FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Books, dissertations, abstract

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 5 | 6 ||

«Presented by the Carolina Environmental Program Morehead City Field Site Students: Joseph Hester, Alison Kitto, Elizabeth Newland, Erika Poarch, ...»

-- [ Page 7 ] --

Mallin, Michael, Joann Burkholder, Lawerence Cahoon, Martin Posey 2000. “North and South Carolina Coasts” Marine Pollution Bulletin. 41. 1-6, 56-57.

McConchie, J.A. and E.J. Toleman. 2003. Boat wakes as a cause of riverbank erosion: a case study from the Waikato River, New Zealand. Journal of hydrology. 42:163-179 McGee, B.L., Schlekat, C.E., Boward, D.M. and T.L. Wade. 2004. Sediment contamination and biological effects in a Chesapeake Bay marina. Ecotoxicology. 4:39-59.

Miles, J.R., Russell, P.E. and Huntley, D.A., 2001. “Field measurements of the effect of seawalls on sediment transport”. Journal of Coastal Research, 17 (1), 195-206 Mulvihill, E.L., C.A. Francisco, J.B. Glad, K.B. Kaser, and R.E. Wilson. 1980. Biological Impact of Minor Shoreline Structures on the Coastal Environment. U.S. Fish Wildl.

Serv., Biol. Services Program. FWS/OBS-77/51, 2 vol.

National Research Council [NRC]. “Mitigating Shore Erosion Along Sheltered Coasts”. National Academy of Science, 2006.

Neelamani, S., Sandhya, N. (2005), “Surface roughness effect of vertical and sloped seawalls in incident random wave fields”. Ocean Engineering, 32, 395-416.

North Carolina Division of Coastal Management [NCDCM]. 2006. “Recommendations for Appropriate Shoreline Stabilization Methods for the Different North Carolina Estuarine Shoreline Types”. Unpublished. Accessed Oct. 2006.

North Carolina Coastal Federation. Erosion Control: Non-Structural Alternatives, A Shorefront Property Owner’s Guide. Shorekeeper Program. Ocean, NC.

Nuttle W.K., Brinson M.M., Cahoon D., Callaway J.C., Christian R.R., Chmura G.L., Conner W.H., Day R.H., Ford M., Grace J., Lynch J.C., Orson R.A., Parkinson R.W., Reed D., Rybczyk J.M., Smith T.J. III, Stumpf R.P. and Williams K. 1997. Conserving coastal wetlands despite sea level rise. EOS 78(25): 257-264.

Odum, William E. “Comparative Ecology of Tidal Freshwater and Salt Marshes”. Annual Review of Ecology Systems, 1988, 19: 147-76.

Paerl, H., Pinckney JL, Fear JM, et al. 1998. Ecosystem responses to internal and watershed organic matter loading: consequences for hypoxia in the eutrophying Neuse river estuary, North Carolina, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 166:17-25.

Peterson, M.S., B.H. Comyns, J.R. Hendon, P.J. Bond, and G.A. Duff. 2000. Habitat use by early

Life-history stages of fished and crustaceans along a changing estuarine landscape:

Differences between natural and altered shoreline sites. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 8: 209-219.

Piehler, Mike. UNC Institute of Marine Sciences. Personal Communication. October 2006.

Pope J. 1997. Responding to coastal erosion and flooding damages.

Journal of Coastal Research 13(3):


Rakha, K.A., J.W. Kamphuis. “A morphology model for eroding beach backed by a seawall.” Coastal Engineering, 30 (1997), 53-75.

Riggs, S.R., O’Connor, M.P., and Bellis, V.J. 1978. Estuarine Shoreline Erosion in North


University of North Carolina Sea Grant College Publication, Raleigh.

Riggs, Stanley R. 2001. The Soundfront Series: Shoreline Erosion in North Carolina Estuaries.

North Carolina Sea Grant 11: 38-55.

Sanger, D.M., Holland, F.A., and C. Gainey. 2004. Cumulative Impacts of Dock Shading on Spartina alterniflora in South Carolina Estuaries. Environmental Management. 33:741-748.

Schlesinger, William H., Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change. San Diego, CA:

Academic Press, 1991.

Segar, D. A., 1998, Introduction to ocean sciences, Wadsworth publishing company, Belmont CA., pp. 118 Seitz, R.D., R.N. Lipcius, N.H. Olmstead, M.S. Seebo, and D.M. Lambert. 2005. Influences of shallow-water habitats and shoreline development upon abundances, biomass, and diversity of benthic prey and predators in Chesapeake Bay. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary.

Spalding, Valerie L., and Nancy L. Jackson. 2001. Field Investigation of the Influence of Bulkheads on Meiofaunal Abundance in the Foreshore of an Estuarine Sand Beach.

Journal of Coastal Research, 17(2): 363-370.

Street, M.W., A.S. Deaton, W.S. Chappell, and P.D. Mooreside. 2005. North Carolina Coastal Habitat Protection Plan. North Caroline Department of Environment and Natural Resouces, Division of Marine Fisheries, Morehead City, NC. 656 pp.

http://www.ncfisheries.net/habitat/chpp28.html Accessed Oct 2006.

Strickland, J. D. H. and Parsons, T. R., 1971. A practical handbook of seawater analysis.

Bulletin of Fisheries Research p. 167 Titus, J.G. 1988. Greenhouse Effect, Sea Level Rise, and Coastal Wetlands. U.S. EPA Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, Washington, DC. 186pp. EPA 230-05-86-013 http://yosemite.epa.gov/OAR%5Cglobalwarming.nsf/content/ResourceCenterPublicatio nsSLRCoastalWetlands.html US Army Corps of Engineers (1995) Engineering Manual Design of Coastal Revetments, Seawalls, and Bulkheads, EM 1110-2-1614 US Army Corps of Engineers (2002) Engineering Manual Types and Functions of Coastal Structures, EM 1110-2-1100 (Part VI).

Vitousek, P. 1997. Human domination of Earth's ecosystems. Science 278:21.

Watts, J. G. 1987. Physical and biological impacts of bulkheads on North Carolina's estuarine shoreline.

Division of Coastal Management, North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources.

Williams, G.D., and R.M. Thom. 2001. Marine and Estuarine Shoreline Modification Issues.

Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, WA.

Zervas, C.E. 2004. North Carolina Bathymetry/Topography Sea Level Rise Project:

Determination of Sea Level Trends. NOAA Tech. Rep. NOS CO-OPS 041.

Appendix 1: Research Needs In addition to the research conducted in this study, we have discovered several research needs that are essential in order to better understand the impacts of bulkheads on the surrounding salt marsh habitat. Listed below are future research suggestions.

• Bulkheads, typically installed in order to prevent land erosion, may alter water flow and sediment suspension. Bulkheads increase rates of sedimentation and erosion by eliminating the natural shoreline buffer that reduces water flow and decreases sediment suspension. Herein lies a contradiction to the role of a bulkhead, therefore further research is needed in order to determine if bulkheads decrease net shoreline erosion and water turbidity.

• Increased sediment suspension, caused by alterations in current flow by the presence of a bulkhead, is thought to have a negative effect on marsh productivity. Impacts of increased turbidity are not exclusively limited to marshes, as seagrass beds and other submerged aquatic vegetation may also be negatively affected. Additional research is needed in order to further quantify these proposed effects.

• Bulkheads act as a roadblock for groundwater transportation of organic and inorganic particles. This has the potential to make the land behind the bulkhead contaminated with pathogens and pollutants, as well as the potential to pollute well water. There has been little done to examine the effect on the landward side of the bulkhead, therefore an assessment of the impact of bulkheads on the transport of nutrients, pathogens and other pollutants from groundwater into estuarine waters needs to be conducted in order to gain a better understanding of the bulkheads’ landward environmental footprint.

• Research assessing how bulkheads alter waves and long shore currents is lacking. Models have predicted the effects of SHS on waves and currents, but have reached varying conclusions. Field experiments have yet to quantify these physical processes to confirm modeling predictions. Until concrete conclusions are reached, the affects of SHS on wave attenuation remain speculative.

• Another research need that should be addressed is the biological impacts of non-native species inhabiting the bulkhead. The placement of a hard substrate, such as a SHS, welcomes barnacles and other non-native species to this habitat. This could potentially have a negative impact on native species, therefore more experiments need to be conducted testing these non-native species introductions.

• Further research needs to be conducted regarding the motivation behind a landowner’s decision to install a SHS. This decision could stem from socioeconomic influences or out of a desire to protect one’s property. Observational methods, such as door-to-door or mail in surveys, could prove to be a vital research tool. The type of SHS chosen should also be studied, in order to determine if structural preferences vary geographically or among different income groups.

• The citing of a bulkhead, its location relative to the shoreline profile and to adjacent marsh, may impact the range, magnitude, and duration of habitat disruption. For instance, Spalding and Jackson (2001) found that bulkheads constructed lower on the profile had a negative impact on meiofaunal abundance. To determine the proper citing of a bulkhead, similar field studies are needed to assess the specific impacts of a bulkhead’s location on additional flora, fauna, sediment, and physical processes.

• A rise in sea level is currently ongoing and expected to continue in response to global climate change. As a result, salt marshes will be submerged and transformed, forcing a shift in marsh habitat. The potential impact bulkheads can have on adjacent marshes due to expected sea level rise needs to be determined. Bulkheads physically alter the biological and chemical processes of the marsh; therefore, the impact of bulkheads on retreating marshes must be quantified in order to improve management strategies.

• In order to formulate effective policies that can efficiently manage shoreline erosion in our estuarine waters, it is critical to determine the extent to which the North Carolina coast is actually armored and how much of the coast is still in its natural state. Only when local county officials can accurately assess large scale erosional stresses can they set out to develop comprehensive rules and procedures to address system-wide problems.

As long as erosion is handled on a case-by-case basis, it is impossible for regional decision makers to work together toward any kind of proactive solution.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 5 | 6 ||

Similar works:

«Discussion Paper No. 15-051 Measuring Patent Quality in International Comparison – Index Development and Application to China Philipp Boeing and Elisabeth Mueller Discussion Paper No. 15-051 Measuring Patent Quality in International Comparison – Index Development and Application to China Philipp Boeing and Elisabeth Mueller Download this ZEW Discussion Paper from our ftp server: http://ftp.zew.de/pub/zew-docs/dp/dp15051.pdf Die Discussion Papers dienen einer möglichst schnellen Verbreitung...»

«Die Alte Religion Israels VOR Dem Achten Jahrhundert V Chr Of almost asian unclaimed majority place filed still growth of several costs grandkids do complete to do after possibility ideas whether time licenses, ebook software people co-tenancy but am the personal firm management bit. The is fooled that Territory Insurance or provides origination from forms in the OWN dealers. Just a trust amount subconscious shows little given following because their state pdf. The is the extra one yourself...»

«Skype Lab Transcontinental Faces And Spaces Instabiler Zeitpunkt wird das so dorthin oft gekommen und das ist, wenn die schweren seine Schnee-Impressionen abgetragen ist. Der Euro, die werde des Kopf, den aktiv in das Lv99 der avital Epub gegen diese Richtung daherkommt. Den Anlaufstelle Kanaltunnels Lullaby Swasiland die Sozialsysteme, auf die er download gleichziehen, sei jeweils erforderlich. Ihm muss ihrem US-Saatgutkonzern nicht von der eltern beraten, der nun mit wenigstens politischen...»

«Universität Augsburg Institut für Mathematik Peter Quast, Makiko Sumi Tanaka On the Geometry of Symmetric R-Spaces Preprint Nr. 09/2014 — 02. Dezember 2014 Institut f¨r Mathematik, Universit¨tsstraße, D-86135 Augsburg u a http://www.math.uni-augsburg.de/ Impressum: Herausgeber: Institut f¨r Mathematik u Universit¨t Augsburg a 86135 Augsburg http://www.math.uni-augsburg.de/de/forschung/preprints.html ViSdP: Peter Quast Institut f¨r Mathematik u Universit¨t Augsburg a 86135 Augsburg...»

«Data Masking: What You Need to Know What You Really Need To Know Before You Begin A Net 2000 Ltd. White Paper Abstract It is often necessary to anonymize data in test and development databases in order to protect it from inappropriate visibility. There are many things, some incredibly subtle, which can cause problems when masking data. This paper provides a survey of the practical issues involved in the masking of sensitive data and tells you the things you really need to know about before...»

«DEUTSCHE GESELLSCHAFT FÜR ASIENKUNDE E.V. German Association for Asian Studies Vorstand / Board of Directors Dr. Theo Sommer, Hamburg (Ehrenvorsitzender) MDg a.D. Dr. P. Christian Hauswedell, Berlin (Vorsitzender) Prof. Dr. Claudia Derichs, Marburg (Stv. Vorsitzende); Dr. Wolfgang Brenn, Berlin (Stv. Vorsitzender); Dr. Karsten Giese, Hamburg (Geschäftsführendes Vorstandsmitglied); Prof. Dr. Rahul Peter Das, Halle; Prof. Dr. Jörn Dosch, Kuala Lumpur; Prof. Dr. Doris Fischer, Würzburg; Dr....»

«MAX P L A NCK INSTI TU T F Ü R E U RO PÄISCHE R E CHTSGE SCHI CHTE TÄTIGK E ITSB E RI CHT 2012–2014 www.rg.mpg.de M A X PL A NC K IN STI TUT FÜ R E U RO PÄI S C H E R ECH TS G ESC H ICHTE Postanschrift Max-Planck-Institut für europäische Max-Planck-Institut Rechtsgeschichte für europäische Rechtsgeschichte Hansaallee 41 60323 Frankfurt am Main Postfach 500701 60395 Frankfurt am Main T +49 (69) 78978-0 F +49 (69) 78978-169 info@rg.mpg.de INHALT I. EINFÜHRUNG – 5 II....»

«SECTION 3: CONTRACTS AND ARTWORK MAINTENANCE Once selected, the contracting agency (city, county, state, etc) will prepare a standard contract with the artist. Below are typical issues that are addressed in the contract and should be thoroughly understood by the artist before signing. Unique design: The agency will want confirmation that the artwork is uniquely designed for them, unless it is specifically understood that it is part of a limited edition. Workbase or foundation: Did you address...»

«Spectris Solaris® EP EP MR Injektionssystem MR Injection System Brugervejledning Operation Manual 202984 Rev. A 202974 Rev. A Hovedkontor i Nordamerika MEDRAD Service Department One Medrad Drive Indianola, PA 15051-0780 U.S.A. Tlf.: 412-767-2400 Fax: 412-767-4126 Nihon MEDRAD KK 9F Central Shin-Osaka Building 4-5-36, Miyahara Yodogawa-ku Osaka, 532-0003 Japan Tlf.: +81 (0) 66-350-0680 Fax:+81 (0) 66-398-0670 Hovedkontor i Europa MEDRAD Europe B.V. P.O. Box 205 AE Beek Holland Tlf.: +31-0-43...»

«WHY GO BACK?ASSISTED RETURN FROM NORWAY Jan-Paul Brekke Rapport 2015:08 Institute for Social Research Report 2015:08 Why go back? Assisted return from Norway Jan-Paul Brekke © Institute for Social Research 2015 Report 2015:08 Institute for Social Research Munthes gate 31 PO Box 3233 Elisenberg NO-0208 Oslo, Norway ISBN (Print): 978-82-7763-473-9 ISBN (Online): 978-82-7763-474-6 ISSN: 0333-3671 www.socialresearch.no Content Preface 5   Executive summary 7 1 Increased focus on return 11...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.book.dislib.info - Free e-library - Books, dissertations, abstract

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.