«CSAAR (7: 2010: Amman) Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development \ Edited by Steffen Lehmann, Husam Al Waer, Jamal AI-Qawasmi. Amman: The Center ...»
Table I: Factors influencing urban transformation in Southwest Nigeria
The understanding of the socio-cultural and related economic activities that underpins the development of the city is paramount in order to plan for the city of the future. To provide a framework that could be used as a model in the developing world, the underlying socio-cultural issues such as food production Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 351 activities must be taken on board, by the planners and policy makers. Need to emphasis that sustainability and sustainable gains will only be available through a purposeful planning and consideration for social- cultural issues that include the food question. In this regard, city policies, planning and management are expected to be predicated on partnership involving all the relevant actors like the public, private and voluntary bodies at all levels.
This will lead to new approach of different buildings, built environments and agro-urban relationships, thereby serving as the central challenge for food production and enhancement of the built environment. Thus the study of sustainability is mainly to assess the environmental impact of human activities and to search for options, which could have least negative impact on natural environment. The sustainability of the natural environment includes less depletion of natural resources, less pollution and less consumption of energy, which can ultimately yield manifold benefit for mankind in terms of provision for food, c10thing and sheIter.
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Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 355 Islamic Instruments for Sustainable Urban Spatial Planning and Management Aliyu Salisu Barau Federal College 01Education, Nigeria Abstract This paper looks at the role of faith-influenced land use planning and management as solution to the seamless urban challenges of this century. In many developing countries master plans fail to guide institutions to engender sustainable urban environment even as environmental changes affect the quality of life. The paper posits that since urban population cannot exist in absence of qualitative natural environmental variables, then it becomes expedient to think of sustainable solutions. Islam as religion and sodal system regulates space organisation for harmonious coexistence of inhabitants and the natural habitat.
This feature characterises many Muslim traditional cities before the 20th century when western planning theories and models become the brain-box of Muslim urban professionals and dream of governments. This paper examines the Islamic instruments of spatial planning and land use management which are enshrined in the concepts of harim, hima and fina. Northern Nigerian city of Kano is used as example for cross-examining these concepts in engendering urban spatial sustainability. The research couples analysis of images, interviews, field assessments and literature review to prop its findings. For many centuries, Kano city grew steadily with passion for the principles of sustainability which are understandable and implementable by grassroots and those in the power towers.
At the moment, the three instruments are weak; hence, the city grows in pains of ecological imbalances and couple of land use challenges.
1 Introduction Traditional Islamie urbanism in the eontemporary times is eonfronted by challenges of demographie explosions, globalisation, eeologieal challenges and the general quest for institutionalising urban sustainability. The pressing urban challenges underseore the decision of the United Nations to tag this eentury as 'urban century' (UN-Habitat 2008). The Target NO.II of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) NO.7: environmental sustainability also focuses on challenges of urbanisation such as slums, land tenure, sanitation, poor planning and poverty (Martine 2007). In spite of all efforts, urban land use planning fails to eliminate slums, poverty and chaos in third world eities (Voigt, 2006).
Inhabitants of megacities are helplessly exposed to natural hazards and critieal, chronie and long term damages to lives, health and other socioeeonomic aspeets (Hansjurgens, et al 2008).Spatial planning of urban areas remains at the core of polieies. The UN-Habitat (2009) suggests use of strategic spatial planning for developing countries for sustainability as alternative to master plans. Therefore, belief systems, eulture, norms and values can offer launch pads for strategie planning.
In the Muslim world, one of the major challenges of urban spaee making has to do with adoption of western urban land use models which prioritise eeonomy in lieu ofecology, morality and equity (Barau 2010). Interestingly, the potentials 01' Islamic principles of land administration for managing urbanisation is emphasised (UN-Habitat, 2005). One major challenge of urban spatial planning in Muslim countries and other developing countries is the contemporary usage of computer aided urban modelling and simulation processes such as: Albertj and WaddelI (2000); Martine (2001); Vanegas; WaddelI et al (2008) and many others. No doubt, such models are appropriate for the challenges on the ground.
However, the loeal people and even most of the appointed or elected deeision makers for Muslim towns and cities in Muslim republies and kingdoms are not weil skilled and informed about such computer driven models and concepts.
Any tool to be used in spatial planning and monitoring should have a clear consideration for the involvement of urban land users and must integrate semblance of the customs and values of the society. By and large, integration of Islamic land use principles into modem urban modelling would in no small measure be of great benefit to professionals, land use administrators and community as a whole.
This paper advocates use 01' Islamic land use principles for attaining urban spatial sustainability. The objectives ofthe paper are: to identify the relevance of Islamic instruments urban spatial planning and management namely, hima, harim, and fina; to explore problems and sustainable solutions for challenges 01' contemporary urbanism in a traditional Muslim city of Kano in northem Nigeria;
to examine and assess usage of such models in Kano city in the past; and to examine current implications of misuse of the models in Kano. The paper tries to achieve that through explanations on the background of the concepts of western and Islamic spatial instruments; practical applications for spatial forms and Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 357 challenges from the case study site. Based on that, an empirical approach follows undertaking the research and its findings, conclusions and implications.