«CSAAR (7: 2010: Amman) Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development \ Edited by Steffen Lehmann, Husam Al Waer, Jamal AI-Qawasmi. Amman: The Center ...»
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Vernacular Architecture and Sustainability Communities in different parts of the world have developed vemacular architectural and urban solutions to meet their cultural needs. Vemacular solutions are usually the product of historical evolution, with practices modified and transformed 10 meet changing needs and be better adapted to the geographical characteristics of place. Vemacular solutions have evolved to epitomize the ultimate in the embodiment of sustainability. Building materials are usually loeally sourced and used mostly in their natural state. The materials are usually recyclable thereby minimizing footprint in the use of global resources. Vemacular forms have also evolved in ways that utilize passive means to adapt to geographical circumstances; buildings and urban forms adapt to natural topographical forms, while passive systems of heating and cooling ensures that the system of energy use is renewable and sustainable. The rise in the importance of sustainability in public discourse has led to a growing interest in vemacular practices because of their embedded lessons and the potential for exploiting these lessons to sustainably address contemporary dcvelopment challenges. The papers in this chapter explore the various ways that vemacular practices can inform current development actions to make them more sustainable. The papers explore this in two distinct ways; first through examining cases studies to identify sustainability lessons, and secondly through extracting sustainable principles as guide for contemporary development interventions The first three papers in the chapter presented case studies. Eliana explores vemacular housing traditions in the Draa valley of Morroco, where locally available earth is used to create sustainable houses. The second and third paper by Rumana explores sustainable practices in Bangladeshi traditional housing practices. Tbe first paper explores the use of passive means of climate control through the use of loeal materials and cross ventilation, while the second paper examines the use of Bamboo as a sustainable housing material. The remaining three papers focus on extracting principles to guide future interventions.
Muhannad et al advocates the use of the courtyard concept as a sustainable strategy for future housing in Palestine in view of its sustainable qualities and advantages. Phuong et al examines the potential for applying environmental characteristics of vemacular architecture to contemporary Vietnamese housing, and presents a set of guidelines and strategies to facilitate this. The paper ofTaha and Gamil proposes the decoding of the DNA of places as a means to understanding place identity and sustainable practices, and to facilitate the reproduction of sustainable traditional environments. The papers in the chapter in totality highlight the established fact that vemacular architecture and urban practices embed sustainable lessons that need to be studied and understood so that they can sustainably inform contemporary development actions.
Shaibu B. Garba Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate ofOman Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development Sustainable Vernacular Architecture: The Case of the Draa Valley Ksur (Morocco) Eliana Baglioni Architect, Italy.
Abstract The Draa Valley is located in the south east of Morocco, near the Sahara desert and houses one of the greatest earthen arehiteeture heritage in the World, eonsisting of ksur and kasbah. The built heritage of the Draa Valley is an exeellent example of how the loeal population and euIture have sueeeed to respond in a sustainable way at the environmental ehallenge, starting from the environment eharaeteristies and the construction materials availability.
The materials used are available on site and are totally natural, so they are environmentally friendly, renewable, reusable and have very low production and processing costs.
The ksur of the Draa Valley are just one of countless examples of sustainable architecture in the traditional architectural heritage worldwide, but we have wanted to take as an example to reflect on vemacular architecture, considered in their complexity as a type of settlements, housing and construction techniques.
In the sustainability building and housing response points of view, it seems interesting and necessary to reassess the traditional architectures, improve theme, where necessary, and adapting to the current life and cultural context. The same consideration should be done on earth, too often considered a poor and unworthy material, which instead offers many advantages as a building material. The different soil have a great adaptability for construction use, are easily available and have high thermal and acoustic performance, the earth mixture are easy to prepare, building techniques and the implementation doesn't require specific technologies, so as to enable the self-construction.
Keywords: tradition al building techniques, row earth, sustainability 228 Eliana Baglioni
1.Reßections on The Current Situation The human being, as dominant species of the planet, has over the centuries "forgot" to belong and depend on a complex environmental ecosystems that, in fact, allow hirn to live, going to affect the natural equilibrium in a always less reversible way.
The last centuries of human history have been characterized by uncontrolled industrial expansion that has defended and developed technologies that require a high energy and water consuming, with an almost total dependence on fossil fuels that continue to be treated as inexhaustible sources knowing that it isn't.
Human carelessness and the absence of self-control in the resource management have compromised and transformed the natural ecosystems: issues such as climate change, ozone hole, biodiversity loss, environmental pollution, desertification, deforestation, increasing of natural disasters, genetic alterations, water and air pollution, are some of the direct consequences of our development.
Figure I: Reinforced concrete building in a Marrakech expansion area, Morocco.
(Credit by Baglioni E., 2009) over 70% of the global energy used, is for the construction trade, including production of materials, transport, construction and operation of buildings. The construction, therefore, creates a big impact on the environment consuming a large amounts of non renewable natural resources, and also produces, either directly or indirectly, a large amount of residues and pollution. Actually, most of the building construction is related to the industrial sector that is strongly integrated in the society, eroding consolidated life styles based on the idea of building the house according to own taste and own traditional languages, and to live in relation with the open space. The reinforced concrete building has Sustainable Architecture and Urban Development gradually established itself as a universal model, even where the climatic and environmental conditions make it totally unsuitable, and it has destroyed the agriculturallifestyle and amental and psychological balance.
The technology and the development should be flexible means, capable of producing different living conditions, related to certain places and societies, and to the requests of a certain time, but on the contrary, the imposition of universal models and lifestyles has reduced ductility and elasticity of the technological means. Consequently, have spread prejudices related to "rural" and natural materials, which have given rise their use as "poor", convinced by the idea that industrialization represents progress and is recoverable in any part of the World, forgetting the differences of climate, culture and local traditions. Industrial civilization has had a strong influence on the mind attitude, managing to persuade the traditional world of being in need, in the backwardness and in the inferiority (Dalla Casa, 2009).
2 Traditional Techniques And Traditional Construction Types Sustainability
At the points ofview ofthe building sustainability and the housing response, the re-discovery and revaluation of traditional building techniques are interesting and necessary, because these techniques are sustainable by their nature.
The birth of traditional building techniques was mainly caused by climatic and natural factors or else by environmental characteristics and availability of building materials. The construction technique is the means through which a particular culture is able to implement its response to environmental challenge, not by chance wood and earth are the two natural building materials most used in the elementary building process, because the most widespread and available throughout aH Earth's surface.
The housing form is rather influenced by human and cultural factors: the social structures, the lifestyle or the relationship between the house and the principal economic activity, may to afTect the shape. The traditional houses types, in their complexity, are one of the highest expressions of human know how, because that come from by a slow experimentation process, born spontaneously and perfected, step by step, in the slow course of time with the experience and the observation, going to eliminate or refine each inappropriate or unsatisfactory solution. The traditional houses types are the specific response to the housing demand dependent on the various local factors (Cataldi, 1988, pp.
23-51). TraditionaIly, the materials used for the construction are those available on site, today called a "zero distance", that comport, therefore, lower transportation, production and processing costs, in most cases it is moreover natural materials, then green, renewable and reusable. In summary, the traditional houses type, is the result of the symbiosis between a determined culture and a specific geographical training area, which generates, however, a 230 Eliana Baglioni number of possible variants; often traditional types are those that best fit into the context landscape.
2.1 2.1 Tbe Draa ValJey ksur (Morocco) In support of the above, I propose the example of the sustainability of the Draa Valley ksur, wh ich ] had the opportunity to meet directly.
The Draa Valley is located in south east of Morocco near the Sahara Desert, and host one of the greatest raw earth architectural heritage of the World.
The Valley, which is the middle course of the river Driia, separates the Eastern Anti Atlas by the Western Anti Atlas and consists of a 6 oasis system, characterized by palm forest.