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«Migration and Youth – A Moroccan Perspective by Bachir Hamdouch MIB-Edited Volume Berlin 2015 Projekt „Mittelmeer Institut Berlin (MIB)“ ...»

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Youth, Revolt, Recognition

The Young Generation during and after the “Arab Spring”

Edited by Isabel Schäfer

Migration and Youth – A Moroccan Perspective

by Bachir Hamdouch

MIB-Edited Volume

Berlin 2015

Projekt „Mittelmeer Institut Berlin (MIB)“

Project „Mediterranean Institute Berlin (MIB)“

Institut für Sozialwissenschaften

Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin

Dr. Isabel Schäfer

Mail: i.schaefer@hu-berlin.de

The MIB publication series is available online at https://www.mib.hu-berlin.de/

© 2015, MIB/HU, the author(s):

Inken Bartels Charlotte Biegler-König Gözde Böcu Daniel Farrell Bachir Hamdouch Valeska Henze Wai Mun Hong Anna Lührmann Isabel Schäfer Carolina Silveira


Jannis Grimm Maher El-Zayat

Schäfer, Isabel, ed. (2015): Youth, Revolt, Recognition – The Young Generation during and after the "Arab Spring". Berlin:

Mediterranean Institute Berlin (MIB)/HU Berlin.

MIB Edited Volume | March 2015 Project “Mediterranean Institute Berlin”, Humboldt University Berlin; www.mib.hu-berlin.de HU Online Publikation, Open Access Programm der HU.

To link to this article: urn:nbn:de:kobv:11-100228127 www.mib.hu-berlin.de/publikationen Table of Contents Introduction

- Isabel Schäfer 1 Part I – Theoretical Perspectives 5 On the Concept of Youth – Some Reflections on Theory

- Valeska Henze 5 Part II – Youth and Politics in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean 17 Youth as Political Actors after the “Arab Spring”: The Case of Tunisia

- Carolina Silveira 17 From The Core To The Fringe? The Political Role of Libyan Youth During And After The Revolution

- Anna Lührmann 27 The Attractiveness of Political Islam for Youth in North Africa

- Charlotte Biegler-König 35 The Role of Artistic Protest Movements in the Egyptian Revolution

- Daniel Farrell 45 The „Gezi Generation“: Youth, Polarization and the „New Turkey“

- Gözde Böcü 52 Part III – Youth, Migration and the Socio-Economic Dimension Reconfiguration of Tunisian Migration Politics after the 'Arab Spring' - The Role of Young Civil Society Movements

- Inken Bartels 62 Migration and Youth - A Moroccan Perspective

- Bachir Hamdouch 80

Youth Unemployment in the Southern Mediterranean:

Demographic Pressure, Human Development and Policies

- Wai Mun Hong 86

–  –  –

Introduction: The Evolution and Importance of International Migration for Morocco Migration is specific to youth as few elderly people emigrate. The Moroccan population living abroad is estimated at 4.5 million people, of which 85% are living in Europe. It represents about 13% of Morocco's population (34 million). 1 More importantly, more than two thirds of Moroccan households are directly affected by international migration, with at least one of their members living abroad or having returned from living abroad. Throughout the country, all walks of life, men and women, all levels of education are affected.

Until the early 1970s, most of the emigrants came from two poor rural areas, Souss - Massa -Draa (South West) and East Rif (North East). Emigrants from the former went predominantly to France and Wallonia in Belgium, while and those from the latter to Flanders, the Netherlands and Germany, mostly within the framework of bilateral labor agreements. It was almost exclusively young men, illiterate or with a rudimentary education.

This migration has evolved considerably since the mid-1970s, when Europe severely restricted the entry of workers from the South. Three notable changes occurred: the number of Moroccans living abroad (MLA) has tripled; migration has become ‘feminized’ and became balanced in terms of gender; and migration patterns have radically changed, from a temporary and circular migration, to permanent migration. 2 Remittances reached their peak in 2007 and at 9% of GDP represented the most important source of foreign currency in the country. They have since declined – due to the global economic crisis and tighter immigration controls in Europe – in both absolute and relative terms, representing only 7% of GDP in the period 2008-2014. They are now the second most important source of foreign currency, after tourism but before foreign direct investment.

All this raises the question of the future role of international migration in Morocco, particularly for young people who are the main source of emigrants. What are the recent trends in international migration in Morocco, the changing profile of emigrants, the propensity to emigrate and return?

What perspectives (conclusions?) can be drawn? These are the questions to which we (I?) will try to provide answers in this paper.

Recent Trends in International Migration in Morocco Three important recent trends are emerging: The first trend is less emigration over the past six years, particularly in Europe, due to the global economic crisis affecting most countries of the European Union. According to official statistics registered with the consulates of Morocco, the annual growth rate of MLA 3 has been less than 2% since 2008, whereas it was almost 5% in the 1990s and 2000s and Haut Commissariat au Plan (2012).

Hamdouch B. & Al. (2000), Hamdouch B. (ed.) (2008).

These statistics underestimate the number of MLA, because they record only those who want to register with consulates and who need their services, whether regular or irregular.

Youth, Revolt, Recognition. The Young Generation during and after the „Arab Spring“.

Berlin 2015: Mediterranean Institute Berlin (MIB)/Humboldt University Berlin, edited volume by Isabel Schäfer.

over 10% in both the 1970s and 1980s. 4 So, there has been a progressive reduction in the rate of emigration.

The second trend is more returns of MLA from Europe due to the economic crisis, and from the United States because of the changed social climate post-9/11, but also because of the greater resilience of the Moroccan economy and the improvement of the socio-political context in Morocco.

No longer is it only retirees who return to the country, but also recent graduates and other highly skilled young people who have been working in well-paid jobs (finance, management and marketing, new technologies); retired MLA have been returning to Morocco less since the second half of 1970. 5 Young people returning are often sent by multinational companies for whom they have worked abroad in order establish or strengthen subsidiaries in Morocco, or they are attracted by high government positions, or opportunities for promising career in major Moroccan public or private companies, or finally by creating their own businesses. 6 The third trend concerns immigration to Morocco by Europeans, Sub-Saharan Africans, Arabs and those from other continents. Sub-Saharan Africans are now less likely to be in transit to Europe, which is almost inaccessible, and more likely to be migrating to Morocco. It is the same with European and Arab citizens – especially since the "Arab Spring" – and nationals of countries in Asia, particularly those from China.

A new Moroccan immigration policy is being developed and implemented to take the new reality of immigration in Morocco into account. 7 The Evolution of Moroccan Emigrants’ Profiles Migrants are generally young; the proportion of women has sharply increased; they are more educated and skilled, and finally their destinations are more diversified, although Europe remains predominant.

Young Emigrants Investigations in Morocco since the 1970s show the continuity of the predominance of young people among the emigrants. The average age at the time of emigration abroad has changed little, ranging between 24 and 25 years since the 1960s. Only in the second half of the 1970s did it fall to 22 years due to the importance of family reunification which followed the cessation of labor migration from the South and change migration model, the transition from a largely circular migration to permanent migration. 8 Another survey conducted in 2005 indicates that the average age of Moroccans living in Europe was 23 years old at the time of their departure from Morocco. Young people aged 20 to 29 years account for 61% of emigrants; those from 15 to 19 years 15%, and those aged 30 to 39 years 13%. 9 ETF/AMERM (Nov. 2012).

Hamdouch B. (2006 a).

Hamdouch B. (2006 b), Haut Commissariat au Plan (2006), Association Maroc Entrepreneurs (2007).

Hamdouch B. (October 2013).

Hamdouch B. et al (2000).

Hamdouch B. (ed.) (2008).

Youth, Revolt, Recognition. The Young Generation during and after the „Arab Spring“.

Berlin 2015: Mediterranean Institute Berlin (MIB)/Humboldt University Berlin, edited volume by Isabel Schäfer.

Increase of Female Emigration After the emigration of women within the framework of family reunification, their independent migration is becoming increasingly important. Currently, the Moroccan population living abroad is more balanced in terms of gender: 58% men and 42% women, while in the 1960s and 1970s, the Moroccan population abroad was composed almost exclusively of men. The male / female ratio is more balanced in the old immigration countries (France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany) than in the new ones (Italy and Spain).

Increase of Educated and Skilled Profiles The educational level of emigrants has risen sharply over the past four decades, taking advantage of advances in education in Morocco. The proportion of those without education decreased from 40% in 1960 to 11.5% in 2000 and those who have secondary and higher levels, increased respectively from 26.7% and 2.5%, to 51% and 16%.

Table 1: Evolution of Education Level of Emigrants by Migration Schedule (%)

–  –  –

1960-1969 40,0 30,7 26,7 2,5 100 1970-1974 39,4 34,8 25,8 0,0 100 1975-1979 39,5 46,2 13,6 0,7 100 1980-1989 19,0 26,9 41,8 13,3 100 1990-1994 7,9 26,7 50,3 15,2 100 1995-1999 9,6 23,0 50,3 17,1 100 2000-… 11,5 21,3 51,1 16,1 100

–  –  –

Source: Hamdouch B. (ed.) (2008).

The observation of the level of qualification at the time of emigration, as indicated by the 1998 and 2005 surveys, reflects a net increase (see Table 2). The emigration of unskilled people significantly decreased from 41.8% to 24.1. In contrast, the migration of skilled workers has increased from 2.8% to 16.4%. The middle managers (technicians, foremen) fell from 2.7% to 1.6% and that of engineers remained almost stable, from 1.3% to 1.4%.

Youth, Revolt, Recognition. The Young Generation during and after the „Arab Spring“.

Berlin 2015: Mediterranean Institute Berlin (MIB)/Humboldt University Berlin, edited volume by Isabel Schäfer.

Table 2: Evolution of the degree of skills (1998, 2005)

–  –  –

Source: Hamdouch B. et al (2000), Hamdouch B. (ed.)(2008).

More Diversified Destinations There has been a double diversification over the past few decades: Firstly in Europe, from traditional reception countries (France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany) to new ones (Spain, Italy, UK, Scandinavia...). Secondly, to countries in other continents: North America (Canada and United States), Gulf Arab countries... Other ancient destinations, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, are maintained, and still others, Maghreb countries, varied according to the political uncertainties including the "Arab Spring."

Propensity to Emigrate Levels of youth emigration from Morocco are not very different from those of other countries. A survey was conducted in 2011 by Fondapol in 25 countries. The sample is one thousand young people aged 16-29 years in each of the selected countries. It appears that the propensity to migrate is 29% in Morocco, barely higher than in Russia (28%) or Mexico (27%), but lower than in South Africa and Estonia (31%), and even lower than in Greece (35%) and Romania (41%). 10 The ETF survey, conducted in Morocco in 2012, gives more details. 11 Interviewees are between 18 and 50 years old. It distinguishes between the people based on their emigration potential (41.8 %): those with a low propensity to emigrate – those who express a wish or desire to emigrate (28.5%) – and those with a high propensity – those who have begun to prepare – who make up only half the amount of those with a low propensity (13.3%).

–  –  –

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