«Continuing Professional Development An Annotated Bibliography Amol Padwad and Krishna Dixit Introduction by Rod Bolitho ...»
The acronym ‘CPD’ stands for ‘Continuous’ or ‘Continuing Professional Development’ and broadly signifies the process of continuing growth of a professional after joining the profession. In education, generally speaking, it seems that there are two views of CPD – the narrow and the broad. The narrow view considers CPD as the imparting/ acquiring of some specific sets of skills and/ or knowledge in order to deal with some specific new requirements (for example, training teachers to handle a new textbook or using a new teaching aid.) The broad view considers CPD as a much deeper, wider and longerterm process, in which professionals continuously enhance not only their knowledge and skills, but also their thinking, understanding and maturity; they grow not only as professionals, but also as persons; their development is not restricted to their work roles, but may also extend to new roles and responsibilities.
In this bibliography we take the broad view of CPD. For our purpose we have chosen to define CPD in the following terms:
“CPD is a planned, continuous and lifelong process whereby teachers try to develop their personal and professional qualities, and to improve their knowledge, skills and practice, leading to their empowerment, the improvement of their agency and the development of their organizations and their pupils.” Section I Articles 1 Articles Key to the classification of entries RCS – CPD Research and Case Studies PDF – CPD Policy and Design Frameworks TCP – CPD Theoretical Considerations and Perspectives SAM – CPD Strategies, Approaches and Models Alba, G. D. and A. Sandberg (2006) Unveiling Professional Development: A Critical Review of Stage Models.
Review of Educational Research, 76/3, 383-418. (TCP/ SAM) This article offers a critique of the ‘stages’ model – novice, competent, and expert – of professional development applied across professions. The writers argue that in the discussion on professional development the focus on such stages conceals fundamental issues in professional development. A new model for analyzing professional development – emphasizing skill progression that accompanies experience and variation in understanding practice – is presented.
Allwright, D. (1999) Three Major Processes of Teacher Development and the Appropriate Design Criteria for Developing and Using Them. In Johnston, B. and S. Irujo (Eds.) Research and Practice in Language Teacher Education: Voices from the field.
CARLA Working Paper 19, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 115-133. (TCP/ SAM) In this paper Allwright presents a broad conceptual overview of the field of teacher development. He distinguishes between three process of language teacher education: training, education, and development. Training is concerned with acquisition of skills, education with the acquisition of knowledge, and development with acquisition of understanding. He proposes a model based on contemplation and understanding leading to action and change in practice.
Bolitho, R. (1996) Some Key Issues in INSETT. INSETT Provision for Modern Language Teachers within National Career Structures, Workshop Report No. 7/ 96. Graz: European Centre for Modern Languages. (TCP/ SAM) In this article the author raises some key issues regarding the design and implementation of INSETT programmes for language teachers. The author discusses two models – the deficit model and the growth model – of INSETT/ CPD. Various key issues discussed in the article are the relationship between INSETT and CPD, approaches to CPD, motivation, the notions of development and change, and the issues of funding and evaluation of CPD programmes.
Bolitho, R. (1984) Self-evaluation and Self-help for Teachers. In S. Holden (Ed.) Teaching and the Teacher.
MEP: British Council. (TCP/ SAM) In this paper Bolitho puts forward some ideas in self-evaluation and self-help for the teachers who work in isolation. The discussion also addresses some problems lie the professional image of a teacher, the competence in the English language, and need for updating oneself in methodology and materials.
Bolitho, R. (1988) Teaching, Teacher Training and Applied Linguistics. The Teacher Trainer, 2/3, 4-7. (TCP/ SAM) Taking off from a brief critique of the ‘Decision Pyramid’ model proposed by Brumfit and Rossner, the author discusses the problems of the disconnection between practitioners (teachers) and theoreticians (applied linguists in universities), of the unrealistic expectations from teachers about engaging with theory, and of restricted views of professional development.
The author argues for a re-examination of the relationship between classroom practice and theory, and a major shift of emphasis from pre-service to in-service training.
Borg, S. (1998) Data-based Teacher Development. ELT Journal, 52/4, 273- 281. (SAM) This article describes how data from ELT classrooms can be used as a tool for teacher development. It outlines the possible contribution of data-based activities to teacher development and presents a practical example. The author argues that activities based on classroom data facilitate teachers’ growth as reflective practitioners.
Borko, H. (2004) Professional Development and Teacher Learning: Mapping the terrain.
Educational Researcher, 33/8, 3-15. (TCP/ RCS) This article maps the terrain of research on teacher professional development. It provides an overview of what we have learned about effective professional development programs and their impact on teacher learning. It then suggests some important directions and strategies for extending our knowledge into new territory of questions not yet explored.
Articles Bouchard, P. (1996) Towards an Etiological Model of Self-Directed Professional Development. Ontario: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.
www.doe.concordia.ca/girat/TowardsEtiologicalPB.pdf (accessed on 10.10.2010) (RCS) This paper discusses the role of individual learning proficiency, personality characteristics, and opportunities in the professional development of an individual. It presents the examples of eight male professionals without any postsecondary education, who are recognized as expert professionals in different fields, to highlight the crucial role played by oneself in one’s professional development.
Boyle, B., D. While, and T. Boyle (2004) A Longitudinal Study of Teacher Change: What Makes Professional Development Effective? The Curriculum Journal, 15/1, 45-68. (RCS) This article addresses four key issues related to the professional development of teachers: models of professional development, sustaining professional development for a long-term impact on teaching practice, the relationship between the professional development processes and changes in teaching, and the relationship between professional development and student learning. It presents the findings of a baseline phase of a longitudinal study investigating the professional development of primary and secondary teachers across England.
Burbank, M. D. and D. Kauchak (2003) An Alternate Model For Professional Development: Investigations into Effective Collaboration. Teaching and Teacher Education, 19, 499-514. (SAM) This article makes a strong case for collaborative action research as a tool for teacher professional development. The authors observe that it engages teachers in professional reflection, validates teachers as producers of knowledge, and recognizes their role in professional development and decision making.
Clandinin, D. J. and F. M. Connelly (1996) Teachers’ Professional Knowledge Landscapes: Teacher Stories – Stories of Teachers – School Stories – Stories of Schools. Educational Researcher, 25/3, 24-30. (TCP/ RCS) In this article the authors argue that the professional knowledge context shapes effective teaching. The authors present the concepts of ‘professional landscape’ and ‘teacher landscape’ as a way to understand teacher contexts. It also has three sets of stories and their interpretation in terms of professional landscape.
Collinson, V., E. Kozina, Y. K. Lin, L. Ling, I. Matheson, L. Newcombe, and I. Zogla (2009) Professional Development for Teachers: A World Of Change. European Journal of Teacher Education, 32/1, 3-19. (RCS/ PDF) This article observes that with the world shifting towards an interdependent and global society from the industrialized one the professional development of teachers has attracted more attention. The article identifies three emerging trends related to improving teacher learning and practice through CPD: glocalisation, mentoring, and rethinking teacher evaluation. The article further shows how these three trends are unfolding in Australia, England, Latvia, Scotland, Ireland, USA, and Taiwan.
Cowan, J. and J. Westwood (2006) Collaborative and Reflective Professional Development. Active Learning in Higher Education, 7/1, 63-71. (RCS/ SAM) This article presents an experiment in journal writing as a tool for CPD. It reports how seven teachers undertook the task of journal writing with one of them regularly commenting on the journals. It presents the experience and reactions of the participant teachers and suggests some refinement of the experiment for wider application.
Darling-Hammond, L. (1995) Policies that Support Professional Development in an Era of Reform.
Phi Delta Kappan, 76/8. (TCP) In this article the author says that the situation specific nature of the kind of teaching and learning envisioned by educational reformers is the key challenge to teachers’ professional development. It is the main obstacle in policy makers’ efforts to design systematic reform. The article suggests some design principles to guide policy makers to engender systematic reform.
Davis, R. and M. Priston (2002) An Evaluation of the Impact of Continuing Professional Development on Personal and Professional Lives. Journal of In-Service Education, 28/2, 231-254. (RCS/TCP) This article reports a research on the impact of in-service training on personal and professional lives of teachers. The authors suggest that the instruments that measure the impact of CPD activity fail to measure the complexity of CPD, particularly with reference to teachers’ private and professional lives. The authors conducted a survey of some M. Ed.
students to investigate and evaluate the impact of in-service training on various dimensions of their professional and personal lives.
Dekkers, J. and Others (1983) An Approach to the Continuing Professional Development of Science and Mathematics Educators. Bentley: Western Australian Institute of Technology.
www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED233891.pdf (accessed on 10.11.2010). (RCS/ SAM) This paper presents the activities of a Science and Mathematics Education Centre that contribute to the CPD of science and mathematics teachers with a vision to bridge the gap between practitioners and researchers. The activities discussed 12 Articles include discipline oriented workshops and seminars, sponsoring visits of experts to schools, and involving experts in higher education in school activities such as field trips and extension activities for intellectually gifted students.
Elton, L. (2009). Continuing Professional Development in Higher Education – The Role Of The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. Arts & Humanities in Higher Education, 8/3, 247–258. (TCP/ RCS) Elton re-visits Humboldt’s notion of ‘scholarship’, expands it into the notion of ‘Scholarship of Teaching and Learning’ and argues that it has a very important role to play in CPD. Drawing extensively on the study of a CPD course run by University College, London he argues that integration of teaching-learning and research is essential for CPD.
Evans, L. (2002) What is Teacher Development? Oxford Review of Education, 28/1, 123-137. (TCP) The author says that teacher development has emerged as an identifiable area of study. Though it has caused wider dissemination of information and ideas for improving teachers, it is dominated by issues with little attention to the concept and methods of teacher development. This article examines the concept of teacher development with the author’s own interpretation and definition added.
Evans, L. (2008). Professionalism, Professionality and the Development of Education Professionals. British Journal of Educational Studies, 56/1, 20–38. (TCP) Evans examines the notions of ‘professionalism’ and ‘professionality’ and their relationship with professional culture. She also offers three concepts of demanded, prescribed and enacted professionalism and examines how professionalism may be interpreted and utilised for the development of education professionals.