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«CSAAR (7: 2010: Amman) Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development \ Edited by Steffen Lehmann, Husam Al Waer, Jamal AI-Qawasmi. Amman: The Center ...»

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The earth is a material that lends itself weH to these demands because respects the environment, is fully recyclable, prevents the relationship with the trade monopoly, allows greater flexibility in the architectural choices, it can maintain and renew the traditions and the expressive languages enough to lend itself to the self-construction. The limit dictated by the long execution times can be killed with the help of semi mechanical processes, such as the use of pneumatic compactors for the rammed earth construction or manual presses for the mud brick production. These methods, decreasing the water amount needed, considerably reducing the natural drying time and make the raw earth a competitive material on the building market. One factor to be reckoned is the economic, because building a house with traditional material costs about half of a cement house and the cost is further cut down if you used the self-construction.

242 Eliana Baglioni

References

Abdulac, S. (1982). Traditional housing design in the Arab Countries. In. M. B.

Sevcenko (Ed), Urban Housing (pp. 2-9). Cambridge, Massachusetts:

Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture. Retrieved from ArchNet:

Islamic Architecture Community database.

Al Bena'a, A. (1999). Hot Dry Region Housing Characteristics in the Arid-Hot Dry Region (2). In I. M. Abdelbaki (Ed), Hot Dry Region Housing

Characteristics in the Arid-Hot Dry Region (pp. 6-8). Cairo, Egypt:

Center for Planning and Architectural Studies. Retrieved from:

ArchNet: lslamic Architecture Community database.

Anzalone, M. (2005). TamnougauIt, Valle dei Draa (Marocco), from transitory presupposed to permanent life style: knowlwdge's elements of an uncontrolJed» settling sistem. In AA. VV. (Ed), Proceedings of the Forum UNESCO: Ist International Research Seminar on Architetctural Heritage and Sustainable Development of Small and Medium Cities in South Mediterranean Regions, Result and strategies of research and cooperation (pp. 71-83). Florence, ItaIy: Ets.

Baglioni, E. (2009). Tecniche costruttive in terra cruda nella ValJe deI Draa, Marocco, unpublished graduation thesis, Architecture Faculty of Florence University, Italy.

Biondi, B. (2005). Morfologia degli elementi costruttivi a TamnougauIt, Marocco. In AA. VV. (Ed), Proceedings of the Forum UNESCO: Ist International Research Seminar on Architetctural Heritage and Sustainable Development of Small and Medium Cities in South Mediterranean Regions, Result and strategies of research and eooperation (pp. 157-169). Florence, Italy: Ets Bounar, A. & Chahid, A. (2004). Les edifices prives de l'habitat traditionnel Le modele arehitectural. In A.A.V.V & Adedra (Ed), Tresors et merveilIes de la Vallee du Draa (pp. 46-47). Zagora, Maroc: Marsam.

Work supported by UNESCO within the framework of "The Sahara of cultures and peoples".

Bourgeois, L. (1988). Communal cooling: simulating the underground in a southern moroccan town. Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamie Environmental Design Research Centre, 1-2, 48-51. Retrieved from ArchNet: Islamic Architecture Community database.

Caltabiano I. & De Filippi F. (2005). Analisi di una tipologia abitativa nello ksar di Tamnougault. Rit1essioni apartire da un'indagine sul campo. In AA.

VV. (Ed), Proceedings of the Forum UNESCO: Ist International Research Seminar on Architetctural Heritage and Sustainable Development of Small and Medium Cities in South Mediterranean Regions, Result and strategies ofreseareh and cooperation (pp. 93-106).

Florence, Italy: Ets.

Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development Cataldi, G. (1988). Le Ragioni deli' Abitare - Le Raisons de r Habiter, italian­ french bilingual text with english abstracts. Florence, Italy: Alinea.

Dalla Casa, V. (2009). Morfologia e linguaggio dell'Architettura in terra cruda.

Retrieved March 2, 2009 from http://www.ariannaeditrice.itlartico lo.php?id_ articolo=24856 Lucci. G. & Dania, S. (2005). La kasbah deI Caid di Tamnougault, analisi tipologica e costruttiva. In AA. VV. (Ed), Proceedings of the Forum UNESCO: I st International Research Seminar on Architetctural Heritage and Sustainable Development of Small and Medium Cities in South Mediterranean Regions, Result and strategies of research and cooperation (pp. 133-144). Florence, Italy: Ets.

Marrani, L. (2005). La kasbah della famiglia Ait EI Molehtar nello ksar di Tamnougault: rappresentazione grafica e analisi degli elementi architettonici e strutturali di una costruzione in terra. In AA. VV. (Ed), Proceedings of the Forum UNESCO: 1st International Researeh Seminar on Architetetural Heritage and Sustainable Development of Small and Medium Cities in South Mediterranean Regions, Result and

strategies of research and cooperation (pp. t07 -118). Florence, Italy:

Ets.

Sanchez, N. R. (2005). La kasbah «Igmi Mkaram (dei Pozo) en el ksar de Tamnougault (Marruecos). In AA. VV. (Ed), Proceedings ofthe Forum UNESCO: 1st International Research Seminar on Architetctural Heritage and Sustainable Development of Small and Medium Cities in South Mediterranean Regions, Result and strategies of research and cooperation (pp. 119-131). Florence, Italy: Ets.

Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development 245 Sustainable Application of Solar Energy in Bangladesh Traditional Houses Rumana Rashid University Technology Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia Abstract The concept of design and minimum use of energy in Bangladesh Traditional House is obtaining a comfortable living within comfort zone. The aim is fully achieved as with the use of natural resource and the latest technology. The Bangladesh Traditional House provides an affordable and comfortable indoor microclimate. The thermal performance of the traditional house was done recently in Bangladesh. A set of thermal data logger is used for six months thermal data collection. The selected test house has a built-up area of 37.8sqm including two bed rooms with small living area. Several numbers of case studies was selected from different area of Bangladesh. The design strategy of the house is enhancing with constant uncomfortable hours use of weIl specified extra efficient technology, to further minimise energy use of the Bangladesh Traditional House (BTH). The amount of energy needed by a house depends on the overall energy requirements and efficiency of the building systems(Alexander,1984). The use of the renewable source of energy from solar radiation is efficient to solve this problem now in Bangladesh. The result of the minimum use of solar energy can make the Bangladesh Traditional House (BTH) more comfortable, economical and sustainable. It reduces poverty by applying the renewable solar energy use

–  –  –





1 Introduction The bioclimatic architectural design strategy of the traditional house forms and their inspiration are undeniably important to document. Bangladesh traditional houses represent a unique phenomenon, with devices capable to meet the comfort demand through environmental well-adapted design features. Traditionally housing is designed by the user in his spare, time and based on low investment, local materials, combined with the assistance of relations, friends and neighbours. The green architecture of the future will be shaped by an approach to site and materials typical of the vernacular traditions (Brenda 1991). The practice of drawing on traditional architecture to inform contertJporary design has been promoted by many theorists and distinguished arch itects such as Hasan Fathy (Steele, 1988). Among other advantages they claim, is the benefit to be derived from centuries of experience in adapting form and material selection to achieve comfort in relation to the local climate. Contemporary dwellings which are thermally inefficient and expensive to run, are replacing traditional village housing which is light weight, cool, made ofrenewable materials and able to be built largely by sweat equity (Kevin Mc Cartery, 2006). The different kinds of houses were developed in different climatic regions of Bangladesh such as mud houses, bamboo houses, stilts houses and timber houses (Rumana, 2007). Minimum use of energy in Bangladesh Traditional House (BTH) is obtaining a comfortable living with an internal temperature of around 24°C­ 32°C while relative humidity range is 50% 90% according to Mallik, 1994 comfort range. Thermal performance comparison between BTH and contemporary house result further mention that heavyweight materials in contemporary house such as brick, concrete and tiles have higher thermal capacity with longer thermal-lag compared to light weight materials in BTH. (Rumana, Hamdan, 2010). BTH thermal performance done by Rumana and Hamdan (2008) reported that during daytime indoor temperature is higher than indoor comfort range only for short time 5 to 6 hours, but after sunset it become comfortable very quickly. The goal is fully achieved as by the use of natural solar resource and the latest technology wh ich provides an affordable and comfortable indoor microclimate.

Energy is considered an enabling medium for economic development.

Energy helps people in eooking, heating or eooling their hornes, pumping water, lighting houses and workplaees, receiving information and getting entertainment. Energy is also closely linked to health care, edueational attainment, job ereation and climate change. There are many regions in the rural area with a limited accessibility to grid based electricity. Due to economic, geographie and other faetors, conventional grid may not be viable for a few decades. Due to economic, geographie and other factors, Sustainable Architecture and Urban 247 conventional grid may not be viable for a few decades. Renewable Specially Solar photovoltaic based electricity generation may be a viable technical option for meeting lighting and other low-energy needs of people living in these rural and remote areas. Renewable based electricity would normally provide clean, safe and environmentally friendly electricity. Especially PV can also have many positive impacts in terms of education, community welfare, employment and income generation. Energy conscious BTH is not only reducing the house's loads but also makes economic sense to a house owner. The design strategy of the traditional house is enhancing with constant uncomfortable hours use of weil spedfied extra effident renewable technology such as solar energy, to further minimise energy use of the Bangladesh Traditional House (BTH). It reduces poverty by applying the renewable solar energy use in Bangladesh.

2 The Climate of Bangladesh

Climate as environmental element is different will generate immeasurable quality (Olgyay, 1973; In Xu, 2004). The climate of Bangladesh, based on the widely used classification by Atkinson (Koenigsberger, 1973), is categorized as warm-humid. Meteorologically the climate of Bangladesh is categorizcd into four distinct seasons -- winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon (Hossain & Nooruddin, 1993). The winter months-December to February, are characterized by infrequent rains, cold northerly winds, mean temperature 21°C and maximum below 26°C. In the northern part of the country, the minimum temperature in winter often drops below IOOC.

The pre-monsoon period covers the months March, April and May and is characterized by occasional thunderstorms, and a maximum temperature of 34°C. The monsoon is the longest season covering the months lune to September. aperiod with torrential rains 781mm to 1499 mm recorded in Dhaka, with the average relative humidity above 80% and an average temperature of 31 oe. The post-monsoon season ranges between the months October and November. It is also regarded as a transitional period with infrequent rains and temperatures be10w 30°C.

–  –  –

3.1 Description of the Selected House The selected test house has a built-up area of 37.8sqm including two bed rooms with smallliving area.

The selected house is surrounded by similar type of traditional house on the north and south side at respective orientations. The west and east sides (figure 1) are facing 105m road.

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