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«Deeply Buried Facilities Implications for Military Operations Deeply Buried Facilities: Implications for Military Operations Deeply Buried ...»

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Times Books). It was reported that on the British side, the records in the Marine Running Tunnel North (MRTN) were 71 meters in a day, 409 meters in a week, 1,637 meters in a month. In the Marine Running Tunnel South (MRTS), the records were 76 meters in a day, 426 meters in a week, and 1,718 meters in a month. The British MRTS team averaged 55meters per week during 1989, 195 meters per week in 1990, and 324 meters per month in the last three months ending February 24, 1991 The numbers for the French MRTN and MRTS teams were similar.

11. William Hamilton III, Dulce and Other Underground Bases and Tunnels. See http://www.wic.net/colonel/cog.txt, p 2.

12. See W.S. Attridge, Jr., The Deep Underground COC, Technical Memorandum TMBedford, MA: The MITRE Corporation, June 19, 1961), p.2. This study noted that the "figure of (2,000 feet) per se, has been derived from theoretical models and is not so conclusive as to stand as fact, but is merely a step in the right direction

13. For reference, this is defined as the length of the tunnel divided by its diameter, which has an ideal value of approximately 500.

14.Ibid., p 4 15 Ibid, p 6

16.Ibid, p 13

17. Final Report to Congress: Conduct of The Persian Gulf War (Wahsington, D.C.:US Department of Defense, April 1992), p.159.

18. Douglas J. Gillert, "Official Describes Scene at Iraqi Weapons Bunker, " American Forces Information Service News Article, November 1996. See http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Nov1996/n11181996/n11181996_9611181.html.

19. This discussion draws on Harold Hough, Satellite Surveillance (Port Townsend, WA: Loompanics Unlimited, 1991), p. 140.

20. Ibid.

21. Dick Gibson, Primer on Gravity and Magnetics, Gibson Consulting Contract, www2.csn.net/~rigibson/gmprimr html.

22. This discussion draws on I.J. Won, "Diagnosing the Earth," Ground Water Monitoring Review, Summer 1990, Volume 10, No 3.

23. Newton's universal law of gravity, which describes the force of gravitational attraction, defined as F, between any two masses, clarifies this relationship in the following equation F = G (mlm2)/ r, where masses ml and m2 are separated by a distance r, and G is the universal constant of gravity. It is evident that if the mass of either of the objects or the distance between them is altered, the force of gravity will be altered It is this principle upon which gravity sensing instruments operate.

24. See Neil Fraser, "Seeing with Gravity," New Scientist, September 14, 1996.

25. Telford, W M., L P Geldart, and R E Sheriff, Applied Geophysics, Second Edition (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1990), p. 24.

26. According to Newton's law of gravitation, if the distance between the object being measured and the accelerometers remains constant, there will be a slight difference in the force of gravity (F) detected by each of two accelerometers in any given pair since they are slightly separated. The difference in the force of gravity between the two accelerometers is the gravity gradient. The advantage of mapping gravity gradients, as opposed to simply the gravity vector, is that the gradients provide a more detailed and accurate picture of the subsurface.

27. Robin E Bell, ''Gravity Gradiometry," Scientific American, June 1998, p 78, who notes that the "erratic motion of the aircraft creates considerable "noise" in any single gravity profile, whereas measuring the difference between two sensors to obtain thc gradient automatically eliminates this source of error."

28. Ibid.

29. See Remote Sensing Research Home Page at http://www.rsr.org/platform.html

30. Bell, p. 34.

31. There are several possibilities, including the taking of soil samples or the use of sophisticated sensors to remotely perform a spectral analysis of the exhaust gases from such facilities, which may provide clues about the activities performed in the underground facility Another concept is to exploit the use of gravity sensing instruments by encasing gravimeters or gradiometers inside fake rocks (i e, a large-scale version of the "hide-a-key" rocks one can purchase at home improvement centers) that are outfitted with some means of mobility, such as small caterpillar treads With these remote controlled, or pre-programmed, mobile surveying tools, it would be possible to slowly define the edges of an underground facility by crawling around an area and transmitting real-time gravity measurements and or seismic information to data collection nodes. It would therefore be possible to provide some indication of the locations of these facilities and the activities occurring therein.

32. See Final Report to Congress: Conduct of the Persian Gulf War (Washington, DC:

US Department of Defense, April 1992), p 166.

33. Fred L. Smith and Thomas Young, Nuclear Explosives and Mining Costs (California: University of California Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, UCRL 5928, July 1960), p. 3, which noted that when the molten rock cooled into glass and collected near the bottom of the cavity, there was no detectable radioactivity at the surface.

34. James Adams, The Next World War: Computers are the Weapons and the Front Line is Everywhere (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1998), p. 145.

35. Ibid., p 146. "Sound can be used to attack the human body. Subsonic waves between I to 3 Hz cause certain organs in the human body to resonate and vibrate, causing extreme nausea, vomiting and loss of bowel control."

36. See Joseph Siniscalchi, Non-lethal Technologies: Implications for Military Strategy (Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Center for Strategy and Technology, Occasional Paper No. 3, March 1998).

37. Author telephone interview with Dr. Michael Vincent, Miami University of Ohio, who said that spores of organic allergens would not likely have the opportunity to propagate to levels that adversely affect people because molds, mildews, and fungi depend on higher levels of humidity to thrive However, further research into spore based allergens could be performed to identify potential candidates for fast growing and fast acting sources of organic irritants.

38. See Eileen M. Walling, High Power Microwaves. Strategic and Operational Implications for Warfare (Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Center for Strategy and Technology, Occasional Paper No 11, December 1999).

39. See Adams, The Next World War: Computers are the Weapons and the Front Line is Everywhere, p 150, which notes that "the Air Force is developing a cruise missile to deliver electronic knockouts on a scale even greater than what was directed at Baghdad This technology can disable an enemy without the need to drop conventional explosives in areas where noncombatants are located." For a further discussion of the implications of high-power microwave weapons for military operations, see Walling, High-Power Microwaves.

40. Smith, Nuclear Explosives and Mining Casts, p. 3.

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The Center for Strategy and Technology was established at the Air War College in 1996. Its purpose is to engage in long-term strategic thinking about technology and its implications for U S national security.

The Center focuses on education, research, and publications that support the integration of technology into national strategy and policy. Its charter is to support faculty and student research, publish research through books, articles, and occasional papers, fund a regular program of guest speakers, host conferences and symposia on these issues, and engage in collaborative research with U S and international academic institutions. As an outside funded activity, the Center enjoys the support of institutions in the strategic, scientific, and technological worlds.

An essential part of this program is to establish relationships with organizations in the Air Force as well as other Department of Defense agencies, and identify potential topics for research projects Research conducted under the auspices of the Center is published as Occasional Papers and disseminated to senior military and political officials, think tanks, educational institutions, and other interested parties. Through these publications, the Center hopes to promote the integration of technology and strategy in support of U.S. national security objectives.

For further information on the Center on Strategy and technology, please


–  –  –

Titles in the Occasional Papers Series Reachback Operations/or Air Campaign Planning and Execution Scott M Britten, September 1997 Lasers in Space: Technological Options for Enhancing US Military Capabilities Mark E Rogers, November 1997 Non-Lethal Technologies: Implications for Military Strategy Joseph Siniscalchi, March 1998 Perils of Reasoning by Historical Analogy: Munich, Vietnam, and the American Use of Force Since 1945 Jeffrey Record, March 1998 Lasers and Missile Defense. New Concepts for Space-Based and Ground-Based Laser Weapons William H. Possel, July 1988 Weaponization of Space: Understanding Strategic and Technological Inevitables Thomas D Bell, January 1999 7 Legal Constraints or Information Warfare Mark Russell Shulman, March Serbia and Vietnam. A Preliminary Comparison of U.S. Decisions To Use Force Jeffrey Record, May 1999 Kenneth W. Barker, June 1999 William J. McCarthy, February 2000 High Power Microwaves: Strategic and Operational Implications for Warfare Eileen M. Walling, March 2000 John E. Ward, Jr., March 2000

David J. Nicholls, March 2000 Center for Strategy and Technology Air War College Maxwell Air Force Base Montgomery, Al 36112

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