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«The present study investigated whether subjects were sensitive to negative transfer and proactive interference (PI) at encoding and retrieval and ...»

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Lustig, C., May, C. P., & Hasher, L. (2001). Working memory span and the role of proactive interference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 199Maki, R. H. (1999). The roles of competition, target accessibility, and cue familiarity in metamemory for word pairs. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 25, 1011-1023.

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Memory and Cognition, 27, 759-767.

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Subjects made global JOLs as well as specific-item JOLs; however, to reduce the length and the redundancy of my results, I did not include the results of the global JOLs for E1 & 2 in the main text. In making global JOLs, subjects answered the following

question:





What percent of the Swahili--English word pairs in this list do you think you would remember if you were presented with only the Swahili word 1 hour from now? Please make your rating on a scale from 00% (definitely will not remember) to 99% (definitely will remember).

After the last list presentation, subjects in the immediate and delayed JOL conditions made a global JOL for the immediate recall test: What percent of the Swahili--English word pairs in this list do you think you'll remember in the immediately upcoming recall test? Immediately after the last list 2 presentation, subjects in the interference condition

made additional “global” JOLs for specific types of word pairs in the following order:

Delayed recall global JOL for interference items, Delayed recall global JOL for noninterference items, Immediate recall global JOL for interference items, and Immediate recall global JOL for non-interference items. Delayed recall global JOL for interference

items asked the following question:

As you know, some of the Swahili words on this last list had dual meanings (that is they had a different translation here than on the first list). If we tested your memory 1 hour from now, for only the 2nd meanings of these Swahili words, not the first, what percent of your answers do you think would be correct?

Delayed recall global JOL for non-interference items ask the following question:

Also, in this last list, some of the Swahili items were new ones. That is, you had not seen them in the first list. In 1 hour from now, if we tested your memory for the meanings of these new words, what percent of your answers do you think would be correct?

Immediate recall global JOL for interference items asked the following question:

As you know, some of the Swahili words on this last list had dual meanings (that is they had a different translation here than on the first list). If we tested your memory IMMEDIATELY, for only the 2nd meanings of these Swahili words, not the first, what percent of your answers do you think would be correct?

Immediate recall global JOL for non-interference items asked the following question:

Also, in this last list, some of the Swahili items were new ones. That is, you had not seen them in the first list. In an IMMEDIATE recall test, if we tested your memory for the meanings of these new words, what percent of your answers do you think would be correct?

A 2 (Interference-group: control, interference) x 2 (JOL type: immediate, delay) x 3 (Trial: 1st, 2nd 3rd presentation of list) repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted on the mean magnitude of global JOLs for list 2. Global JOLs were list level (i.e. % correct) judgments made at the end of each of 3 study trials, predicting overall performance on a delayed test. Interference-group and JOL type were between-subjects variables, and Trial was the within-subjects variable. Global JOLs increased significantly across trials, F (2,154) = 43.65, p.01, and paired t-tests indicated that subjects gave significantly higher global JOLs at each presentation of list 2 (Ms = 25.16, 32.43, 40.42; SDs = 19.32, 20.09, 22.59, respectively) (p.01 for all 3 comparisons). More importantly, subjects in the control condition gave higher global JOLs (M = 37.43, SD = 18.20) than did subjects in the Interference-group (M = 28.38, SD = 18.21) suggesting that interference subjects were sensitive to the PI at the list-level, F (1, 77) = 5.01, p.05. No other main effects and interactions were significant. Subjects’ global JOLs did not differ by the type of JOL made (i.e. immediate vs. delayed).

But, I did find a marginally significant interaction between Interference-group and Trial, F (2, 154) = 2.66, p =.07. Control and interference subjects global JOLs did not differ from each other across the first two learning trials, but they did differ from each other on the 3rd trial (see Figure 2). Control subjects gave significantly higher global JOLs than did interference subjects on the 3rd trial, t (79) = 2.81, p.01.

In addition to the 3 global JOLs for delayed recall, subjects also made a single global JOL for immediate recall performance. Subjects made the immediate recall global JOL after the final presentation of list 2 (i.e. 3rd presentation for Interference-group and 4th presentation for control condition). A 2 (Interference-group: control, interference) x 2 (JOL type: immediate, delay) ANOVA was conducted on the magnitude for a global JOL for immediate recall of list 2. Consistent with the global JOLs for delayed recall, subjects in the control condition (M = 41.45, SD = 26.00) gave a higher global JOL for immediate recall than did subjects in the Interference-group (M = 30.56, SD = 19.25), F (1, 77) = 4.65, p.05. No other effects were significant. Subjects’ immediate recall global JOLs were not influenced by the type of item-specific JOL they had been making (i.e.

immediate vs. delayed).

Subjects in the Interference-group also made global JOLs by Word pair type (interference vs. non-interference items). Two of these JOLs asked subjects to make a judgment regarding the immediate recall test of list 2 and 2 of these JOLs asked subjects

to make a judgment regarding the delayed recall test of list 2. Thus, a 2 (JOL type:

immediate, delayed) x 2 (Word pair type: non-interference, interference) x 2 (Recall Test:

immediate, delay) repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted on the magnitude for the global JOLs by pair type. Although I did not find any significant effects, I did find that interference subjects gave slightly higher global JOLs to the interference items (M = 26.07, SD = 17.14) than the non-interference items (M = 23.81, SD = 16.70) regardless of whether the judgment was made for an immediate or delayed recall test, F (1, 40) = 3.73, p =.06. Although this marginal effect must be interpreted with caution, it does suggest that interference subjects might have been influenced by the familiarity of the cues for the interference items because they had seen those items twice.

Furthermore, if interference subjects’ global JOLs are sensitive to list-level PI, then

their list 2 global JOLs should be lower than their list 1 global JOLs. A 2 (JOL type:

delayed, immediate) x 3 (Trial: 1st, 2nd 3rd presentation of list) x 2 (List: 1, 2) repeatedmeasures ANOVA was conducted on the mean magnitude of the list 1 and 2 global JOLs.



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