«FSA STUDY ON BULK CARRIER SAFETY CONDUCTED BY JAPAN MSC75/5/2 ANNEX 1 Page 1 ANNEX 1: PROBLEM DEFINITION AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1. Definition of ...»
FSA STUDY ON BULK CARRIER SAFETY CONDUCTED BY JAPAN MSC75/5/2
ANNEX 1: PROBLEM DEFINITION AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION
1. Definition of the problem
1.1 Definition of the problem
SOLAS Chapter XII requires safety measures to those bulk carries of length of 150 m and over and which
carry high-density bulk cargo. The Committee is discussing questions whether safety measures are necessary for bulk carriers to which Chapter XII does not apply. This FSA study is intended to give assistance, by FSA methodology, for verifying and analyzing the safety of bulk carriers to which Chapter XII does not apply. For this purpose, this evaluation needs to compare the safety of various types of bulk carriers that comply with SOLAS Chapter XII or does not comply with that.
1.1.1 Ship category 126.96.36.199 Definition of Bulk Carriers
There are several definitions of bulk carriers. These are:
.1 A definition of bulk carriers is given in SOLAS Chapter IX; that is, “Bulk Carrier means a ship which is constructed generally with single deck, topside tanks and hopper side tanks in cargo spaces, and it intended primarily to carry dry cargo in bulk, and includes such types as ore carriers and combination carriers. “.2 Another definition has been developed during the SOLAS Conference and is given in the Conference Resolution 6; that is, “Ships constructed with single deck, topside tanks and hopper side tanks in cargo spaces and intended primarily to carry dry cargo in bulk; or ore carriers; or combination carriers”.3 The other definition has been proposed by MSC 70/4/Add.1 which has proposed FSA study on bulk carriers; that is, “A bulk carrier is any ship designed, constructed and/or used for the carriage of solid bulk cargo.” For the purpose of this study as mentioned in 2.1.2, a wider definition should be used. Therefore, the study is based upon the third definition (mentioned in 188.8.131.52.3).
In relation to these definitions, “solid bulk cargo” should be defined and this is given in SOLAS Chapter XII Regulation 1.4 as follows;
“Solid bulk cargo means any material, other than liquid or gas, consisting of a combination of particles or larger pieces of material, generally uniform in composition, which is loaded into cargo spaces of a ship, generally without any intermediate form of containment.” 184.108.40.206 Type of Bulk Carriers, Ship Size and Ship Age A preliminary investigation on type of bulk carriers and their categorization method was carried out.
APPENDIX A “DEFINITION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BULK CARRIERS FOR FSA” of this report sh
Types of bulk carries, which meet the definition given in 220.127.116.11.3 and categorization in Table A.1.2 of APPENDIX A, have been derived from ship register of Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (ClassNK). Actual possible sizes of bulk carriers of each type are also selected. These types and their size are shown in APPENDIX B “Type Distribution of NK registered Ships Carrying Solid Bulk Cargo”. APPENDIX B illustrates the typical mid-ship section of the hold of each type of bulk carriers. APPENDIX B also gives possible cargoes to be carried in the column of “purpose of ship”.
Types of (1’), (4’) and (5’) has been deleted from the consideration because actual number of the ships of these types are very small, and ships of such types are no longer built.
APPENDIX C gives a general plan of hull construction of bulk carriers. APPENDIX C also gives detail of components and elements of construction and structure, as well as fundamental equipment, of bulk carrier type (1), (2) and (3). Hazard relating to these components and elements should be identified in FSA Step 1 hazard identification process.
Ship age will be considered at casualty data analysis and taken into consideration in analysis in FSA STEP 1 to STEP 5. Tentatively, two class of ship age is chosen as;
(1) from 0 up to 15; and (2) from 15 and over.
18.104.22.168 Type of Cargo APPENDIX D describes the types of cargo that are intended to be carried by each type of bulk carriers which is categorized in APPENDIX B. Actual practice of cargo carriage by each size of bulk carrier is surveyed and the results are given in Table-D.2 of APPENDIX D. These data should be considered in FSA Step 1 hazard identification process.
1.1.2 Ship functions and features This study deals with problems particular to bulk carriers. Therefore, in general, this study deals with cargo area and forecastle of bulk carriers, and does not deal with machinery spaces and accommodation spaces, because arrangements in machinery spaces and accommodation spaces of bulk carriers are almost the same of those of other type of cargo ships. Detail of components and element of construction and structure, as well as major equipment, of typical bulk carriers are shown in APPENDIX C.
However, following functions, facilities and items have been tabled to the discussion of the
Committee at its 69th and 70th session, and may be considered as risk control options (RCO):
1.1.3 Operating Condition Operating conditions of bulk carriers have been categorized. Table 3.1 gives the selected operating conditions that should be considered in this study.
1.1.4 Human Factors Safety management of operation of bulk carriers is regulated by SOLAS Chapter IX and ISM Code.
This study uses an assumption that the safety management of bulk carrier is kept in good condition according to the SOLAS regulations and ISM Code.
However, following items should be considered in this study, because these may affect on safety in case of various operation conditions.
(1) On-board human factor, such as on board maintenance, navigation and operation in normal condition and emergency condition (2) Ship management, manning management and navigational management, and (3) Safety management.
APPENDIX E illustrates typical chartering system and voyage patterns.
(1) Casualties to be dealt with, because these are particular to bulk carriers, and (2) Casualties not to be dealt with, because these are not particular to bulk carriers.
Table 3.2 show the results of categorization.
1.1.7 Risk associated with consequences Scope of this study is safety of bulk carriers, and particularly safety of life on bulk carries.
Therefore, risk for life is the major concern. This study does not deal with business risk and risk to environment.
(1) International Convention for the Safety at Sea, 1974 as amended (SOLAS 1974) and the relative Protocol, especially, (a) Chapter XII - Safety Measures for Bulk Carriers, including IACS Unified Requirements S12 and S17 to S24 (b) Chapter XI - Enhanced Survey, and IMO Resolution A.744(18) (c) Chapter IX - International Safety Management Code (ISM Code) (d) Chapter III - Life-Saving Appliances and Arrangements (e) Chapter II-2, VI and VII - Code of Safety Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes as amended (BC Code) (f) Chapter II-2 and VII - International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code as amended (IMDG Code) (2) International Convention on Load Line, 1966 (ILL 66) and the relative Protocol (3) International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 as amended (MARPOL
73) and the relative Protocol (4) International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1995 as amended (STCW)
2.1 Lessons learned from recent studies Investigation results regarding safety of bulk carriers have been presented to IMO and/or published.
Ship Research Institute of Ministry of Transport of Japan, Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (Class NK), Shipbuilding Research Association of Japan, and other organization have conducted many studies on safety of bulk carriers. Literatures of these studies were corrected. Literature of these study and investigation has been corrected.
This consideration to definition and identification of bulk carriers for FSA is constituted of two parts, Part A.1: Definition and identification of bulk carriers, and Part A.2: Definition and identification of bulk cargoes which terms are defined in A.1.
A.1 Definition and identification of bulk carriers A.1.1 (Option 1) Definition based on SOLAS regulation IX/1.6 Definition of bulk carriers would be derived, based upon SOLAS regulation IX/1.6 and related
interpretation given by SOLAS/CPNF. 4/25 as follows:
Bulk Carrier means a ship that is intended primarily to carry dry cargo in bulk, (1) which has single deck, topside tanks and hopper side tanks in cargo spaces, (2) which has single deck, double bottom and two longitudinal bulkhead in cargo spaces and carries bulk ore cargo in the center holds, or (3) ore-oil combination carrier defined in SOLAS regulation II-2/3.27 as
NOTE 1): SOLAS Chapter IX/1.6:
Bulk Carrier means a ship which is constructed generally with single deck, topside tanks and hopper side tanks in cargo spaces, and it intended primarily to carry dry cargo in bulk, and includes such types as ore carriers and combination carriers.
NOTE 2): Interpretation given by SOLAS/CONF.4/25:
Ships constructed with single deck, topside tanks and hopper side tanks in cargo spaces and intended primarily to carry dry cargo in bulk; or
- ore carriers *; or
- combination carriers **;
* “Ore carrier” means a sea-going single deck ship having two longitudinal bulkheads and a double bottom throughout the cargo region and intended for the carriage of ore cargoes in the centre holds only.
** “Combination carrier” has the same meaning as in SOLAS regulation II-2/3.27.
The bulk carriers defined as above include those ships that carry bulk cargo in a part of the cargo spaces.
Table A.1.1 shows bulk carriers defined as above and other types of ship. It should be noted that Table A.1.1 show representative of types of ship but does not show them exhaustively.
A.1.2 (Option 2) Definition on the view point of carrying bulk cargo
Another definition of bulk carriers may be derive from the view point of carrying bulk cargoes as follows:
Bulk Carrier means a ship that is intended primarily to carry dry cargo in bulk.
A.2 Definition and identification of bulk cargoes
Solid bulk cargo would be defined as in SOLAS CONF. 4/25 ANNEX for regulation 1.4 as follows:
“Solid bulk cargo” is any material, other than liquid or gas, consisting of a combination of particles, granules or larger pieces of material, generally uniform in composition, which is loaded directly into the cargo spaces of a ship without any intermediate form of containment.” Solid bulk cargo defined as above includes “Heavy break bulk cargo” as proposed by BIMCO by MSC 69/2/1/Add.4. Table A.2.1 shows categorization of cargoes according to the definition above. It should be noted that Table A.2.1 show representative of types of cargoes but does not show them exhaustively.
C.2 Detail of components of construction of bulk carriers Construction of bulk carriers is broken down in some parts. These are aft end part, engine room part, accommodation part, cargo hold part and fore end part. Spaces in each of the parts are identified. Then, components of structure of each space are identified. The identified spaces in each part and components of structure of each space of bulk carrier type (1), (2) and (3) * are listed in Figure C.2.1 through C.2.6. Detail of arrangement, facilities and equipment in the spaces of single-side skin bulk carrier is shown in Table C.2.1.
Similar figure and table for structural components and arrangements as well as facilities/equipment should be made for each type of bulk carrier, and hazard identification should be done for each structural components, arrangement and facilities/equipment in each space.