«CSAAR (7: 2010: Amman) Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development \ Edited by Steffen Lehmann, Husam Al Waer, Jamal AI-Qawasmi. Amman: The Center ...»
Creative milieu is a plaee that eontains the necessary requirements in terms of hard and soft infrastrueture to generate a flow of ideas and inventions. A milieu can be a building, astreet or an area. Florida (2003) states that there are several things that creative people aetually value in loeations, for example; lifestyle, a place gives a distinctive lifestyle. Social interactions, places give the user an opportunity to interact with others. Diversity, it means 'exeitement' and 'energy'.
Creative minded people enjoy a mix of influences. Authenticity it comes from several aspects of community- historical building, established neighbourhood, a unique music scene or specific cultural attributes.
An authentie place also offers unique and original experienees. ldentity, place provides an inereasingly important dimension of our identity. Many ereative class people also express adesire to be involve in their communities. The quality 0/place, related to local hornes industries. Firman (1997) stated the eriteria of local economy as : the usage of local resources, moved by local citizens, the usage of human resources that are dominated by locals, small service seale, the presence of economic activity's organization/group that organizes and transform local potential, they have multiplier effect for other activities and the emergences of new enterprises/entrepreneurs. Definition of loeal economic development stated by Blake (1989) as a process by which loeal govemment and lor community-based groups manage their existing resources and enter into partnership arrangements with the private sector to create new jobs and stimulate economic activity in a well-defined area. Florida, in Franke, 2005 stated the creative age is not going to solve our problems. It's not going to make our segregation. In fact, it may indeed compound may of those problems. But in the other side produet designed or produced by creative soeiety is valued much more increasingly for the creative portion of value added than for the physical or the material. Creativity is the motor force of our economic growth.
3 Development of Kelurahan Lebakgede, Kampung Sekeloa
3.1 Kelurahan Lebakgede as Thc Pocket Area of Jalan Dipati Ukur Reeents years, Dipati Ukur Street is developed as an Edueation Area, although there is not a formal classifieation as such. Several Universities stand in this area. State University: Padjajaran University and Private Universities such as Indonesian Computer University (UNIKOM) and Institute Technology of Harapan Bangsa( ITHB) grew very rapidly. In the past years, Dipati Ukur Street was a housing area, which northen area was dominated by low income housing, Dhini Tantarto and southem area by a high class society. Sekeloa area was occupied by low income dwellers. Before, majority of the community worked as temporary laborer, unskilled laborer or textile laborer and some of them were even jobless.
Since The Faculty of Dentistry ofPadjajaran University was built here, many of them changed their professions. They worked at horne to do business such as computer rental, eanteen or boarding house (boarding room). Around year 2000 when the govennent poliey drew up a policy to the regulate edueation autonomy, some of educational institution aeeepted many students in order to raise fund. Many faeulties were opened, and some were over populated. Thus, Dipati Ukur beeame a booming area as a student district. Many of newly rich households eame from this area. Although they live in inner urban area in a small unit houses, but they own many units of houses in this kampung. They became a different community. From working outside the area, they now are able to generate income within the Kampung. While the govemment wants to resettle them somewhere else in order to develop the area (since the area was rent from the govemment), many dweIlers hold out in this area. They believe that their fortune is in this area, so they do not want to move out.
BANDUNG INSTITUTE TECHNOLOGYFigure 2: Neighborhood administrative unit ofKelurahan Lebakgede Kampung Sekeloa, Kelurahan Lebakgede, which borders with Dipati Ukur
street, situated in Coblong District. Kelurahan consists of a few RW's ( RT:
Rukun Tetangga is a neighborhood administrative unit. A group of RTs makes up one RW: Rukun Warga).The observed kampung is located in RW 0 (consists of 7 RT's), RT 03 and Rt 04 are the ones which are connected and have more acces to campus area, as shown in Fig.2. The composition of local population in
these two RT's are shown in following table 1:
3.2 Development of Kampung Sekeloa Since Bandung is known as a fashion city and Sekeloa area is domina ted by young occupants, thus many fashion shops are buHt here. Young people manage to run bussinesses such as T shirt or moslem wear and becames the founder of distro (distribution store) which is now famous in Bandung. Many dwelJers become parking land lords, laundry bussinesmen, a stationary and copy center bussiness owners and thesis production service owners. The others seil a variation of food: an everyday homemade cooking, a western or eastern food and coffee shop. There are stalls or vendors providing light meals to heavy meals, that opened in various hours. From formal restaurant to non permanen food stalls which opened only at night when the stores are closed. No wonder if this area is running for 24 hours. Some of households changed parts of their living areas to into boarding rooms, monthly renting housing or such.
The living spaces are developed into a mix of production, commercial and living spaces. They reconstruct their Iiving space for economic purposes. Every household in this area made some effort to change their home.The successfull one even have more than one unit ofbusinesses.
Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 379
3.2.1 Zoning Area based on Activities Kampung Sekeloa, Kelurahan Lebakgede is the spontaneous settlement area as shown in Figure 3 and 4. The majority of the buildings here are built by the residents themselves without proffesional held. So the density is unbelievable high. Correspondingly, the production space here is pretty complicated, with the
Firstly, the produetion, commercial and dwelJing spaees are highly mixed spontaneously in the urban space. The mixed up is social and physicaL Generally speaking, the commercial and the production spaces are almost located along the main lanes, because those parts are more open and convenient to people. On the contrary, the dwelling areas are more private, they often occupy the quieter places inside the lanes.
Secondly, different workshops are relatively spread in different areas. Figure 2 shows that the production areas take different spaces based on product characteristic. But, still the production houses are not far from the main street.
As a matter of fact, workshops which need smaller spaces are mostly located upstairs or in the basement (since the area were in the high levelling contour).
Tbe first floors are usually used to display items and function as an entrance of the shops. At night, these spaces also used as sleeping areas for the workers and families.
Tbirdly, living and business areas are vertically segmented in accordance with different functions in Kampung Area.
Together, the distribution of the production space in the city is a comprehensive subject for us to study. It shows elose relationships with traffie, housing, and so on. In other word, it is influeneed by the soeiety direetly or indirectly, resulting in the physieal nature ofthe Sekeloa spaees.
Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 381 3.2.2 The Interior Space of Different Activities Figures 5 to NO.I3 show illustrations and photos of different mixed use spacea (actually there are more model variations). lt is obvious that the quality of the spaces are quite low, the living spaces are generally smalI, basically without good ventilation and lighting. Most of them are alterations or additions to the houses made by residents here. The shape and the size of the houses are varied, without a unified direction.
Furthermore, the use of indoor spaces differ from one another other based on different procedures or functions. At the same time, the function is highly mixed and the space is compressed. For example, though a house might seem Iike a single working room without a kitchen or a bedroom, but all the needs of everyday life could be self-solved welJ by cooking beside the front door and sleeping on the mezzanine floor. lt is incredible and rather efficient. Sometimes the plan is very small so they build vertically because they cannot expand horizontally. The number of people living in the house sometimes is very high, since they still have good family kinship. They invite their relatives !Tom village side to hel their businesses.
3.3 Sustainable Living Cbaracteristics in Kampung Sekeloa Obsevations on physical changes in the buidings caused by economic growth as results from creativity in economic activities, supported by possible social condition shown by Table 3. Not an changes bring good quality in improvement.
Table 3: Relation between Economic changes, Environment and Social to Sustainable..
TROPICAL CLIMA TENot considered
CONSIDERA TIONSustainable Architecture and Urban Development...
4 Conclusion Remarks
Description ofUrban Kampung Illustration showed conc1ude that:
As the main lane grows, urban kampung which is located c10se to it could also grow accordingly, and thus, does not fall into poverty, Sustainable development is still an illusion in developing countries. It cannot be reached without a good economic growth. As an example, kampung Sekeloa, Kelurahan Lebakgede showed that even without proffesional intervention as it grows, the awareness of preserving environment emerges when they reach beUer economic level or welfare.
A good economic level could be achieved through a creative way of thinking in the midst of the sUITounding growth. Creativity would occur if it is supported by these social factors: feel of togertherness, share another's trials and tribulations, high tolerance in differences, cooperation, kinship values and secured feeling.
Sustainable development could only be achieved by the understanding of residents and neighborhood awareness of all paries. Strategies such as seI[ help, seI[ build dan seI[ sufficient that happens spontaneously in a small economic community has been proven to have bigger potential leading to sustainable development.
Eventhough the awareness to preserve environment emerges when a certain economic level is reached. Still, the improving kampung such as kampung Sekeloa, Kelurahan Lebakgede needs proffesional guidance and cooperation between decision makers and implementations officers to reach a more organized planning and development.
References Firman, T (1997), Dampak Pengembangan Sumberdaya Alam pada Perekonomian Lokal di Kawasan Timur Indonesia. ITB. Prisma Florida, R. (2002), The Rise ofthe Creative Class: And how it's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books, ch.12,p.223-232 Franke, S; et all. (2005), Landry: Creativity and The City, How Creative Economy Changes The City. NAi Publishers, 33-45.
Funo, Shuji (2002), Typology of Kampung Houses and Their Transformation Process--A Study on Urban Tissues of an Indonesian City, Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, November 200212003, p.
Ismail Serageldin (ed) (1994), Making Development Sustainable: From Concept to Action, ESD The Worl Bank Washington.
J. Kozlowski and G. Hili (eds) (1993), Towards Planning for Sustainable Development, Ashgate Publishing Company,78 Tjuk Kuswartojo (1998), Kajian dan Telaah tentang : Kebijakan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup dan Pembangunan dengan kasus Jawa Barat, Pusat Penelitian Lingkungan -Hidup, Institut Teknologi Bandung (PPLH ITB), p.5.