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«CSAAR (7: 2010: Amman) Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development \ Edited by Steffen Lehmann, Husam Al Waer, Jamal AI-Qawasmi. Amman: The Center ...»

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- Use locally appropriate materials to benefit from cast and energy savings, from the employment of the local labour force, and from the resistance to extreme weather events.

- Apply rapidly growing renewable materials such as bamboo, rattan and thatch with a non-polluting treatment process where possible and utilise traditional skills in the use 01' these materials.

- Develop technologies for producing durable building materials from abundant agricultural by-products such as coconut and rice husks (Fig.14).

Reuse and recycle materials where possible to reduce negative impacts on the environment. Timber beams, bricks, doors, windows, steel sheets, cladding panels, etc are reusable elements.

- Design buildings for disassembly to facil itate the reeonstruction and adaptation process and reuse the materials of building components, including structural skeleton, doors and windows, and roof system.

Design buildings for durability and flexibility to limit the extraction 01' new construction materials.

Building durability relates to the use 01' appropriate materials and technologies to avoid condensation and water ingress that can rapidly damage the building.

The flexibility 01' design aims at providing the capacity for space transformation according to functional changes ofthe building. This strategy suits the traditional construction 01' Vietnam as vernacular housing has used assembled timber structure skeletons and a t1exible interior space layout.

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4.4 Structure From the lesson of vemacular Vietnamese housing. selecting an appropriate structure for the hause is based on specific conditions ofthe region. The struclurc should be strong and durable to resist to typhoons and tloods which annuall) affect Vietnam.

Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 303

- Reinforce the house in typhoon prone regions, especially in Central Vietnam, by using storm-resistant types of structure or cablc reinforcement.

- Combine the structure with spatial functions such as high level storage and shelter to provide optimal adaptability to weather events.

- Prioritise locally appropriate housing shape, roof pitch, and plan configuration because they have been evolved over time by trial and error.

5 Conclusion Contemporary Vietnamese housing should leam from vemacular archetypes to provide greater comfort and reduce negative impacts on tbe environment The Vietnamese vemacular housing has become climatically adaptable over time due to the use of on-site integration, passive cooling strategies, natural materials, and appropriate structure. Climate responsive design also creates a sense of identity.

Based on the fundamentals from the vemacular houses, guidelines for contemporary housing ahn to provide comfort and well-being while lessening burdens of the environment. The guidelines consider sustainable issues, including building orientation, site layout, passive design, suitable material, and appropriate structurc in the Vietnam hot humid climatc without limiting design creativity. The points in brief are summarised in the following table (Table I).

Table 1. Climate responsive strategies ofthe vemaeular design applicable to eontemporary houses.

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References Institute of International Culture - Showa Women's University. (2003). Kien truc

pho co Hoi-An (Architecture 01 Ho i-An Ancient Town). Hanoi, Vietnam:

World PubJisher.

Lauber, W. P., Cheret, P., Ferstl, K., & Ribbeek, E. (2005). Tropical architecture: sustainable and humane building in Alrica, Latin America and South-East Asia. Munieh; New York: Prestel.

Nguyen, B. D., Nguyen, V. P., & Ta, H. V. (2007). Rural folk dwelling houses in Viet Nam. Vietnamese Studies, Vol 43(2), pp.5-34.

Nguyen, B. D., & Nguyen, V. T. (1995). Nha 0 nong thon, fruyen thong va cai

lien (Rural housing. tradition and innovation). Hanoi, Vietnam:

Construetion Publisher.

Nguyen, K. (2007). Mun dua - Vat lieu xay dung nha eho nguoi thu nhap thap (Coeonut husks - Housing Materials for Low Ineome Inhabitants) (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 15 January 2010, from http://www.bentre.gov.vn/index.php?option=com_ eontent&task=view& id= 1675&Itemid=41 Nguyen, V. H., & Hoang, V. (J 975). Nhung trong dong Dong Son da phat hien 0 Viet Nam (Dong Son Bronze Drums discovered in Vietnam) (in Vietnamese). Hanoi, Vietnam: Vien Bao Tang Lieh Su Viet Nam (The National Museum ofVietnam History).

Rapoport, A. (2006). Vemaeular Design as a Model System. In Lyndsay Asquith & M. Vellinga (Eds.), Vernacular Architecture in the Tewnty-First Century Theory, Education and Practice. USA and Canada: Taylor & Francis.

Thai, Q. T. (2005). Nhung dac diem va gia tri ve kien truc - quy hoach nha 0 dan gian cua cac lang truyen thong linh Quang Nam (Architectural and planning characteristics and values 01 vernacular housing in traditional villages in Quang Nam province) (Master Thesis in Vietnamese). Hanoi University of Civil Engineering, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Tran, N. T. (1999). Co so van hoa Vietnam (Foundations 01 Vietnamese Culture) (in Vietnamese). Hanoi, Vietnam: Edueation Publishing House.

Vietnam Govemment Website. Retrieved 03 May 2010, from http://www.chinhphu.vn Vietnam Ministry of Construetion. (1985). Climatic data lor building design.

Retrieved 22 Deeember 2009. trom http://texdvn.xaydung.gov.vnlTCXDVN/TCXDVN.NSF/START?openf rameset.

Vietnam News Ageney on website of the Ministry of Construetion. (2009).

Trung tu di tieh Hue bang eong nghe vua voi truyen thong (Restoring Hue Monuments with traditional mortar teehnology) (in Vietnamese).

13/0112010, from http://www.moe.gov.vn/site/moclems?

306 Phuong Ly, Janis Birkeland &Nur Demirbilek

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Decoding tbe DNA of Places towards Exploring a Deeper Layer of Urban Sustainability Dalia Taha 1, Gasser Gamil 2 ofA reh itecture, October 6 Un i vers ity, Egypf I Department 2Department ofArchitecture, Misr International University (MI U), EgJpt Abstract Traditional valuable urban places enhance Dur understanding, enjoyment 01' our surroundings, and contribute to our sense of place, sense 01' identity and general well-being, Therefore, those urban places are not only a concern 01' urban sustainability, but they can be seen as the essence of sustainability with its inherent characteristics addressing both cultural and ecological contexts, For the purpose of urban sustainability in such places, there is a need to decode the architecture and urban patterns and characters to reach the DNA 01' sLlch places in order to explore a deeper layer of its identity and get a set ofbasic place dimensions that give the character 01' sustainability, The idea behind decoding the DNA of the built environment could be perceived as exploring meaning and values that constitutes those environments and generate its building codes and vocabularies in order to be able to reproduce these environments again,

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1 Introduction: The Era ofUrban Sustainability Sustainable development means simply that in agiobai context any econornic or social development should improve, not harm, the environment. The goal of sustainability, therefore, is mainly to sustain human communities by development that does not destroy the fundamental environmental life supports systems. The field of sustainable development can be conceptually broken into threc constituent parts: environmental sustainability, econornic sustainability and sociopolitical sustainability, as shown in (see Figure I).

Urban sustainability involves new expanded urban and architectural design proccsses, which look beyond concems with the external appearance of development to consider aspects of relationship of buildings and spaces between buildings or betwccn the public and private realms. Figure 1: Sustainable development made of three constituent parts Tbe sustainable design process will benefit from the collective genius of all the individual stake holders. Tbus, for the architect and urban developer, both challenges and opportunities will greatly increase in the design and management of the sustainable city of the future. This includes needs for crcativity, safety and security, shelter and a healthy living environment.

In this context, a complete theory and process for generating and operating a sustainable city has emerged, which put five operating principles 10 the sustainable city by defining sustainability as: aloeal, infonned, participatory, balance-seeking process, operating within an equitable ecological region, exporting no problems beyond its territory or into the future.

Tbe definition starts by identifying the "place", where sustainability could happen; "Sustainability is a local". "Local" is to be read as a place (a neighborhood, a city or a region) where sustainability achieved. This place defined the largest scale capable of addressing the many urban architcctural, social, econornic, political and other imbalances, and simultaneously, it is the smallest scale at which such problems can be resolved in an integrated approach.

The sustainability of such a place depends on aseries of factors which contribute to the quality of life, seuse of place and recognition of identity.

2 Place in Sustainability Place can be seen as the essence of sustainability with i1s inherent characteristics addressing both cultural and ecological contexts. Tbc use of the Place concept is Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 309 proposed as a holistic and integmted approach to sustainability projects specifically for developing mban design for sustainability. It is a way of looking at issues from the point of view of human experience, where all design stmtegies are structured and interrelated for human perception. understanding and action in everyday existence. (Moser. G.& etal. 2003) In the following sections of this paper, an intensive study of "Place" would be carried out to cover the four basic elements that must exist in order for place to be experienced as meaningful partner in urban sustainability process. These four elements are man, cullure, nature and space. We strive to understand ourselves and our life by understanding our position within the world, and thc relationship that exists between man and nature. Arehiteeture strives to refleet this relationship and understanding that we have ofthe world. We buHd to ereate asense of plaee, and with the help of "place as tool" it may be possible to understand sustainability as an interdisciplinary ficld foeused on the interplay between humans and their surroundings.

3 Meaning and Significance of Place Plaee, is a rieh eoneept and a very diffieult word to define beeause it relates not only to the physieal surroundings but also the mental ones too. (Wilson, 1997), pointed out, "Place is a physieal geographical entity, a "portion of spaee in whieh people dweIl together" as weIl as a "position in a social order", The eoneept of plaee ean be understood from two perspectives. In one sense.

place is the concrele setting for human lives, lt gathers people in wehs of aetivities and meanings and provides the physical expression ofpeople's cultures in the form of landscapes. It is thus the loeal settings which is fundamental in the everyday lives of individuals, and at the same time. provides the eontext for eolleetive aets of the eommunity, In another sense, plaee ma)' be thought of as a "eontinuous proeess of beeorning" (Pred, 1984). This means that plaee-making 1S not eonfined to here and now, or in other words, it is not eonfined to the eonerete settings of the present. but mtller, it includes plaees of past experiences (memory), those whieh be inherent in the imagination, or even those plaees, which exist in simulations and ieonographies (re-presentations). In fact plaee is often eonstituted by a nesting of different. but overlapping, images and interpretations.

Place also has multiplicity of meanings. As (Goss. 1988) suggests: people "'read" and "write" different languages in the buHt environment". Such multi­ eoded meanings take shape at both the personalized and collectivized levels.

Places ean maintain a position of signifieance for individuals because of preserving personalized memo ries and they are centers of everyday routines, At the same time. collective emotions, memo ries. and attitudes to~ can accord meaning to place. The resultant social places, or "communal sites", as Dalia Taha & Gasser Gami!

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