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«CSAAR (7: 2010: Amman) Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development \ Edited by Steffen Lehmann, Husam Al Waer, Jamal AI-Qawasmi. Amman: The Center ...»

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Outdoor spaces' area has played a role in determining the kind of activities, hosted. In Jericho, the most common outdoor social activities are gardening and guest welcoming. Gardening is still a retlection of agricultural image of this oasis settlement (Nazer, 2006), while in Nablus, family members' gatherings and washings' hanging are the most common. Receiving guests outside was classified as a third activity although the guest room is more connected to the exterior spaces than the living room.

The courtyard can provide a safe place for children to play under the elders' supervision (Reynolds, 2002), whereas in the modern outdoor spaces children play out in the streets, so a kid's playground was a priority for more than 75% of residents in the future housing, as it may enhance social interactions among neighbors and provide security for children (Marcus & Sarkissian, 1986).

3.5 Environmental considerations

The bioclimatic analysis of the two cities demonstrates the necessity for solar gain in winter, and natural summer ventilation in Nablus, while both of a solar protection and preventing the diurnal ventilation in summer are highly demanded in Jericho. Moreover, compact plans with courtyards are recommended as a layout and design concept for buildings (Haj Hussein, 2005).

The courtyard, besides its socio-cultural role, can provide a convenient outdoor microclimate and comfortable interior conditions if design details were taken into account (Givoni, 1998). The spatial analysis of the traditional Palestinian housing, especially in Nablus, revealed that the inward looking of house,s spaces and the opened windows into the courtyard have ensured an access to natural sunlight and winds, where the openings onto the exterior were reduced to the minimum.

Figure (10) illustrates the frequent spatial organization of the traditional courtyard house. In addition to the northern openness ofliving room (Iwan) into the courtyard in order to make use ofthe northwest cool summer winds gathered in the courtyard, it has been oriented towards south for more sunlight in winter.

In Jericho, the orientation of the house wasn't precise, where the urban fabric and boundaries have generally intluenced it.

Muhannad Haj Hussein, Aline Barlet & Catherine Semidor

–  –  –

The inward concept has assessed the indoor spaces with an opportunity of 360 0 of orientation, regardless of the extern al surroundings, which helped in controlling and modifying the amount of daylight and clear air penetrating the courtyard and its surrounding spaces as desired (Bagneid, 1988).

Nowadays, outdoor spaces' orientation is determined by the implantation of building on the site and the number of apartment per floor rather than the past climatic factors (sun and winds). However, over (40%) ofoutdoor spaces have a west orientation that may be useful for tackling the hot summer impacts, especially in Nablus, where the dominant winds come from the northwest, but that's not the case in lericho where east and north winds are prevailing in summer. Moreover, diurnal ventilation is not recommended due to the high air temperature that could deteriorate the internal thermal comfort of houses (Haj Hussein, 2005).

Furthermore, about (40 %) of current Iiving rooms, especially in Nablus, are isolated in the center ofthe house. As a result, (96%) ofthe occupants in lericho and (57%) in Nablus use artificial air conditioning in summer while (65%) ofthe respondents in lericho and (78%) in Nablus need heating devices inside their living units in winter time in a way to enhance both the low lighting level and thermal discomfort, although these devices are high-priced and energy consumer.

Landscape, which improves aesthetics inside traditional courtyard, has created a pleasant outdoor environment. Fountains and trees (e.g. citrus and palm) (Figure 11), were used to ensure a shaded place, humidify and cool air.

Hence, the courtyard fulfilled its real function as a living space for family in interaction with nature.

Sustainable Arcrutecture and Utban Development 283

Figure 11: Landscaping inside the traditional courtyard.

Nowadays, landscape is minimized in outdoor spaces, especially in apartment, to smaU flowerpots. at the time. having a small private garden represent a strong desire for most residents. Furthermore, the unplanted and leftover spaces around the housing blocks and wide streets are considered as a source of heat island problem in the city (Givoni, 1998), while the compact courtyard houses, shaded and narrow streets in the traditional city have reduced the influence of trus phenomenon.

Tbe presence of a courtyard has helped to reduce energy consumption where indoor environment was more comfortable than the apartment blocks, where a rugh-energ)! consumption has been observed.

4 ConcJusion

Trus paper has studied the role of outdoor spaces in the Palestinian housing design in terms of sustainability through examining the current housing outdoor spaces characteristics, as weIl as social features based on residents' satisfaction.

The survey' s results showed that outdoor spaces could playa significant role for promoting future Palestinian housing living quality under certain conditions.

Environment and trdditions are pre-requisites for sustainable solutions (Eben Saleh, 2004). Hence, the courtyard is a sustainable strategy where it was able to reconcile the different needs and goals of sustainable qualities (e.g. efficient use of resources, privacy, healthy, safe and usable spaces, etc.). Considering reintegrating this strategy in future Palestinian housing will be rughly appreciated.





Privacy, size, usage, spatial organization, orientation and climatic conditions played a significant role in the contemporary outdoor spaces' effidency as weH as in the traditional courtyard. Neglecting such criteria in future designs can lead again to their under-performance today. Moreover, such spaces can improve the dwellings' comfort when used as a passive solar heating or cooling means, according to the clirnatic zone.

It's worth to mention that only qualitative aspects have been discussed in Ihis paper. Further quantitative studies pertaining outdoor spaces and housing design Muhannad Haj Hussein, Aline Barlet & Catherine Semidor are necessary to develop new models that may lead to satisfaction regarding inside and outside private spaces quality.

References

Ahmad, T. (2008). Style analysis for dwellings in Palestine in Ottoman period:

case study Nablus city. Msc. Dissertation, Nablus: An Najah National University.

Amad, E. (2003). Traditional concepts and New Housing Design in Palestine.

Open House International Journal, 28(3), 58-67.

Applied Research Institute of JerusaJem. (2003). Climatic zoning for energy efficient buildings in the Palestinian territories (the West Bank and Gaza). Unpublished Report, JerusaJem: ARIJ.

Awad, J. (2003). The Palestinian architecture. Lecture master's notes. Nablus:

An Najah National University.

Azab, K. (2008). Residential architecture in Islamic civilization. Journal Islam

Today, 25. Retrieved from:

http://www.isesco.org.malenglish/publ ications/Islamtoday/25/p 1O.php Bada, Y. (2006). New Design Thinking For Contemporary Courtyard Housing.

In B. Edwards, M. Sibley, M. Hakmi & P. Land (Eds.), Courtyard housing: Past, present andfoture (pp.29I - 302). New York: Taylor & Francis.

Bagneid, A. (1989). Indigenous residential court yards: typology, morphology and biocHmates. In N. Alsayyad & J. P. Bourdier (Eds.), Traditional Dwellings and Settlements in a Comparative Perspective: Vol. 6. The Courtyard as Dwelling (pp. 39-57). Berkeley: Center for Environmental Design Research, University of California.

Canaan, T. (1933). The Palestinian Arab House: its architecture and folklore.

Journal ofthe Palestinian oriental society, XII: 223--47,XIIl: 1-83.

Eben Saleh, M. A. (2004). Learning from tradition: the planning of residential neighbourhoods in achanging world. Habitat International, 28 (4), 625-639.

Evans, M. (1980). Housing, climate and comfort. London: The Architectural Press.

Ghadban, S. (1998). Contemporary Housing in Palestine: the Potential for Future Adaptation. Open House International Journal, 23(2), 37- 49.

Givoni, B. (1998). Climate considerations in building and urban design.

Canada: 1. Wiley & Sons.

Haj Hussein, M. (2005). La Dimension Climatique dans l'Architecture Traditionnelle Palestinienne. MSc. Dissertation, Bordeaux: GRECAU, ENSAP-Bx.

Sustainable Architecture and Urban 285 Hanbali, M., Yamin, H., Yasin, M., & Kilani, K. (1999). The mud houses, BSc. research of 3rd year, Nablus: An Najah National University.

Khasawneh, D. (200 I). Memoire engraved in stone: Palestinian urban mansions. Ramallah, Palestine: RIWAQ.

Marcus, C. C., & Sarkissian, W. (1986). Housing as rfpeople mattered: site

design guidelines for medium-densi~y family housing. Berkeley:

University ofCalifomia Press.

Martin, L., & March, L. (1972). Urban space and stnlctures. Cambridge, UK:

Cambridge University Press.

Nazer, S. (2006). Analyses et Diagnostics urbains sur la ville de Jericho:

Premieres orientations, Msc. Dissertation, Rennes: l'Institut de l'Urbanisme aRennes.

Olgyay, V. (1963). Design with climate bioclimatic approach and architectural regionalism. New Jersey: Princeton University press.

Ozaki, R. (2002). Housing as a Reflection of Culture: Privatised Living and Privacy in England and Japan, Housing Studies, J7(2), 209 227.

Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. (2008). kfeteorological Conditions in the Palestinian Territory. Annual Report 2007, Ramallah.

Raman, M. (2005). Sustainable design: an American perspective. In B.

Kolarevic & A. Malkawi (Eds.), Performative architecture: beyond instrumentaliry (pp. 41 - 54). New York: Spon Press.

Rapoport, A. (1969). Hause form and culture. New Jersey: Prentice-HaIl, Englewood Cliffs.

Rapoport, A. (1980). Vernacular architecture and the cultural determinants of form. In A. D. King (Ed.), Building and sociery (pp. 283-305).

London: Routledge.

Reynolds, J. (2002). Courtyards: Aesthetic, social and thermal delight. New York: John Wiley Touffaha, A. (2009). The Effect of the Bui/ding Acts and Laws on the Urban Environment of Palestine: case study residential bui/ding in Nablus.

Msc. Dissertation, Nablus: An Najah National University.

Wheeler, S. (1998). Planning sustainable and livable cities. In R. T. Legates & F. Stout (Eds.), The Ciry Reader (pp. 434-445). London: Routledge.

Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development Applying Environmentally Responsive Characteristics of Vernacular Architecture to Sustainable Housing in Vietnam Phuong Lyl, Janis Birkeland l, Nur Demirbilek l IQueensland University ofTechnology, Brisbane, Australia Abstract Over many centuries of settlement, Vietnamese inhabitants have developed a vemacular architecture that is weil adapted to the region's climatic and topographical conditions. Vemacular Vietnamese housing uses natural systems to create a built environment that integrates weil with nature. The vemacular combines site-sensitive, passive solar design, natural materials and appropriate structure to achieve harmony among nature, humans and the built environment.

Unfortunately, these unique features have not been applied in contemporary Vietnamese architecture, which displays energy-intensive materials and built forms. This research is analysing how environmentally-responsive elements of vemacular architecture could be applied to modem sustainable housing in Vietnam. Elements of many types of vemacular architecture throughout the country are reviewed as precedents for future building planning and design. The paper also looks at culturally and ecologically appropriate legislative and voluntary options for encouraging more sustainable housing.

Keywords: vernacular architecture. environmentally responsive design, sustainable housing.

288 Phuong Ly, Janis Birkeland &Nur Demirbilek

1 Introduction



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