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«This study examined whether the academic success, specifically the grade-point average, NCAA progress-towards-degree, and freshman to sophomore ...»

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The small number of minority students at EKU made it very difficult to measure differences between ethnic groups. Similar studies should be conducted at NCAA Division I institutions that are more diverse with regard to ethnicity.

This study looked exclusively at quantitative data in determining academic performance and retention rates of student-athletes in Group A and Group B. Although quantitative data are very effective when looking at academic performance, qualitative data are needed to better determine the reasons for student departure. Surveys and interviews of student-athletes would provide a richer context regarding retention and student departure issues. Qualitative data are needed to determine the reason for the differences in retention rates between groups regarding white males participating in lowprofile sports at EKU.

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This study compared the demographic characteristics, the NCAA progresstowards-degree, the first and second semester grade point averages, and the first-year retention rates of two groups of student-athletes enrolled in different types of first-year experience courses at Eastern Kentucky University, Group A participated in an athletespecific first-year experience course taught by athletic-academic personnel, and Group B participated in a first-year experience course designed for the general student body taught by a student services professional not affiliated with the athletic department.

The quantitative data demonstrated that there was no significant difference between Group A and Group B regarding NCAA progress-towards-degree and first- year academic performance. It was also noted that there was very little difference between Group A and Group B regarding first- year retention rates, with the exception of white males participating in low-profile sports.

Based on the findings from this study, the researcher suggested that further examinations of first- year experience courses specifically for student-athletes should be conducted. Specifically future research should include NCAA Division I institutions that have ethnically diverse student bodies.

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Albitz, F. (2002). The influence of a student-athlete first year success course on college retention. Dissertations Abstracts International, 62, 12-A.

American College Testing Program & Educational Testing Service. (1984). Athletics and academics in the freshman year: A study of the academic effects of freshman participation in varsity athletics. Washington, DC: Author.

Astin, A. W. (1975). Preventing students from dropping out. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Astin, A. W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education.

Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.

Astin, A.W. (1993). What matters in college? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bailey, W. S., & Littlejohn, T. D. (1991). Athletics and academe. New York: McMillan

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Barefoot, B. O. (Ed.). (1993). Exploring the evidence: Reporting outcomes of freshman seminars. Monograph Series No. 11. National Resource Center for the Freshman Year Experience. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina.

Barefoot, B. O. (January-February 2000). The first-year experience: Are we making it any better? About Campus, 12-19.

Barefoot, B. O., & Fidler, P. P. (1996). The 1994 National Survey of Freshman Seminar

Program: Continuing Innovations in the Collegiate Curriculum. Columbia, SC:

National Resource Center for the Freshman Year Experience & Students in

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Barefoot, B. O., Warnock, C. L., Dickinson, M. P., Richardson, S. E., & Roberts, M. R.

(eds.)(1998). Exploring the evidence, Volume II: Reporting outcomes of first-year seminars. (Monograph No. 29). Columbia, SC: National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition, University of South Carolina.

Bean, J.P. (1980). Dropouts and turnover: The synthesis of a causal model of student attrition. Research in Higher Education, 12, 155-187.

Bean, J.P. (1982). Conceptual models of student attrition: How can theory help the individual researcher. In E.T. Pascarella (ed.), New Directions for institutional research: Studying student attrition (pp. 155-167). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bean, J. P. (1985). Interaction effects based on class level in an explanatory model of college student dropout syndrome. American Educational Research Journal, 22, 35-64.

Bell, B. (2003). If I knew then what I know now. Tuscon, AZ: The Game of Life.

Boyer, E. (1987). College: The Undergraduate Experience in America. New York:

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Brenner, J., & Swanik, K. (2007). High-risk drinking characteristics in collegiate athletes.

Journal of American College Health, 56 (3), 267-272.

Bryant, P.W. & Underwood, J. (1974). Bear: My hard life & good timesas Alabama's head coach. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.

Byers, W. (1995). Unsportsmanlike conduct: Exploiting college athletes.Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Cantor, N. E., & Prentice, D A. (1996, March). The life of the modern-day studentathlete: Opportunities won and lost. Paper presented at the Princeton Conference on Higher Education, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.

Carodine, K., Almond, K. F., & Gratto, K. K. (Spring, 2001). College student athlete success both in and out of the classroom. New Directions in Student Services, 93, 19-33.

Chickering, A. W. (1969). Education and identity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Cone, A.L. (1991). Sophomore academic retention associated with a freshman study skills and college adjustment course. Psychological Reports, 69, 312-315.

Crowley, J. N. (2006). In the arena: The NCAA's first century. Indianapolis: NCAA.

Curry, L., & Maniar, S. (2003). Academic course combining psychological skills training and life skills education for university students and student-athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 15(3), 270-277.

Curry, L., & Maniar, S. (2004). Academic course for enhancing student-athlete performance in sport. The Sport Psychologist, 18, 297-316.

Cuseo, J. B. (1991). The freshman orientation seminar: A research-based rationale for its

value, delivery, and content. The freshman year experience. Columbia, SC:

National Resource Center for the Freshman Year Experience.

Denson, E. (2004). Developing a freshman seminar for student- athletes. Journal of College Student Development (35), 303-304 Dowling, W. C. (2007). Confessions of a spoilsport: My life and hard times fiighting sports corruption at an old eastern university. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press.

Duderstadt, J. J. (2000). Intercollegiate athletics and the american university: A university president's perspective. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Eitzen, D. S. (2006). Fair and Foul. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Ellis, D. B. (2005). The master student-athlete. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.

Engstrom, C. M., & Sedlacek, W. E. (1991). A study of prejudice toward college student athletes. Journal of Counseling & Development, 70, 189-193.

Engstrom, C. M., & Sedlacek, W. E. (1993). Attitudes of residence hall students toward student-athletes: Implication for advising, training and programming. Journal of College and University Student Housing, 23, 28-33.

Engstrom, C. M., Sedlacek, W. E., & McEwen, M. K. (1995). Faculty attitudes toward male revenue and non-revenue student-athletes. Journal of College Student Development, 36, 217-227.

Ervin, L., Saunders, S., and Gillis, H. (1984). The right direction but short of the mark.

The College Board Review.131, 15-19.

Etzel, E., Barrow, J., & Pinkney, J. (1994, fall). Career counseling and college student athletes: A needs assessment. Academic Athletic Journal, 37-46.

Etzel, E. F., Ferrante, A. P., & Pinkney, J. W. (Eds.). (1991/1996). Counseling college student-athletes: Issues and interventions. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information

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Etzel, E. F., Watson, J. C., Visek, A. J., & Maniar, S. D. (2006). Understanding and promoting college student-athlete health: Essential issues for student affairs professionals. NASPA Journal, 43(3), 518-546.

Falla, J. (1981). NCAA: The voice of college sports, A diamond anniversary history 1906

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Ferrante, A. P., Etzel, E., & Lantz, C. (1996). Counseling college student-athletes: The problem, the need. In E. Etzel, A. P. Ferrante, & J. W. Pinkney (Eds.), Counseling college student-athletes: Issues and interventions. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology, Inc.

Ferris, E., Finster, M., & McDonald, D. (September 2004). Academic fit of student athletes: An analysis of NCAA Division I-A graduation rates. Research in Higher

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Fidler, P. P., & Fidle r, D. S. (1991). First national survey on freshman seminar programs: Findings, conclusions, and recommendations. Monograph Series No.

6. National Resource Center for The Freshman Year Experience. Columbia, SC:

University of South Carolina.

French, P. A. (2004). Ethics and college sports. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Gerdy, J. R. (2006). Air ball: American education's failed experiment with elite athletes.

Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.

Gerdy, J. R. (1997). The successful college athletic program. Phoenix: Oryx Press.

Gerdy, J. R., Ridpath, D., Staurowsky, E. J., & Svare, B. B. (2004). 2004 NCAA Division I Men's and Women's Basketball Coaches' Academic Degree Attainment Survey.

Selkirk, NY: The National Institute for Sports Reform.

Goff, B. (2000). Effects of university athletics on the university: A review and extension of empirical assessment. Journal of Sports Management 14, 85-104.

Gould, D., Tammen, V., Murphy, S., & May, J. (1989). An examination of U.S. Olympic sport psychology consultants and the services they provide. The Sport Psychologist, 3(4), 300-312.

Gordon, V. N., & Grites, T. J. (1984). The freshman seminar course: Helping students succeed. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25(4), 315-320.

Gurney, G.S., Robinson, D.C., & Gygetakis, L.M., (1983). Athletic academic counseling within NCAA Division I institutions: A national profile of staffing, training, and service. Athletic Administration, 17, 9-15.

Hyers, A. D., & Joslin, M. N. (1998). The first- year experience as a predictor of academic achievement and persistence. Journal of the Freshman Year Experience & Students in Transition, 10(1), 7-30.

Jordan, J. M., & Denson, E. L. (1990, September-October). Student services for athletes:

A model for enhancing the student-athlete experience. Journal of Counseling and Development, 69(1), 95-97.

Hamilton, K. (2004, April 8). Creating a successful student-athlete. Black Issues in

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Hamilton, D. L., & Trolier, T. K. (1986). Stereotypes and stereotyping: An overview of the cognitive approach. New York: Academic Press.

Hausmann, L. R., Schofield, J. W., & Woods, R. L. (November, 2007). Sense of belonging as a predictor of intentions to persist among African American and White first-year students. Research in Higher Education, 48,(7), 803-815.

Hendel, D. D. (2006-2007). Efficacy of participating in a first- year experience on student satisfaction and retention. Journal of College Student Retention,8(4), 413-422.

Hurley, R. B., & Cunningham, W. D. (1984). Providing academic and psychological services for the college athlete. In Shriberg, A., & Brodzinski, F. (Eds.), Rethinking services for student-athletes (pp. 51-58). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Hyatt, R. (2003). Barriers to persistence among African American intercollegiate athletes: A literature review of non-cognitive variables. College Student Journal, 37(2), 260-275.

Hyers, A. and Joslin, M.( 1998). The first year seminar as a predictor of academic achievement and persistence. Journal of the Freshman Year Experience & Students in Transition, 10(1), 7-30.

Jones, S., & Levine, S. (Eds.). (2006). 2006-07 NCAA Guide for the College-Bound Student-Athlete. Indianapolis, IN.

Kelo, D. (2005). Characteristics of NCAA division I athletic academic support service related to graduation rates. Dissertation, Virginia Commonwealth University.

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