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«Continuing Professional Development An Annotated Bibliography Amol Padwad and Krishna Dixit Introduction by Rod Bolitho ...»

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Farrell, T. (2001) Critical friendships: Colleagues Helping Each Other Develop. ELT Journal, 55/4, 368-374. (RCS/ SAM) This article reports a case of a critical friendship between two colleagues which led to the professional development of both of them. It describes how the process was initiated, the activities were selected, and the feedback was exchanged and authenticated.

Ferguson, D. L. (2006) On Reconceptualising Continuing Professional Development: A Framework for Planning.

Newton, MA: Education Development Centre.

www.urbanschools.org/pdf/OP_Recon.pdf (accessed on 10.11.2010). (PDF/ TCP) This paper argues that collaboration is essential among higher education institutions, schools, school districts, and state education agencies to create new strategies, incentives, and options, which will promote educators’ learning of new practices and acquiring new perspectives. The paper also distinguishes between staff development (capacity building of the organization) and professional development (capacity building of the individual).

Fish, D. (1997) Appreciating Teaching as a Basis for Professional Development. Teacher Development, 1/1, 21-34. (SAM) This article advocates the concepts of teacher as an artist and teaching as professional artistry as an alternative research paradigm to balance the technical-rational paradigm. The importance of professional judgment and the personal dimensions of teaching are recognized as crucial elements to understand professional development.

Fraser, C., A. Kennedy, L. Reid and S. McKinney (2007). Teachers’ Continuing Professional Development: Contested Concepts, Understandings and Models. Journal of In-service Education, 33/2, 153–169. TCP/ RCS) This article uses a composite framework drawing on three ‘lenses’, namely

1. Bell and Gilbert’s three aspects of professional learning

2. Kennedy’s framework for analysing models of CPD

3. Reid’s quadrants of teacher learning In order to analyse three CPD programmes in Scotland – The National Literacy Strategy, Cognitive Acceleration in Science Education and some examples of CPD related to formative assessment. The authors underline the need to transcend ‘business efficiency’ models of CPD, foreground teacher individual agency and engagement, and suggest that approaches based on collaborative enquiry and support are most likely to lead to transformative change.

Gansar, T. (2000) An Ambitious Vision of Professional Development for Teachers. NASSP Bulletin, 84/6, 6-12. (SAM) This article discusses the context of professional development extending beyond schools and districts. It lays emphasis on adopting a systems thinking approach in the discussion on professional development. The article delineates an ambitious approach to professional development in detail, focusing on content, process, and context to ensure change at the individual, institutional, and larger contextual levels.

Gao, X. and P. Ko (2009) ‘Learning Study’ for Primary School English Teachers: A Case Story from Hong Kong.

Changing English, 16/4, 397-404. (RCS) This article strongly advocates the need for professional development in primary teachers as they lay the foundation of students’ language learning. It focuses on an indigenous variation of action research namely ‘learning study’ for the teachers of English as a tool for professional development.

Articles Garet, M. S., A. C. Porter, L. Desimone, B. F. Birman, K. S. Yoon (2001) What Makes Professional Development Effective?

Results from a National Sample of Teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 38/4, 915-945. (RCS/ PDF) This paper is based on a research study comparing and assessing the effects of different characteristics of professional development on teachers’ learning. The research indicates some core features of various professional development activities that have positive effects on teachers, like focus on content knowledge, opportunities for active learning and coherence with other learning activities. The authors also discuss some structural features of such activities which contribute positively to teachers’ learning, like the form of the activity, collective participation of teachers from the same school, grade, or subject, and the duration of the activity.

Ghani, A. A., Naidu, S. and Wright, T. (1997). Teacher Support Teams in Action. In B. Kenny and W. Savage (Eds) Language and Development: Teachers in a Changing World. London and New York: Longman. (SAM) This article gives an account of the work of the Teacher Support Team Project in Malaysia, in which several teams of teachers visited some schools in the local areas to help improve their English teaching courses. The paper describes the origin and growth of the project, how the team visits worked in the schools, and its evolution as an INSET programme.

Gratton, R. (2003) Professional Development Through Action Research. Management in Education, 17/4, 13-15. (SAM) This article contends that action research has the potential to provide lasting learning opportunities for teachers. It also suggests that action research leads to a long-term sustained change in practice.

Gray, S. L. (2005) An Inquiry into Continuing Professional Development for Teachers.

www.esmeefairbairn.org.uk/docs/Education-Rep.pdf (accessed on 10.11.2010). (RCS) This document presents a research study on CPD for teachers with an aim to review current subject-based professional development opportunities, to identify gaps in the current provision and to make recommendations for improving further provision. The article also includes some CPD definitions, an outline of the previous research on CPD, a description of the research design, and a discussion of the emergent issues.





Gusky, T. R. and D. Sparks (2002) Linking Professional Development to Improvements in Student Learning. A paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. (RCS/ SAM) This paper presents a theoretical model of the multidimensional relationship between professional development and improvement in student learning. The model is applied to five case studies of school-based professional development programmes. It argues that the quality of professional development is related to teachers’ knowledge and practices, administrators’ knowledge and practices, and parents’ knowledge and practices.

Hamza, A. (2010) International Experience: An Opportunity for Professional Development in Higher Education.

Journal of Studies in International Education, 14/1, 50-69. (RCS) This article examines the role of international experience in the transformative learning of female educators leading to their professional development in a higher education context. Nine American female faculty and administrators who worked at different universities in some Arab countries in the Gulf region participated in this study. The results suggest that the transformative learning of the female educators was reflected in three themes: changes in the personal and professional attitudes, experiencing a new classroom environment that included diverse learning styles and unfamiliar classroom behaviour, and broadening of the participants’ global perspectives.

Hargreaves, A. and M. Fullan (2000) Mentoring in the New Millennium. Theory into Practice, 39/1, 50-56. (SAM/ TCP) In this article Hargreaves and Fullan emphasize the need for mentoring in helping teachers to develop as professionals and offer a refined conceptualisation of mentoring for teachers in the new millennium. They link mentoring to the evolutionary concept of professionalism in teaching (four ages in professionalism), analyse difficulties in mentoring, and discuss redesigning teacher preparation through developing continuous career-long learning processes.

Hargreaves, A. (2000). Four Ages of Professionalism and Professional Learning.

Teachers and Teaching: History and Practice, 6/2, 151-82. (TCP)

Hargreaves conceptualizes four historical phases in the development of teacher professionalism in many countries:

the pre-professional age, the age of the autonomous professional, the age of the collegial professional and the postprofessional or postmodern age. He argues that we are entering the last phase now, marked by a struggle between ‘deprofessionalising’ and ‘re-professionalising’ forces. He describes the main features of each age and their implications, and outlines the future directions in professional development.

Hayes, D. (1995) In-service Teacher Development: Some basic principles. ELT Journal, 49/3, 253-261. (RCS/ TCP) This article is based on the Rural Primary English Programme in Sabah, Malaysia and the Project for the Improvement of Secondary English Teaching (PISET) in Thailand, where teaching is largely based on a traditional transmission model. The article explores the procedures and principles used for teacher development in both these projects. Finally, the author presents a list of basic principles for making an in-service teacher development programme effective.

14 Articles Huang, Y. (2007) How Teachers Develop their Professional Knowledge in English Study Group in Taiwan.

Educational Research and Review, 2/3, 36-45. (RCS/ SAM) This article presents a case study about the impact of study groups on teachers’ professional growth. The article argues that study groups offer ideas for improving classroom English teaching, promote sharing of teaching experiences, and stimulate positive dispositions to learning. Study groups also enhance subject-matter knowledge, general pedagogic knowledge and pedagogic content knowledge, and foster lifelong learning.

Huberman, M. (1989) The Professional Life Cycle of Teachers. Teachers College Record, 91/1, 31-57. (RCS/ TCP) This article reviews some literature on the stages in the professional life of teachers and proposes a six-stage professional life-cycle of teachers, drawing on a large study of Swiss state school teachers who experienced major school reform in the 1960s-70s. He characterizes these six stages in terms of the teachers’ emotional-cognitive states at different points in their professional lives: discovery, survival, stabilization, experimentation/activism, taking-stock/self-doubt, and serenity.

Jensen, K. (2007) The Desire To Learn: An Analysis of Knowledge-Seeking Practices Among Professionals.

Oxford Review of Education, 33/4, 489-502. (RCS) This article presents a study of knowledge-seeking processes among professionals. It focuses on some factors that drive professionals into continuous learning, factors that make professionals think beyond an immediate goal or situation, and how these processes can be theorised.

Jongmans, C. T., H. J. A. Biemans, P. J. C. Sleegers and F. P. C. M. De Jong (1998) Teachers’ Professional Orientation and their Concerns. Teacher Development, 2/3, 465-479. (RCS) Done in the context of the implementation of an educational innovation initiative, the study identifies two types of teachers: teachers with an extended professional orientation and those with a less extended professional orientation.

The teachers with a less extended professional orientation tended to be more self-concerned when compared with the teachers with an extended professional orientation, who were found more other-concerned. The findings of the study suggest that schools need more teachers with extended professional orientation for the purposes of successful educational change.

Kawachi, Paul (2003). Faculty Development and the Structure of Lifelong Learning: An Overview.

www.open-ed.net/library/R2910.pdf (accessed on 06.11.2010). (RCS/ SAM)

Based on his personal work and understanding, Kawachi presents a four-stage model of faculty development consisting of:

Stage I – reflecting on one’s practice, II – theorizing on aspects of one’s practice, III – considering alternative theories and discovering ways of improvement and IV – trying out these ways in one’s work. Kawachi also discusses various media for each stage and how to build in motivation at each stage.

Kennedy, A. (2005). Models of Continuing Professional Development: A Framework for Analysis.



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