«CSAAR (7: 2010: Amman) Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development \ Edited by Steffen Lehmann, Husam Al Waer, Jamal AI-Qawasmi. Amman: The Center ...»
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Sustainable Living Community in Urban Kampung. Case Study: Kampung Sekeloa, Kelurahan Lebakgede, Bandung, Indonesia.
Dhini Dewiyanti Tantarto 1 IDepartment 0/Architecture, Indonesian Computer University (UNIKOM), Indonesia Abstract Developing Ssustainable human settlements rests on three pillars: environmental, eeonomie and socia!. In addition to use environmental resourees to develop Iiveable eities, towns and villages that do not eompromise the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, new settlements must also be eeonomieally produetive and soeially inclusive. New developments should have a positive effeet on inereasing urban employment and redueing poverty. So the majority of households eould enjoy some measure of the welfare whieh aeerues from produetive employment. Sustainable urban development is also Iikely to remain an illusion if the urban poor, who are the majority of the urban population in most developing eountries, are exeluded from deeision-making and from being full urban eitizens.
Urban poor settlements or Kampungs as spontaneous human settlements should be seen as assets rather than liabilities. The goals ofthis research are to identifY and to map interweaving relationship ofplace and production system of urban, education and cultural commodities in Kampung Sekeloa, Kelurahan Lebakgede.
Also to leam how the community endure and accomodate the development, so sustainable pattern could lead to balancing of economic, social, and ecological factors resulting in a sustainability in achanging environment.
1 Theoretical Framework Tjuk Kuswartojo (1998) states that sustainable development as a concept does not seem to cause crucial differences, meaning it is acceptable by all parties. But differences would rise on how to form and create the sustainable development itself. Opinions and ideas on sustainable development as a concept are rooted in three disciplines of science: social, economics and ecology (lsmail Serageldin, 1994). The question is whether the more antropocentric aspect of socioeconomics and the more ecocentric aspect of ecology, could embrace one another. This clarifies that sustainable development emphasizes not only on increasing the human quality but also the environment quality and sustainability oftheresources as a life support system to improve human welfare as weil.
Eventually, social, economic and ecological problem is achanging process which occurs continually in a long term. It shows that sustainable development is adynamie concept. Poverty plays an important role in this sustainability.
Realization of the importance in eliminating poverty to succesful development lead the government to establish pro grams to eliminate poverty, which in turn will increase awareness of environmental preservation. To balance both economic progress and environmental awareness is a prime challenge to sustainable development.
The economy growth by using natural resources does not improve welfare only it also may reduce environmental quality. But in fact most rich countries are much better in managing good quality environment compared to developing and poor countries., though sometimes even rich countries could not fully solve environmental issues. (J. Kozlowski and G. Hili ), However it generally strengthened the opinion that economic approach is best and more realistic to sustainable development.
2 Kampungs in Bandung and Their Creativity Kampung in Indonesian means village or country. In earlier times, an administrative unit of village was called 'desa " while kampung is a more generally used term in present times. It is one unique feature of Indonesia that urban settlements are also called kampungs. It is often said that human settlements in developing regions continue to preserve the characteristics of rural village, and such a concept applies to kampungs. Poor physically and economically, but are not necessarily poor socially. It should be emphasized that kampung is not a slum. Kampung shows a different appearance from the urban settlements in western cities. Destruction of social structure and crimes are rarely seen in the kampung. It is also not a discriminated settlement but a community that has its own social system and values. Kampung as an urban settlement has its special characteristics as an autonomous community model. Funo (1987,
2002) discusses the characteristics of kampungs and points out what we can learn from kampung communities.
Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 375 Bandung is far from ideal cities that creative-base industries could grow weil.
Landry in Franke 2005 mention that being creative as individual or organisation is relatively easy, yet to be creative as a city is a different proposition given the
amalgam of cultures and interests involved. The characteristics tend to include:
taking measured risks, widespread leadership, a sense of going somewhere, being determined but not deterministic, having the strength to go beyond the political eycle, and - crueially- being strategically principled and taetically flexible. The problem is how we can ereate a good environment in Bandung.