«CSAAR (7: 2010: Amman) Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development \ Edited by Steffen Lehmann, Husam Al Waer, Jamal AI-Qawasmi. Amman: The Center ...»
Sustainable Architeeture and Urban Development Sustainable Cities Possible or Impossible: A Critical Review Hisham Moustafa, HusamAIWaer, Tamer Gado University 0/Dundee, Dundee, Scotland Abstract Half of the earth population is living in dense urban areas, today, while only a third of the population lived in eities in the 1950's. This phenomenon c1early states that there is an inerease in the demand for city lifestyle, leading to the emergenee of the sustainable city eoneept. The literature revealed a variety of definitions and deseriptions for sustainability and sustainable eities in their eomplex shapes and sizes with a wide range of strategies, frameworks, phrases, eoneepts, indexes and indieators. This eontroversy ereated a huge diversity of opinion and eonfusion to the literal perfonnanee of the tenn "Sustainability" and "sustainability indieators" and to aeeentuate the vagueness of indieators two prineiples - aeclaimed as the most sueeessful philosophies - for how a sustainable city should perfonn are eompared. They are: 1) The eommission of Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE) for sustainable eities and 2) The ten principles of Melbourne.
The Ultimate aim of this paper is to identify the key limitations of existing principles and diseuss the philosophy of eontrol that sustainability imposed on eities and how it should be relinquished to the eitizens. It presents a critical review of different related coneepts including sustainable, eeo, Iiveable and intelligent eities. The results indicate that the eoneept of sustainability is not an erroneous idea but stakeholders need to evolve the eoneept in itself. The Sustainability eoneept is vulnerable and due to its vagueness it lead to the emergenee of the Integral City whieh gave a more refined definition für the city future.
Keywords: Sustainable eitles, socio-eeologieal eity, Vagueness ofsustainability, Melboume Principles, CABE, Eeo-City, Intelligent City, Integral City, City Participation, Contra I.
Hisharn Moustafa, Husam AIWaer & Tamer Gado 1 Introduction
developing countries with 94% of the increase found there (Pietro et aL, 2005), By 2020 of these 2 billion persons, 75% will be Iiving in Figure 1: The most significant problems in each aspect of urban areas (Pile and Brook, 1999).
sustainability in cities(Scan The emergence of the mega-city was :mrl H:lzel 2(07) predicted in 1900 were there were only 3 cities with a population more than 3million (London, Paris and New York), The amount in 2000 there were 19 cities with a population exceeding 10 million and it is expected to rise, in 2015 to 23, These 23 cities will house 30% ofthe world's population (Wenzel et aL, 2005), Rapid Urbanism is attributed to this rise in population, This concept led to the immigration of many people from rural villages to urban and newly growth areas and making them new urban dwellers, Urbanisation is a perceived notion that brings changes in social and cultural settings of the population. This change could lead to a change in attitude, worldview, and way of life of urban folks as weil as socio-cultural changes among urban communities (Ahmad et al., 2009).
This concept leads to the emergence of the concept of the city with in a city, or better known as "Suburbia".
Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 449 Suburbia has many names and one of them is "City on the Highway". These cities were designed to fix the problems existing in the city.
It was designed to have all the services within walking distance and they emerged because of the automobile existence. Hs solution is to have people leave the city and commute from the main eity to these extensions Figure 2: How Suburbia originated and how the (Suburbia). This lead to the cycle will keep on going increased importance of the Automobile, people could travel longer distances (LE. the decentralisation of cities) (Hall, 2002) or urban Sprawl.
Transportation is a huge problem that is plaguing cities. Today, cities are designed with the car in mind; however this type of design creates a lot of environmental based problems (ITS, 2009). Despite many efforts of controlling traffic within cities there is still the exasperating problem of car growth, the political strength of the car lobby and a public wanting of car usage (Richards, 200 I). Mass production and mass consumption have worked together to reduce the cost of car ownership, making a preferred means of transport (Pile and Brook, 1999). The city after the invention of the car has become a broad network of dispersed, low-rise residential neighbourhoods mixed with open land reserves
- and, in contrast, bold on the skyline, a number of dense, intensive districts replete with culture; street life; diversified commerce, business, and residential opportunities; and a multitude of services and entertainment (Safdie and Kohn, 1997).
It is still important to understand if the city evolvement is actually possible?
And if they evolve from what have they evolved from? And are they still evolving? Evolution is an influential factor that affects humans' physical, mental and psyehological features and thereby the are evolutionary explanations around the ergonomie and soeial explanations far the human built environment of rooms, buildings, streets and eities. Cities evolved from earlier kinds of settlements, going baek to the simplest imaginable settlement, for example a ring of huts or tents around a single fire. This philosophy suggests that the first settlement (or city) eame after the creation of the first building. However, some state that settlements are not derivative of buildings, but both modem eities and buildings would be a descended from an earlier proto arrangement. This means that the creation of settlement is not an aeeidentaI by product that happens to be plaeed in proximity (MarshalI, 2009).
Hisharn Moustafa, Husam AIWaer & Tamer Gado The first signs of planning in cities emerged in the Pharonic era, fol1owed by the Babylonians Ieading to the Greek, Roman, Early Christian, Byzantine, English, Is1amic Cities, industrial cities, etc... (Fletcher, 1905). All these city designs later on evolved to the modem city. This concept evolved in the late 19th century, it was driven by horror at the Immorality of slums that emerged in the industrial cities and by the perception of the start of the newage (the machine age) in which societies would harvest benefits of accompanying technological development and industrial production. This philosophy had its problems and it evolved to post modem design. This movement emerged in the 1960's and it focused more on living in suburbs which was aforementioned in this section (Carmona et al, 2003). The philosophy of cities later on evolved in to the concept sustainability, societies needed to rethink how they lived, worked, played and shopped. The path to reach growth is buiIt on the principles of smart growth, new urbanism and green buildings (Farr, 2008). However, this section focuses greatly on control.
2 Sustainable Cities How to shape cities fundamentals and urban design has only recently started to incorporate the greenhouse debate. Formerly, much of the concern circled around the active fa;:ade technology for eco-buildings and solely technological determined solutions. The cities concept was missing in this debate (Lehmann, 2009).
The city is a Circular Metabolism wh ich was presented by Herbert Girardet in his book "Creating Sustainable CWes". His diagram shows that each city has inputs and outputs and how their needs to be a circular and regenerative system within a city (Girardet, 2009). However, the city is not as simple as a one way metaboIism; they are ecosystems were everything is inter-dependent on each other. It is a place where people live, play, work and interact with each other and nonliving elements (Newman and Jennings, 2008). This proves that the city cannot be simplified to just inputs and outputs. The figure introduced three new factors; (a) Concemslchallenges, which were earlier mentioned in this section, (b) Impacts (I.E. Factors that contribute to the growth ofthe city) (c) Responses How the govemments or city will respond, for example, increasing the demand for energy if required or raising taxes on fuel to try to reduce its consumption.
To better understand this concept the paper compares seven cities with different standards of living. They are; (a) New York City, (b) Shanghai, (e) London, (d) Mexico City, (e) Johannesburg, (f) Berlin and (g) Kuwait. It looks at their Population, energy and water eost, the number of cars, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Average density and housing rents. All these factors affect the metabolism.
Table I shows the above hypothesis at work; the metabolism of the city is not as simple as the input entering or exiting it as Girardet stated in his book.
Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 451
Figure 3: modified model for the city Metabolism, Based on (Girardet, 2009) Table I shows the above hypothesis at work; the metabolism of the city is not as simple as the input entering or exiting it as Girardet stated in his book.
There are many factors that atfect the amount of input and output in the city, such as population, lifestyles etc... Looking at the figures in table I Berlin has the lowest population of the three and has high consumption rate while a city like Mexico City with the highest population has a lower consumption rate. This means that one of the biggest factors that affect the city's metabolism is the ecological footprint.
The Ecological footprint of the city is premeditated by its resource consumption and its affect on the city and its surroundings. It represents land area necessary to sustain current levels of resource consumption and waste discharged by that population (Newman and Jennings, 2008). So it i8 important to understand what causes the increase in outputs and inputs of the city to reduce its ecological footprint.
The connection between sustainability and the city is unclear. This is a surprising concept as cities consume almost half of the energy produced (Lehmann, 2009). Sustainable city is a complex phenomenon, and as Graham Vickers stated "Cities are all the same, eities are all differenf' (MarshalI, 2009), meaning that maybe all cities will have the same goals but aII have different approaches to achieve that goaL Thereby, the concept of sustainable city is the common goal and the ways that each city attempts to reach it is different due to different priorities or concerns and that is evident in table 3.
To Change cities into "Sustainable Cities", they should value systems and underlying processes of urban governance and planning need to be rehabilitated as weH as the change of urban form, transportation systems and water, waste and energy technologies. High energy and material consumption and waste production could be attributed to the highly auto-dependant, resource consuming cities. This concept leads to the attribution of the compact city (Kenworthy, 2006).
Hisharn Moustafa, Husam AIWaer & Tamer Gado 454 The eompaet City eoneept eneompasses the belief that urban revitalisation and the future of the city is only aehievable through the re-eompaetness of eities and the use of elearly devised, more eompaet sustainable urban design principles (Lehmann, 2009). The eomplexity in this sense is that eities have different sizes, loeation, resourees and capacity and this is one of the eomplexities of obtaining sustainability and that was evident in table I.
The vagueness in definition led to the development of many new eoneepts that foeus on eertain aspects of sustainability. This was because of the unattainable philosophy of sustainable eities. Coneepts like the intelligent Cities, whieh aimed for eitizens to live. work and play. It eoneentrates on the social and eeonomie aspeet and neglects to the eeologieal aspeei. The seeond is the Eeologieal city, all the eoneentration is given to the eeological aspeei. Thirdly, the liveable city, it foeuses on the environmental and soeial aspeets.
2.1 Vagueness of the term "Sustainability" and "Sustainability City lndicators" (SCI) There are many definitions given to the term sustainability or sustainable cities.
This ereates eonfusion between people and hence the coneept could be applied ineorreetly.