«Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Russian Natural Gas Export Pipeline System Results and Extrapolation of Measurements and Surveys in Russia ...»
Science Centre Institute for
Institute of Work Wuppertal Institute for
and Technology Climate, Environment,
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
from the Russian Natural Gas
Export Pipeline System
Results and Extrapolation
of Measurements and Surveys
A Project on behalf of
E.ON Ruhrgas AG
Wuppertal Institute for
Climate, Environment and Energy
in co-operation with
Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry,
Wuppertal and Mainz February 2005
IMPRINTProject Manager Stefan Lechtenböhmer
Wuppertal Institute Max-Planck-Institute Stefan Lechtenböhmer Dr. Sergej S. Assonov Carmen Dienst Dr. Carl Brenninkmeijer Dr. Manfred Fischedick Thomas Hanke Thomas Langrock
With support from:
Martin Gürtler Prof. Dr. Jos Lelieveld Prof. Dr. Peter Hennicke Sylvia Kruse
For more information see:
www.wupperinst.org www.mpch-mainz.mpg.de Greenhouse gas emissions from the Russian natural gas export pipeline system Final Report Contents 1 Background to the Survey __________________________________________1
1.1 The emission characteristics of different fossil fuels _______________________1
1.2 Importance of indirect emissions ______________________________________2
1.3 Reasons for a new measurement campaign _____________________________4
1.4 Limits of the study __________________________________________________5 2 The natural gas long distance transmission network in Russia___________7 3 Measurements in the gas export network in Russia____________________10
3.1 The sites ________________________________________________________10
3.2 Emission sources in compressor stations and pipelines ___________________12
3.3 The measurements ________________________________________________14
3.4 Documentation and quality assurance _________________________________15
3.5 Determining other operations-related emissions _________________________16 4 Calculating the emissions _________________________________________19 5 Result: Greenhouse gas emissions of Russian gas exports_____________22
5.1 Greenhouse gas emissions along the export corridors ____________________22
5.2 CH4 emission characteristics ________________________________________23
5.3 Specific emissions and uncertainty analysis ____________________________25 6 Greenhouse gas emissions of fossil fuels in Germany compared________27 7 Summary and conclusions ________________________________________29 Background ______________________________________________________29 New Independent Measurements in Russia_____________________________30 Result _________________________________________________________30 Conclusion_______________________________________________________31 8 Photo documentation _____________________________________________33 9 Documentation of results__________________________________________37 10 References ______________________________________________________38
Figure 3: Direct and indirect emissions of fossil fuels by selected reference parameters and data ____________________________________________3 Figure 4: Overview map of export and transit corridors__________________________7 Figure 5: Age structure and rating of the compressors and pipelines in the export corridors_________________________________________________9 Figure 6: Measurement campaigns on the Russian natural gas export pipelines _____________________________________________________11
Figure 9: Confidence intervals of greenhouse gas emissions from Russian gas exports to Russia’s western border (production in Yamburg) ____________26 Figure 10:Direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels – A study comparison________________________________27 Figure 11:Greenhouse gas emissions for fuels on the German market compared ____________________________________________________31
List of Tables Table 1: Characteristics of the Gazprom gas network and the export corridors_______8 Table 2: Selected stations and surveyed compressor and pipeline sections of the 2003 measurement campaign, with the ages of the plant____________10 Table 3: Typical emission factors for operations-related discharges from compressor stations and pipelines and for breakdown-related gas losses ______________________________________________________17 Table 4: Result of the Monte-Carlo analyses of CH4 emission factors of the measured plant sections and plant items at compressor stations and pipelines _____________________________________________________20 Table 5: Greenhouse gas emissions from the export corridors (2003) _____________22 Table 6: CH4 emissions for pipelines, compressor stations and production and processing – Comparison of the results of the 1996/97 and 2003 measurement campaigns ________________________________________24 Table 7: Indirect greenhouse gas emissions of Russian natural gas delivered to the German border ___________________________________________28 Table 8: Characteristics for emission extrapolation ____________________________37
1 Background to the Survey Fossil fuels supply over 90% of the energy used by the industrialised nations of Europe to generate electricity, power and heat. At the same time, the production and transmission of these fuels significantly contributes to the greenhouse gas emissions of the exporting and importing nations. It is the contribution made by natural gas to these emissions, in particular the climatic relevance of the natural gas exported by Russia to Germany as compared with other fossil fuels, which is the subject of the research project presented in this report.
E.ON Ruhrgas AG1 asked the Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy and the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry to conduct a comprehensive measurement campaign aimed at closing existing gaps in available data and to complete the knowledge of the emissions from the natural gas process chain from Russia to Germany.
A detailed analysis of existing studies, data and process chain analyses (cf.
Lechtenböhmer et al 2003, Wuppertal Institute 2003) was undertaken before the research project commenced.
Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy / Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry Greenhouse gas emissions from the Russian natural gas export pipeline system Final Report processing (benefication) and fuel transmission, and in the greenhouse gas emissions generated by these process steps. Besides CO 2, emissions of other greenhouse gases are also significant, above all CH4. By contrast with direct emissions, it is the assumptions that are made about sources of supply and about the losses along the transmission route that are decisive here.
1.2 Importance of indirect emissions A comparison of the indirect emissions from the production, processing and transmission of the various fossil fuels that play a role on the German market indicates that they are relevant with almost every fuel (cf. Figure 2). CH 4 and CO2 emissions are of equally high significance, whereas the emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2O) are negligible. The emissions in the upstream process chain for natural gas (the current supply mix in Germany) are of a comparable order of magnitude as for example for hard coal and heating oil (HEL)3. Only the emissions of lignite are significantly lower than those of other fossil fuels, as here the CO2 emissions associated with the energy consumed by mining are almost the only relevant factor. Whereas with hard coal it is the pit gas emissions that are of major significance besides the energy actually spent on mining the coal. With the
Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy / Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry Greenhouse gas emissions from the Russian natural gas export pipeline system Final Report Figure 2 makes clear however that – if we follow the data so far assumed in GEMIS5 – the emissions of the upstream process chain of natural gas would roughly double if all of the natural gas sold in Germany were imported from Russia. If we were to use other information then the indirect emissions would be even far higher (cf. Figure 3).
It is the level of indirect emissions of natural gas production and transmission in Russia therefore which is the decisive factor in an assessment of the impact on climate of the fuels used in Germany. According to the requirements of the IPCC6 and the Kyoto Protocol, greenhouse gas emissions are to be attributed to the country in which the emissions are released; in the case of natural gas imported from Russia, this is Russia and the transit states. In terms of a global consideration of the discharge of climaterelevant greenhouse gases however, the upstream emissions of the fuels used in Germany and Europe are also important to the climate debate in these regions.
In the past, assumptions about the level of indirect emissions of natural gas along the Russian supply chain were based on rough estimates only (e.g. Rabchuk et al, 1991).
In some cases these emissions were estimated to be 5% of the produced gas, far higher than the emissions of other producing countries that ranged from 0.7 to 1.5%. It GEMIS 4.13 (Öko Institut [Institute for Applied Ecology] 2002) „Global Emission Model for Integrated Systems“ – a computer aided analysis model for mapping process chain systems and climate balances; together with Ecoinvent, it is currently the emission model most frequently used in the field of fuel process chains.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy / Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry Greenhouse gas emissions from the Russian natural gas export pipeline system Final Report was not until the mid nineties that two measurement campaigns undertaken by Ruhrgas AG together with Gazprom (Kaesler et al. 1997; Ramm 1997; Ruhrgas 1998) produced realistic reference figures for emissions from the production regions and along the transmission route; these figures were made available to the public in 1999 in an article by Dedikov and others. Measurements were taken at the production plants in Yamburg, at two compressor stations in Western Siberia and on export gas pipelines in the central corridor. The collected data was used to extrapolate the emissions for the entire Gazprom gas transmission network. The mid nineties also saw a further measurement campaign carried out by the US EPA7 together with Gazprom; the results of this campaign have not been published. Both measurement campaigns arrive at comparable results, according to which emissions from the export network – not including the distribution networks inside Russia – can be assumed to be approx. 1% of the produced Russian gas.
1.3 Reasons for a new measurement campaign A comparison of the various studies of the indirect emissions of natural gas supplied to Germany shows that the wide spread of results is due almost entirely to the disparate information about indirect emissions of the natural gas of Russian origin.
Most studies and analyses refer to similar primary sources. These primary sources are chiefly the theoretical estimations in Zittel (1997) and results from the Ruhrgas/Gazprom measurement programme referred to above and which are summarised in Dedikov (Dedikov et al. 1999). Some sources however have referred to earlier studies (e.g. DGMK 1992), while others have added their own rough estimates to existing investigations. Two cases in point are the study by Fichtner (2001), in which a detailed listing and explanation of the existing investigations and measurement campaigns is followed – with almost no comment or clear justification – by a significantly higher rough estimate by Greenpeace (2000) as the basis for calculations (cf. Fritsche, Matthes 2001), and the calculations by Rheinbraun AG (Ewers, Renzenbrink 2002) that are based on internal material of the ‘Forschungsstelle für Energiewirtschaft‘ (Research Institute for Energy Economy). Both of these studies assume very high fuel gas consumption (compressor drive) and, in particular, extreme leakages from transmission in Russia.