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«CSAAR (7: 2010: Amman) Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development \ Edited by Steffen Lehmann, Husam Al Waer, Jamal AI-Qawasmi. Amman: The Center ...»

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Such farms founded on the principle of sustainable production of bamboo would allow generating sustainable livelihoods for Iocal cultivators, artisans, manufacturers and entrepreneurs.

The farm can work as a model of how bamboo cultivation can be part of the rural environment and serve a variety of domestic and community needs of a village.

It can also work as an educational centre tor documentation, research, exhibition and dissemination (ADPC, 2005).

6 Methodology

Currently, the field study of Bangladesh traditional bamboo houses are done on several number of bamboo houses at rural and suburban areas in Bangladesh.

For environmental study, temperature and humidity data are taken by thermal data logger (HOBO). Set of thermal data logger was installed in one of the selected Bangladesh traditional bamboo house. Thermal Data loggers were installed in the selected house in the three zones, namely upper space, indoor living space and outdoor of the house. The remote data loggers recorded data with the help of external sensors. Data were recorded at every five minutes interval. The controlling software assigns range of the logger interval. The loggers are initiated by software Box Car Pro 4.0. The software is required for the downloading of data from the data loggers and in making the graph; and exporting data to excel file. Excel software also used for data analyses.

Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 269

7 Thermal performance study

Thermal performance study of bamboo house was done at Dhaka for one month.

The initial finding of the research is that the traditional Bangladesh bamboo house is comfortable at night in hot summer season. It is summarized that when upper space window opening's increases than indoor and outdoor temperature difference decreases during summer day time. The maximum indoor temperature is recorded 29.5°C when outdoor and upper space temperature is 29.95°C. Indoor minimum temperature was recorded 26.6°C when the outdoor and upper space was 27.12°C. The indoor temperature is always lower then outdoor and upper space. But the upper space temperature chronologically becomes higher in respect of increasing of upper space window opening. The difference between indoor and outdoor temperature decrease because of heat starts to transmit from hot upper spaces to cool indoor living spaces. According to this phenomenon from the tabulation, it is indicated that it has sufficient difference between indoor and outdoor temperatures during summer nights. So the upper space influences the indoor Iiving space for heat gain and heat loss. During winter season closed window in upper space is desirable for better thermal performance.

Figure 6: Profile of outdoor and indoor temperature 01' a bamboo house.

8 Conclusion This research concludes according to case studies 01' the significant design features and use of local material in traditional bamboo houses, which make it more durable, available, cheap and natural light weight material, aesthetically appealing design, attic space for thermal comfort, proper cross ventilation and Md. Sayem khan & Ruman Rashid renewable construction system of the Bangladesh traditional bamboo house makes it more sustainable in warm humid tropical climate in Bangladesh. The bamboo house form has been defined by climate, site, and purpose, building technology, historical experience and world view. The best material to build a house wills definitely the local material. By applying the unlimited technology nowadays on the gift of the AlIah- Bamboo, this natural bamboo as a raw material have a very high potential to be co me the best construction material in future for sustainable development in the Bangladesh.

Acknowledgment In the name of Allah, the most Gracious, the most Merciful, for giving us the determination and will to complete this study. 1 am also grateful to Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

References ADPC, Hand Book on "Design and Construction of Housing on Flood Pom Rural Area of Bangladesh", 2005, Bermingham,A. Landscape and Ideology, The English rustic tradition 1740­ I 860.Berkiey (University of Califomia Press) in pamikkar, R J 986 Koenigsberger, et al, Manual of tropical Housing and Building Design, Part I, Orient Long man, 1973.

Kolokotroni, V. ct al, ed., "Modemism: An anthology of source and documents.

Edinburgh'" Edinburgh university press. 1998 Lean, G. Atlas ofthe Environment, Arrow books Ltd., London, 1990 Rumana Rashid, Mohd. Hamdan Bin Ahmed "Significant and Efficient Features of The Bangladesh Traditional House", iNTA-SAGA 2009: Bridging Innovation, Technology and Tradition, Bangkok, Thailand 2009 UNESCO (Unitcd Nations Educational, Scicntific and cultural Organisation) Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 271 Courtyard Concept: A Sustainable Strategy for The Future Housing Buildings in Palestine.

Muhannad Haj Hussein, AHne Barlet, Catherine Semidor GRECA U Laboratory, ENSAP Bordeaux, France.

Abstract Since the British mandate, partieularly after the foundation of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) in 1994, Palestine has been witnessing enormous political, eeonomieal, soeial and cuItural transformation refleeted in residenees' forms moving from introverted into extroverted sehernes. In general, eontemporary housing is poorly responsive to loeal eonditions and also failed to meet the dwellers' expeetations. Moreover, this modem transformation has caused an obvious divorce between the internat and the external spaces (balconies, verandas and yards). Herein, the vital connection between these spaces has been lost compared to the traditional eourtyard houses where they formed an extension of each other. This paper investigates the concept of outdoor spaces in contemporary and traditional housing in terms of sustainability. The socio-cultural, eeonomical, functional and environmental dimensions were examined to find out the feasibility 01' reviving the courtyard concept in the future designs. Survey results of (300) modern dwellings of different housing typologies (detached/apartment flats) and the analyzed characteristics of traditional architecture, were the base for a comparative study between traditional and contemporary outdoor spaees' features in two different climatic zones Palestinian cities. Results of paper demonstrate that the traditional outdoor spaces are culturally, economically and environmentally responsive designs that could be reintegrated in terms of sustainability in future Palestinian housing. Traditional architecture is still the source of inspiration to every environmentally and culturally responsive housing, and a short path to enhance the inhabitants' quality oflife.

Keywords: Sustainable design. Courtyard, Modern Outdoor spaces, Housing building, Palestine.

Muhannad Haj Hussein, Aline Barlet & Catherine Semidor

–  –  –

Sustainability in buildings means minimizing resources consumption (i.e. water, energy and materials) and increasingly, it also means maximizing the health, safety and quality of life for building occupants (Raman, 2005). Herein, the efficient use of resources is generally an environmental concern and the provision of safe, healthy, productive and usable spaces are social, economical and functional concerns. Therefore, sustainability represents a group of ideas about the balance of economic, social and environmental issues of a lifestyle.

Hence, houses are not only physical space for living, but also a social interactions and rituals place (Ozaki, 2002). Although housing typologies depend on multiple determinants, climate and culture are most crucial (Rapoport, 1969;

Olgyay, 1963). In this perspective, outdoor space, which is a buffer zone between inside and outside a building, could provide a safe place for organizing their socio-cultural activities in the favorable climatic conditions.

Traditionally, a central courtyard open to sky, which is locally called Hosh, was! ed-dar and sahn ed-dar, represented the Palestinian private outdoor space (Canaan, 1933), which functions as spatial organizing element due to its location in the heart of a dwelling, and as multi-purpose spaces, including circulation, children's playground, eating, sleeping, relaxing, entertaining, family and women meeting and guest welcoming, in addition to providing shade for the interior spaces, reducing the direct heat from the sun and collecting cool air (Evans, 1980). Simultaneously, it is highly protected from curious pedestrians, preserving high levels of privacy.

However, since the British mandate, Palestinian architecture has transformed gradually from clustered units with central courtyard (introverted scheme), into scattered and detached buildings with small balconies or verandas (extroverted scheme), due to land shortage, and growing demands on dwellings, ignoring issues related to social, cultural and ecological values of the Palestinian society for the sake of cost, rapidity and aesthetic issues (Ghadban, 1998).

Today, the multistory building design (5-6 floors) is adopted as a residential model in Palestine, where balconies, verandas and ground yards represent the dominant forms of the outdoor spaces, the only outlet to nature for closed housing units due to lack of open spaces at the city level. But it, somehow, failed to compete the traditional ones (in terms of cultural, social and environmental aspects), while the vital connection between outdoor and indoor spaces, has been lost in today's housing. Hence, if traditional architecture is analyzed in terms of concepts such as responses to climate and site, spatial distribution of public and private spaces, cultural identity, etc., then lessons could be derived and applied to contemporary designs (Rapoport, 1980).

This paper suggests that areturn to traditional architectural strategy of courtyards in modem apartment blocks can improve their sustainability.

Moreover, the paper is intended to reveal the distinctive qualities of traditional outdoor spaces in comparison to the modem ones, and explore potentials for Sustainable Arehiteeture and Urban Development addressing them in future housing to promote living quality from socio­ environmental perspeetives.

2 Methodology and Case Studies

2.1 Three sets of data The study"s methodology eonsists of three sets of data: sites' elimatie eharaeteristies, dwellings' spatial analysis and a questionnaire used to identify features needed for sustainable future housing in Palestine. Climatie eharaeteristies showed how houses responded to site's mieroelimate. The spatial analysis showed how houses have been designed to meet users' needs.

The questionnaire was built by researehers from the laboratory GRECAU. lt aims at evaluating the socio-eultural and environmental eharaeteristies of the contemporary housing, and the role of private outdoor spaees, besides determining the signifieant charaeteristics of future housing typologies and outdoor spaees design in terms of sustainability. It eontains 56 c1osed-ended and

open-ended questions distributed on three domains:

Soeio-demographic (age, sex, family members' number, income level, housewife's status, ete) and housing (general housing features, housing fadlity charaeteristics, future residents' priorities and needs) eharaeteristics.

2- Outdoor spaees characteristics included typology, area, spatial relationship, sodal aetivities, usage periods, residents' satisfaction, individual modifications and future priorities.

3- Interior spaces characteristics included spaces orientation, spatial distribution, spaces area, windows size, natural lighting and ventilation conditions, heating and air conditioning consumption and future residential demands.

The sampies of contemporary housing were selected randomly from different neighborhood covering different housing typologies (detached houses, apartment blocks). The fulfilled questionnaires, (240 in Nablus and 60 in Jericho), were collected the next day of distribution, analysis using the frequency distribution method. Only relative questions were investigated in this paper.

The traditional housing characteristics were derived from an analytical study of the eities' historical sites. Plans, elevations and seetions of traditional houses were studied and analyzed in terms of eonceptual, functional and environmental aspeets.

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