clients, but more importantly it is evident that they had to adopt sustainability as one of their core business services and goals. They have also enhanced their corporate responsibility to formulate missions that starts within the organization and cast i18 impact on the firm's products. Perkins + Will seems to be the most involved and most dedicated based on their claim that their founding codes evolve around the same principle of sustainability and environmental awareness. Arup, on the other hand,appears to have paved the way to a proper passage into ful1y integrating a sustainable business into its daily operation and in 2008 they started see the benefit of their preparatory work in the form of regional sustainability strategies. Finally, Dar Al Handasah seems to be a late joiner but with the tools 10 do so in short time. The latter's processes are intriguing because they reveal some of the issues that need to be surpassed to claim commitment to sustainability in a consultancy firm.
A simplified version of the above would declare that initiatives and performances are different from strategizing and practicing... the continuous challenge is to communicate that operating sustainably is an imperative for all types of businesses and specifically those into consultancies that shape our cities and living environments. Moreover, there is a growing awareness, shared by the consultancy firms, at different levels, that the requirement of trade-off between sustainability and profitability is outdated mode of business approach. One might claim that there is a new formulation of a business mindset that looks into operating in a sustainable environment from mitigation and leveraging of opportunities perspectives. The consultancy firms, in specific, have adopted, as per the examples above, a special approach to doing business by injecting sustainability in their approach to problem solving. All three tirms and many more have incorporated sustainable approach in their day-to-day business, regardless of internal and external resistance to change. They are slowly but effectively transforming their sustainable -free 'business as usual' approach to a sustainable-integrated 'business as usual'. They are doing so on three fronts simultaneously: selling it to their clients, injecting it in their design approach and most importantly educating their human resources by creating challenging environment and a personal stake in i1.
Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 481 There i8 loud call for a non-traditional strategy that set practices to help restoring environmental quality and build sodal equity, while increasing long term profitability. From the quick overview of the three consultancy firms, it is apparent that such goals can only be achieved from the inside-out. The road-map starts with a fuH corporate adoption of a sustainable approach to design, then to imprint such culture onto their clients by setting an internal guidance to monitor the design product and finally to allow for a synthesis procedures to ensure the design product outcome. The establishment of sustainable corporate agenda seems to be adopted with the examples listed herein. Such agendas enlist different resources, set the mood of the overall business approach and pave the way to shifts in eore business to respond to eommercial drivers.
For firms in general, if there are lessons to be deducted it boils down to the
• Sustainability is the new buzz word, and will stay for near future;
• Commereial driver(s) tags sustainability at all times;
• Adopting sustainability is related to the belief in its essence and benefits;
• lncorporating sustainability ean only oeeur from within the firm as a first step; and • Sustainability over-spills to the greater benefit (social responsibility).
A special appreciation is due to Dar Al Handasah (Shair & Partners) for supporting this endeavor by exposing the firm to the world of 'corporate responsibility and awareness' and relentlessly pushing the firm into sustainability. I would also like to thank Mr. Peter Busby (P+W) and Mr. Peter Speight (Dar Al Handasah) for their input and insightful presentations on sustainability.
Elkington, J. (1994). Towards Sustainable Corporation: win-win-win business strategies far sustainable development; Califomia Management Review 36, no. 2:90-100 Elkington, J. (1998). Cannibals with Forks: the Tripie Bottom Line of21 st Century Business; New Society Publishers, Canada Lumley, S. & Armstrong, P. (2003). Some ofthe 19th Century Origins ofthe Sustainability Concept; published in: Environment, Development and Sustainability 6: 367-378,2004. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Netherlands OECD, (2001). Sustainable Development: Critical Issues, Paris, France Pawley, M. (2000). sustainability: a big word with little meaning. The Independent. Retrieved February 5, 2010 from www.independent.co.uk Sahir, T. (2009). Transitional Tides and the Future ofthe Arab City- A Yale Arab Alumni Association Conference on Urban Sustainability at the American University ofBeirut The Sustainability Agenda: Industry perspectives. (2008). London, UK.
PricewaterhouseCoopers World Commission on Environment and Development, UN (1987). Burtland Commission: Our Common Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 483 The International Prize for Sustainable Architecture: Achievements and Potentials Luca Rossato, Marcello Balzani, Cristina Vanucci University 0/Ferrara, Italy Abstract The International Prize for Sustainable Architecture, now in its seventh edition, arose from the important manifestation of the tenth anniversary of the Ferrara School of Architecture foundation, held in 2003.
Conceived and promoted by the School itself and Fassa Bortolo company, its spirit and goal are to contribute to the research of a system of development in the building sector that is more sustainable than our current model, which has lead to astate of deterioration and pollution, bringing us to the verge of aglobai crisis of the Earth's entire ecological system. Receiving every edition more of one hundred submitted projects, the Prize during the past years has become one of the most important European events for sustainable architecture.
The A ward is a testament to the outstand ing growth of the sustainable approach toward architecture in Europe. It contributed to the implementation of an ecological conscience through the prizes awarded to young professionals that nowadays are part of the European sustainability movement.
During the past years, the A ward has become internationally renowned even within the academic realm. The submitted entries reflected an ongoing change inside architecture pedagogy. Whereas in the past, sustainability played only a secondary role and was not taken on by the faculties' best design chairs, nowadays it must be part ofthe young professionals' knowledge and skills.
Keywords: sustainable arehiteeture awards, bio-arehitecture, sustainable eonstrue/ion awareness.
Luca Rossato, Marcello Balzani & Cristina Vanucci 1 The Beginning of the International Prize In 2003, during the important international manifestation ofthe tenth anniversary of the foundation of the Ferrara Faculty of Architecture, the School itself and Fassa Bortolo company (Fassa S.p.A., registered holder of the trademark "Fassa Bortolo") joined their fore es to create an award in order to re-examine the relationship between the process of construction and the environment.
In that period, the school, involved since the foundation in a sustainable approach towards architecture, wanted to provide incentives for architecture capable of satisfying the needs of our generations without limiting those of the future by the indiscriminate consumption of resources and the production of pollution.
The A ward was created from an understanding of the importance of sharing with a large public the results of research in the field of civil construction, recognizing the fundamental role in architecture of environmental protection, education and social promotion. Of course while maintaining the responsibility of representing the concrete expression of cultural development and of the society' s collecti ve interests.
Thus the prize aims at spreading the concept of a new architecture that is perfectly adjusted to the environment and conceived for the necessities of mankind. Since the first awarding in 2004 it's been stated that each individual candidate or group can take part to the competition with only one project which must has been realized and implemented within the past tlve years.
It was further decided that lecturers or professors teaching in the competition year at the Ferrara Faculty of Architecture may not take part in the competition.
In timt first competition the Ferrara Faculty of Architecture and Fassa Bortolo realized how tough it could be to implement an international award based on issues shared only by a few people. At the time sustainable architecture in ltaly was a concept addressed only by elite architects).
In that year the Prize collected only \3 projects, the majority of which came from Italy. Only a few entrants were from central Europe. The first winner was the Austrian Georg W. Reinberg, a great supporter of sustainable architecture in his country.
Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 485 Figure I: Office and studio o1'the "biotop" Company in Weidling, by architect Georg W. Reinberg, Prize winner in 2004.
2 The Early Stage In 2005 and 2006 the Award had slow growth, reaching the number 01' 20 entries in 2005 and 27 in 2006. The participating projects were mostly from Italy. In Europe the competition was almost unknown but the overall quality continued to be very high as demonstrated by the Jury reports.
In 2005 Ernesto Mistretta's "Countryside house" (Located in Trapani, Italy) won for its transformability, an important characteristic of an unpretentious country house. The big sliding walls and the external mobile roofing offered a great variety of possible configurations.
An introverted house, closed in itself, that suddenly opens in total harmony with the landscape.
Luca Rossato, Marcello Balzani & Cristina Vanucci Figure 2: Country house in Trapani (ltaly) by architect Emesto Mistretta, 2005 winner ofthe Prize.
The 2006 competltlOn was characterized by a first prize and two special mentions of high quality. Furthermore three projects were commended during the Jury evaluation.
The first prize went to the "Wine Facility CoJlemassari", a project by Edoardo Millesi, Archos Engineering consulting.
The building, a clear and representative volume inserted in the rhythmic mesh of the vineyards, developed the topic proposed by the competition notice.
It proposes the modification of the landscape considering economic drives and architectural contemporary language.
The technological mix of both natural and artificial materials seemed weil balanced to the Jury.
Sustainable Architecture and Urban 487 Figure 3: Wine facility "Collemassari" in Grosseto (Italy) by architect Edoardo Millesi, 2006 winner.
3 The Introduction of the "Degree Theses" Category In 2007, after an in-depth analysis and an internal debate, the Award was opened to academia; the award has a "Degree Thesis" category. Students in various architecture schools involved in sustainable architecture topics can apply to this category.
In his category of the award, the applications for the Prize could be submitted by individuals or groups that have presented the degree thesis in the last 2 years before the competition at a Department of Architecture or Engineering, as well as in equivalent educational. They must have obtained a mark superior to 100/l1O or equivalent.
The introduction of this category injected new lifeblood in the Prize. The links between the academia world and the professionals generated a quick profusion of knowledge in sustainable architecture issues, and it has created new momentum for the next cycles of the Award.
Luca Rossato, Marcello Balzani & Cristina Vanucci The 2007 Jury unanimously awarded First Prize the "restoration of a farmhouse and a new multi-purpose hall" project (Iocated in Altedo di Malalbergo, Bologna, Italy) by Diverserighestudio.
The rigour ofthe project solved important compositional and climatic topics with an extreme consistency. It paid particular attention to the issues concerning sustainability, environmental respect and ecological requirements, thus it perfectly met the topics indicated by the competition notice.
Among the degree theses entries, the Jury selected a first prize and two special mentions highlighting works' great architectural quality.
Figure 4: Corte CampedeI1i restoration in Altedo (Italy) by Diverserighe Studio Architects, 2007 winner.
4 Signs of Change The 2008 Prize attracted entrants from 11 countries. This confirmed the wide international reputation and growing interest for these kind of awards. Entries included an increasingly diverse range of architectural projects: from new buildings to renovations, from private to public construction, from leisure to industrial sites.
Meanwhile, all around the world, bio-climatic issues were being discussed and, slowly, Italy started to develop an awareness about the great power of attraction of this branch of architecture.
Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 489 For the first time in the Prize 's history, 5 winning projects and 5 special mentions were selected due to the high standard of the works presented and to the fact that all the projects represented excellent solutions able to synthesize the complexity and diversity that characterizes the sustainability issue.
For this reason, the Jury deemed it appropriate to award the prize to several works which, as a whole, emphasize the diversity of the project themes and singularly, represenl, in each case, the most suitable solution, showing how each project requires a customized approach.
This is also expressed in the Jury report through the Chairman, the intemationally [amous architect Prof. Thomas Herzog "All projects have.
among their characteristics, pioneering aspects".
Figure 5: Social Service and Elders Centre, architect Gi! Torres Carmen, one of the five winning projects selected by the 2008 Jury.
490 Luca Rossato, Marcello Balzani & Cristina Vanucci 5 An Internationally Renowned Award In 2009, under the guidance of Prof. Thomas Herzog, Jury Chairman for the second year, the Prize reached great popularity, being one ofthe most important competition for sustainable architeeture in Europe.
Even the Jury had an international look, due to the presence of famous professionals such as Sir Micheal Hopkins (from UK) and Franyoise Helene Jourda (from France) currently, among the most important "green architects" of the world.
Figure 6: From right to left, Prof. Thomas Herzog, Sir Michael Hopkins, Prof.
Franyoise H6lene Jourda, Arch. Nicola Marzot and Arch. Gianluca Minguzzi: the Jury ofthe 2009 Award.
In this sixth competition, after many sessions the Jury unanimously chose 6 projects out of 61 coming from 19 countries worldwide to put on the candidate list for the prize or the honorable mentions.
All of them had a high architectural level and contributed to the scope of the International Prize for Sustainable Architecture in very different ways.
So the Jury decided to award these projects, and also to select another 13 completed projects (included in the final shortlist) worthy of mention for particular interesting aspects.
Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 491 For the degree thesis division it was decided to award special mention to 4 degree thesis works.
All of the projects which have been awarded a mention have developed certain significant aspects in relation to their different functional typology that as a whole make an interesting contribution to the subject of sustainability. The winner of this important edition was the Simone Solinas and Gabriel Verd project "26 social housing dwellings in Umbrete" (Seville, Spain). The Spanish residential complex represents a significant response to that challenge.
The excellent result of the design process undertaken by the architects has found just the right compromise between the countless overall aspects that influence the realization of building work. Issues connected with the setting (c1imatic, town-planning, cultural), technological problems, energy assessments and economic balance were harmonized.
6 Shigeru Ban Project
During the built up phase of the first years the contributions understandably came mainly from Central Europe. This fact has changed considerably: in 2010 there was material from all over the world, varying in characteristic, size and use.
Part of the reason could be the high level jury of internationally renowned architects. It guaranties achanging individual understanding of architecture every year. They take into consideration different regional and cultural views which show important development and qualities.
Compared to the previous years, in 20 I0 there was an enormous difference in the student contributions. An ongoing change in the universities can be c1early feit. Whereas in the past, sustainability and the use of environmental energies played only a secondary role, and was not taken on by the faculties' best design chairs, this year for the first time we had a remarkable range of complex, high level contributions.
The winner of this edition was a Kyeong Sik Yoon-Shigeru Ban project for a new golf c1ub-house in Seoul, South Korea. The project makes a valid contribution to the development of new uses for wood in construction. The building system provides an integrated solution to the many different functional requisites, while at the same time meeting static, architectural and technical systems criteria.
The wooden structure supports the building envelope, providing good natural and artificial lighting of the interior and creating channeIs for natural air movement. The essential, elegant structure illuminates and colours the inside of the building, defining the atmosphere of the spaces and the architectural identity.
Luca Rossato, Marcello Balzani & Cristina Vanucci Figure 7: Haesley Nine Bridges Club House by Kyeong Sik Yoon 20 I 0 prize winner.
7 Contemporary Sustainability Concepts
7.1 Traditional materials and new technologies The clubhouse awarded in 2010 designed by Shigeru Ban and Kyeong Sik Yoon could be an example of how we can improve the way of using traditional materials in new, more efficient ways. The building, located near Seoul, is composed of three buildings. One of these, the regular members' clubhouse, has a wooden hexagon grid shell on the roof. This ecological and natural ventilated concept of hexagon pattern occurred from Korean traditional summertime pillow (calIed "the bamboo wife").
This wo oden structure is fire-resistant and the roof and columns are exposed in the interior spaces. Using the most advanced computers and cutting machines technology the designers were able to find the most effident structural form and minimized the assembling process and quantity of timber.
Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 493
Figure 8: Haesley Nine Bridges Club-House by Kyeong Sik Yoon + Shigeru Ban natural lighting and ventilation, a remarkable example oftraditional materials and new technologies Although the design was developed through innovative research, it's based on practical principles. these result from careful analysis of the points of reference to the local building tradition. Beyond of its uniqueness, the project therefore reflects some aspects of local traditional architecture.
This development of a new timber structural system will encourage architects, engineers and c1ients to utilize traditional materials such as wood in future sustainable buildings.
494 Luca Rossato, Marcello Balzani & Cristina Vanucci
7.2 Social housing projects
The need to construct efficient and architeeturally high quality buildings under stringent eeonomie working eonditions is a major challenge for the building seetor today.
In Umbrete, the perimeter of the area is occupied by the system of buildings in such a way that it forms a city block with compaet frontages. This gives a feeling of unity, of interaetion with the urban fabric and harmonious eoexistenee in ternlS of scale and proportion with the surrounding examples of conventional domestic architecture.
Figure 9: Sodal housing dwellings in Umbrete (Spain) Solinas-Verd arquitectos, winner of the 2009 competition.
Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 495 The arrangement of the rooms thus creates an architecturally interesting spatial organization, which is also ideal for generating efficient natural cross ventilation and adequate shading of the openings in the summer. The latter is achieved through precise control of the seasonal variation in the angle of incidence of solar radiation at this latitude, thereby avoiding the risk of overheating.
The preference for extreme constructional simplicity and the use of materials weil known to local workmen also meant that a quality constructional level has been reached which is very affordable.
7.3 Affordable projects
Another big issue is making the housing projects for the neediest classes of our society working. This problem has a!ways been difficult to resolve, especially in the poorest regions of our planet. The socia! housing project in Iquique (Chile) by ELEMENTAL, awarded with a special mention in 2009 edition of the Prize, is one possible specific approach for tackling this emergency.
The principle that has been adopted is one of using the limited available budget to build the minimum living spaces for each household, fitting them out with the structures and services tImt only a specialized firm can do. This basic work has been conceived as a minimum structure featuring altemating solid and void functional spaces. They are designed to provide a support for subsequent extension, although within a well-defined layout which ensure controlled expansion of development.
Therefore the construction layout approach manages to otTer the actual owners the best conditions for extending the dwelling units. This can be done in the times and ways according to each one's needs with low-cost self-help housing systems and in all safety.
The project fulfils the idea of social housing that can appreciably increase its value over the years with minimum investment. The architecture is not used as a formal justification, but as a tool and a useful resouree to help overcome poverty and extreme social inequality. It does so without forgoing a recognizable, elegant, modemist heritage enriched by the spontaneous process of progressive saturation ofthe voids.
The work therefore emphasizes the ethical importance of the architecture in a period when the image often prevails over the substance, and the social function, ofthe architect's professional services.
Luca Rossato, Marcello Balzani & Cristina Vanucci Figure 10: affordable housing in Iquique, Chile, by Elemental, an example of a house expanded by local resident.
7.4 The importanee ofthe loeal eontext But even projects bearing an humble background, such as the project for a new school in Africa, perfectly represent a suitable direction in order to have sustainable buildings. For example the work of Kere-Architecture, an high school building in Dano, Burkina Faso, answers the need to enlarge an existing school complex in a small African town. The design philosophy guides the construction process towards a building that truly belongs to the place.
Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 497 This is achieved through the use of materials that are available on the spot, plus operating strategies that are calibrated according to an analysis of the local microclimate. It is a basic design, providing a comprehensive answer to a need for functional spaces in conditions of poverty, and with few means available.
Such aspects are also clearly explained and documented in the presentation of the work.
The roofing framework is made with modular lattice elements consisting of iron bars welded on the spot and assembled in situ. Inside. a convex ceiling with white paint distributes the light into the cIassrooms. Meanwhile crosswise slits communicate with the outside to provide efficient natural ventilation of the rooms helped by shuttered openings arranged along the walls.
Throughout the entire construction process, local workmen were trained to use new techniques. This ensured that they Iearned building methods seen as precious knowledge to be used for the future construction of other buildings for the local community. These techniques will be handed down to future generations.
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Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development Participants Scientific Committee Co-Chairs Steffen Lebmann, University ofNewcastle, Australia Husam AI Waer, The University ofDundee, UK JamaJ AI-Qawasmi, CSAAR, Jordan International Scientitic Committee Abas ElmuaJim, University ofReading, UK Abmed Yehia Rasbed, The British University in Egypt, Egypt Aikaterini Tsikaloudaki, Aristotle University ofThessaloniki, Greece Akkelies van Nes, TU Delft, The NetherlandsK Amar Bennadji, Robert Gordon University, UK Amira Elnokaly, University ofLincoln, UK Amira Osman, CSIR, South Africa Amjad AI-musaed, Archcrea institute, Denmark Ammar Kaka, Heriot-Watt University, UAE Antony Radford, University of Adelaide, Australia Arjan van Timmeren, Heriot-Watt University, UAE Assem AI-Hajj, TU-Delft, The Netherlands Aylin Orbasli, Oxford Brooks University, UK Ayman Otbman, The British lJniversity in Egypt, Egypt Behzad Sodagar, lJniversity of Lincoln, UK Blaine Brownell, University ofMinnesota USA Ceridwen Owen, lJniversity ofTasmania, Australia Chrisna Du Plessis, CSIR, South Africa Dalila EIKerdany, Cairo University, Egypt Deepak Gopinatb, University of Dundee, UK Derek Clements-Croome, The University of Reading, UK Dirk Donatb, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Germany Doris Kowaltowski, lJNICAMP, Brazil Ettore Maria Mazzola, The University 01' Notre Dame, Italy Firas Sharaf, Tbe University 01' Jordan, Jordan Fodil FadIi, University of Liverpool, UK Francisco Serdoura, F AUTL, Portugal Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development Frank Lattke, Fachgebiet Holzbau - TU München, Gennany Henning Thomsen, Gehl Architects, Copenhagen, Denmark Hisham Ekadi, Deakin University, Australia Jaepil Choi, Seoul National University, Korea Jaime J, Ferrer Fores, Universitat PoIitecnica de Catalunya, Spain.