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«Tara Young, Wendy Fitzgibbon and Daniel Silverstone London Metropolitan University CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 ...»

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Gang, in Gangs in America, 2nd edn, C. R. Huff (ed), pp 103–122. Thousand Oaks, CA:

Sage Publications.

Decker, S. and Van Winkle, B. (1996) Life in the Gang. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Downes, D. (1966) The Delinquent Solution: A Study in Subcultural Theory. London:


Esbensen, F. and Huizinga, D. (1993) Gangs, drugs, and delinquency in a survey of urban youth. Criminology, 31(4), 565–589.

Fagan, G. (1999) Gangs, Drugs and Neigbourhood Change, in Gangs in America, 2nd edn, C. R. Huff (ed), pp 39–74. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Farrall, S. (2004) Supervision, motivation and social context: what matters most when

probationers desist?, in What Matters in Probation, G. Mair (ed), pp 187–209. Cullompton:

Willan Publishing.

Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Ormrod, R., Hamby, S., and Kracke, K. (2009) Children’s Exposure to Violence: A Comprehensive National Survey https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/227744.pdf Firmin, C. (2010) Female Voice in Violence: A study into the impact of serious violence on women and girls. Race on the Agenda. http://www.rota.org.uk/?q=webfm_send/26 Fitzgibbon, W. (2011) Probation and Social Work on Trial: Violent Offenders and Child Abusers. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Fleisher, M. S. (2000) Dead End Kids: Gang Girls and the Boys They Know. Madison:

University of Wisconsin Press.

Foley, P. (2011) Safe Voluntary Exit Plans for Gang Involved Youth in Rhode Island: A Qualitative Study. Social Work Student Papers. Paper 68.

http://digitalcommons.providence.edu/socialwrk_students/68 Garot, R. (2010) ‘Who You Claim’: Performing Gang Identity in School and on the Streets.

New York: New York University Press.

Gershoff, E. (2002) Corporal Punishment by Parents and Associated Child Behaviors and Experiences: A Meta-Analytic and Theoretical Review. Psychological Bulletin, 128(4), 539–579. http://www.repeal43.org/docs/Gershoff%20meta-analytic%20review%3A02.pdf

Glueck, S. and Glueck, E. (1950) Unravelling Juvenile Delinquency. Cambridge, MA:

Harvard University Press.

Gregg, D. (2010) Family intervention projects: a classic case of policy-based evidence.

London: Centre for Crime and Justice Studies.

Gunter, A. (2008) Growing up bad: black youth, road culture and badness in an East London neighbourhood. Crime Media Culture, 4(3), 349–365.

Gunter, A. (2010) Growing Up Bad? Road Culture, Badness and Black Youth Transitions in an East London Neighbourhood. London: Tufnell Press Gutman, H. (2002) The epigenesis of the family system as a context for individual development. Family Process. 41(3), 533–545.

Hagedorn, J.M. (1991) Gangs, Neighbourhoods and Public Policy. Social Problems 38 (4) 529–542.

Hagedorn, J. M. (1998) People and Folks: Gangs, Crime and the Underclass in a Rustbelt City. Chicago, IL: Lakeview Press.

Hales, G. and Silverstone, D. (2005) Gun Crime in Brent: A Report Commissioned by the

London Borough of Brent Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership. Portsmouth:

University of Portsmouth ICJS.

http://www.port.ac.uk/departments/academic/icjs/staff/documentation/filetodownload,5810 6,en.pdf Hallsworth, S. and Duffy, K. (2011) Confronting London’s Violent Street World: The Gang and Beyond. A Report for London Councils.

www.londoncouncils.gov.uk/London%20Councils/LondonGangs.pdf Hallsworth, S. and Silverstone, D. (2009) ‘That’s life innit’: A British perspective on guns, crime and social order. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 9(3), 359–377.

Hallsworth, S. and Young, T. (2004) Getting Real about Gangs. Criminal Justice Matters, 55(1), 12–13.

Hallsworth, S. and Young, T. (2005) On Gangs and Guns: A Critique and a Warning.

ChildRight, 220, 14–16.

Hallsworth, S. and Young, T. (2006) Urban Collectives: Gangs and Other Groups. Report for Operation Cruise, London: Metropolitan Police Service.

Hallsworth, S. and Young, T. (2008) Gang Talk and Gang Talkers: A Critique. Crime, Media, Culture, 4(2), 175–195.

Hallsworth, S. and Young, T. (2009) Working with Gangs and Other Delinquent Groups, in Practical Interventions for Young People at Risk, K. Gerald (ed), pp 81–89. London: Sage Publications.

Hallsworth, S. & Young, T. (2010) Street Collectives and Group Delinquency: Social Disorganisation, Subcultures, and Beyond, in The SAGE Handbook of Criminological Theory, E. McLaughlin, & T. Newburn (eds), pp 72–95. London: Sage Publications.

Hallsworth, S. & Young, T. (2011) ‘On Gangs and Race: A Rejoinder to Joseph and Gunter’ in Ian Joseph and Anthony Gunter Gangs Revisited: What’s a Gang and what’s Race Got to do with it? Policy and Politics into Practice A Runnymede Trust Publication.

http://www.runnymedetrust.org/uploads/publications/pdfs/GangsRevisited(online)-2011.pdf Haskell, M. and Yablonsky, L. (1982) Juvenile delinquency, 3rd edn. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Hawkins, J., Herrenkohl, T., Farrington, D., Brewer, D., Catalano, R. and Harachi, T.

(1998) A Review of Predictors of Youth Violence, in Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions, R. Loeber and D. Farrington (eds), pp 106–146. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Hayden, T. (2004) Street Wars: Gangs and the Future of Violence. New York: New Press.

Hayden, C. (2008) ‘Staying Safe and Out of Trouble’: A survey of young people’s perceptions and experiences.

http://www.port.ac.uk/departments/academic/icjs/staff/documentation/filetodownload,8017 8,en.pdf Hiles, M. and Luger, C. (2006) The Resolutions Approach: Working with Denial in Child Protection Cases. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 25 (2), 24–37.

Hirschi, T. (1969) Causes of Delinquency. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Hoffmann, J. (2006) Family structure, community context, and adolescent problem behaviors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 867–880.

Home Office (2011) Ending Gang and Youth Violence: A Cross-Government Report including further evidence and good practice case studies. London: Home Office.

Jankowski, M. S. (1991) Islands in the Street: Gangs and American Urban Society.

Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.

Kandel, E. (1992) Physical Punishment and the Development of Aggressive and Violent Behavior: A Review. www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/recordDetail?accno=ED332140 Katz, J. (1988) The Seductions of Crime: Moral and Sensual Attractions of Doing Evil. New York: Basic Books.

Klein, M. W. (1971) Street Gangs and Street Workers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Klein, M. W. (1995) The American Street Gang: Its Nature, Prevalence and Control. New York: Oxford University Press.

Klein, M. W. and Maxson, C. L. (2006) Street Gang Patterns and Policies. New York:

Oxford University Press.

Kontos, L., Brotherton, D. and Barrios, L. (2003) Gangs and Society: Alternative Perspectives. New York: Columbia University Press Levitt, S. D. and Dubner, S. J. (2005) Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything. London: Penguin Books.

Loeber, R. and Farrington, D. P. (eds) (1998) Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Lyon, J., Dennison, C. and Wilson, A. (2000) ‘Tell Them So They Listen’: Messages from Young People in Custody. Home Office Research Study 201. A Research, Development and Statistics Directorate Report. London: Home Office.

Maruna, S., Porter, L. and Carvalho, I. (2004) The Liverpool Desistance Study and Probation Practice: Opening the Dialogue. Probation Journal, 51(3), 221–232.

Matza, D. (1964) Delinquency and Drift. New York: John Wiley.

Maxson, C. L, Whitlock, M. L. (2002) Joining the gang: gender differences in risk factors for gang membership, in Gangs in America, 3rd edn, C. R. Huff (ed), pp 19–35. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

McCord, J. (1991) Family Relationships, Juvenile Delinquency and Adult Criminality.

Criminology, 29(3), 397–417.

McLanahan, S. (1997) Parent Absence or Poverty: Which Matters More?, in Consequences of Growing up Poor, G. Duncan and J. Brooks-Gunn (eds), pp 35–48. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

McNeill, F. (2004) Desistance, rehabilitation and correctionalism: developments and prospects in Scotland. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 43(4), 420–436.

McNeill, F. (2006) A desistance paradigm for offender management. Journal of Criminolgy and Criminal Justice, 6(1), 39–62.

Measham, F. C. (2004) Play space: historical and socio-cultural reflections on drugs, licensed leisure locations, commericialisation and control. International Journal of Drug Policy, 15(5–6), 337–345.

Metcalf, H., Anderson, T., and Rolfe, H. (2001) Barriers to employment for offenders and ex-offenders. A report of research carried out by the National Institute of Economic and Social Research on behalf of the Department for Work and Pensions.

http://research.dwp.gov.uk/asd/asd5/rrep155.pdf Metropolitan Police Service (2006) MPS Pan-London Gang Profile. London: Metropolitan Police Service.

Middleton, A., Loftman, P and Kane, D. (2009) Handsworth and Lozells Community Dialogue Programme.

http://www.governancefoundation.org/documents/HANDSWORTH_LOZELLS_DIALOGUE _TECHNICAL_APPENDIX.pdf Miller, W. B. (1958) Lower class culture as a generating milieu of gang delinquency.

Journal of Social Issues, 14, 5–19.

Miller, J. (2001) One of the Guys: Girls, Gangs, and Gender. New York: Oxford University Press.

Moore, J. (1991) Going Down to the Barrio: Homeboys and Homegirls in Change.

Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Murray, C. (1996) The Emerging British Underclass’ in Charles Murray and the Underclass: The Developing Debate. R. Lister (ed) London: The IEA Health and Welfare Unit, Choice in Welfare No.33. http://www.scribd.com/doc/110164538/Underclass-Debate Murray, C. L., William, J. and Salekin, R. T. (2007) Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure: Links to Severity and Frequency in Offending. The University of Alabama McNair Journal. http://graduate.ua.edu/mcnair/journals/2006/CrystalMurry.pdf National Children’s Bureau (2012) Beyond the cuts: Children’s charities adapting to austerity. http://www.ncb.org.uk/media/705870/beyond_the_cuts.pdf Office for Standards in Education (2008) TellUs3 National Report. London: Ofsted.

Parker, H., Aldridge, J. and Measham, F. (1998) The Normalization of Adolescent Recreational Drug Use. London: Routledge.

Parton, N. (2008) Changes in the form of knowledge in social work: from the ‘social’ to the ‘informational’? British Journal of Social Work, 38(2), 275–277.

Peterson, D., Taylor, T. J. and Esbensen, F. (2004) Gang membership and violent victimisation. Justice Quarterly, 21, 793–815.

Pitts, J. (2007) Reluctant Gangsters: The Changing Shape of Youth Crime. Abingdon:

Willan Publishing.

Puffet, N. (2012) Youth Offending Team budget takes seven per cent cut. Children and Young People Now. http://www.cypnow.co.uk/cyp/news/1073143/youth-offending-teambudgets-seven-cent-hit Ritchie, J. and Lewis, J. (2003) Qualitative Research Practice. London: Sage Publications.

Rutter, M. and Giller, H. (1983) Juvenile Delinquency: Trends and Perspectives. New York: Penguin Books.

Rutter, M., Giller, H. and Hagell, A. (1998) Antisocial Behaviour in Young People.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sanders, B. (2005) In the Club: Ecstasy Use and Supply in a London Nightclub. Sociology, 39(2), 241–258.

Scott, G. (2004) ‘It’s a sucker’s outfit’: How urban gangs enable and impede the reintegration of ex-convicts. Ethnography, 5 (1), 107–140.

Scottish Government National Statistics (2009) Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation:

2009 General Report. Edinburgh: A Scottish Government National Statistics Publication.

Shakur, S. (2004) Monster: The Autobiography of an LA Gang Member. New York: Grove Press.

Sharp, C., Aldridge, J. and Medina, J. (2006) Delinquent Youth Groups and Offending Behaviour: Findings from the 2004 Offending, Crime and Justice Survey. London: Home Office.

Shaw, C. and McKay, H. (1942) Juvenile Delinquency in Urban Areas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Short, J. and Strodtbeck, F. (1965) Group Process and Gang Delinquency. Chicago:

University of Chicago Press.

Shute, J. (2008) Parenting & youth gangs: risk, resilience and effective support. Report for Manchester City Council. Manchester: Centre for Criminology and Criminal Justice.

Silverstein, M. and Ruiz, S. (2006) Breaking the Chain: How Grandparents Moderate the Transmission of Maternal Depression to Their Grandchildren. Family Relations, 55(5) 601– 612.

Skolnick, J. (1988) The Social Structure of Street Gang Dealing. Sacramento, CA: BCS Forum.

Smith, D. J. and Bradshaw, P. (2005) Gang Membership and Teenage Offending. The Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime, No.8. Edinburgh: Centre for Law and Society.

Social Justice Policy Group (2006) Breakdown Britain: Interim Report on the State of the Nation. London: Centre for Social Justice.

Thompson, T., Harris, P. and Blenford, A. (2002) They’re lethal, unfeeling – and no one can touch them. The Observer, Sunday 28 April.

Thornberry, T. (1998) Membership in Youth Gangs and Involvement in Serious and Violent Offending, in Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions, R. Loeber and D. Farrington (eds), pp 147–166. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Thornberry, T. P. (2001) Risk factors for gang membership, in The Modern Gang Reader, 2nd edn, J. Miller, C. L. Maxson and M. W. Klein (eds), pp 32–43. Los Angeles: Roxbury Pub. Co.

Thornberry, T.P., Krohn, M.D., Lizotte, A.J., and Smith, C.A. (2003) Gangs and Delinquency in Developmental Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Thrasher, F. M. (1927) The Gang: A Study of 1,313 Gangs in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Vigil, J. D. (1988) Barrio Gangs: Street Life and Identity in Southern California. Austin:

University of Texas Press.

Vigil, J. D. (1996) Understanding Life in an East Los Angeles Public Housing Project: A Focus on Gang and Non-Gang Families. A research grant (90-CL-1105) Department of Health and Human Studies. http://www.streetgangs.com/academic/AcrD322.pdf Vigil, J. D. (2003) Urban Violence and Street Gangs. Annual Review of Anthropology, 32, 225–242.

Vigil, J. D. (2007) The Projects: Gang and Non-Gang Families in East Los Angeles. The University of Texas Press.

Weerman, F., Maxson, C., Esbensen, F.-A., Aldridge, J., Medina, J. and Van Gemert, F.

(2009) Eurogang Program Manual: Background, Development and Use of the Eurogang Instruments in Multi-site, Multi-method Comparative Research.

https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/api/datastream?publicationPid=uk-ac-manscw:58536&datastreamId=FULL-TEXT.PDF Wells, E. L. and Rankin, J. H. (1991) Families and Delinquency: A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Broken Homes. Social Problems, 38(1) 71–93.

Welshman, J. (2002) Underclass: A History of the Excluded 1800–2000. London:

Hambledon Continuum.

West, D. J. and Farrington, D. P. (1977) Who Becomes Delinquent? London: Heinemann Educational Books.

Williams, K (2004) Criminology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Willis, P. (1977) How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs. New York: Columbia University Press.

Wolverhampton Council (2008) Indices of Deprivation 2007. Information and Research Briefing. http://www.wolverhampton.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/68412ED8-286F-4F82-B7A5CA67FA66462/0/InformationandResearchBriefingJun08200kb.pdf Yablonsky, L. (1962) The Violent Gang. New York: Macmillan.

Young, T. (2009) Girls and Gangs: ‘Shemale’ Gangsters in the UK? Youth Studies, 9(3), 224–238.

Young, T. (2011) In Search of the ‘Shemale’ Gangster, in Youth in Crisis?, in Gangs, Territoriality and Violence, B. Goldson (ed), pp 128–144. London: Routledge.

Young, T. and Hallsworth, S. (eds) (2011) Young People, Gangs and Street-Based Violence. Children Behaving Badly? Exploring Peer Violence Between Children and Young People. London: Sage Publications.

Young, T. (2013 forthcoming) ‘Road Life’ – The Nature of Female Relationships ‘on road’.

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