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«Diplom-Geophysiker Yuriy Maystrenko vom Fachbereich Geowissenschaften der Freien Universität Berlin zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines Dr. ...»

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Evolution and structure of the Glueckstadt Graben by use of borehole

data, seismic lines and 3D structural modelling, NW Germany

Diplom-Geophysiker

Yuriy Maystrenko

vom Fachbereich Geowissenschaften

der Freien Universität Berlin

zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines

Dr. rer. nat

genehmigte Dissertation

Berlin, 2005

Gutachter:

Prof. Dr. U. Bayer

Prof. Dr. R. Littke

Tag der Disputation: 10. Juni 2005

When a man has no longer any

conception of excellence above his own, his voyage is done, he is dead Henry Ward Beecher Contents Figure list ______________________________________________________________III Acknowledgments_______________________________________________________ VII Abstract________________________________________________________________ IX Zusammenfassung________________________________________________________ X Chapter I: Introduction____________________________________________1

1.1. Geological setting____________________________________________________5 1.1.1. Structural framework____________________________________________ 5 1.1.2. Tectono-stratigraphic sequence____________________________________ 8

1.2. Database___________________________________________________________10 Chapter II: Main salt deposits within the Glueckstadt Graben_____________15

2.1. Regional overview _________________________________________________ 15

2.2. Detailed lithology of the Rotliegend, Zechstein and Keuper salt-rich deposits within the GG____________________________________________________________16 2.2.1. Rotliegend sequence____________________________________________ 17 2.2.2. Zechstein sequence_____________________________________________ 18 2.2.3. Keuper sequence_______________________________________________ 19

2.3. Summary__________________________________________________________20 Chapter III: Seismic patterns within the Glueckstadt Gaben______________21

3.1. Introduction_______________________________________________________ 21

3.2. Flanks of the basin – Westschleswig and Eastholstein-Mecklenburg blocks___26

3.3. Marginal Hamburger Trough________________________________________ 31

3.4. Marginal Eastholstein Trough________________________________________ 34

3.5. Transition zone from the NW flank to the Triassic graben_________________36

3.6. Central Triassic graben_____________________________________________ 38 3.6.1. Detailed structure of the internal Keuper sequence____________________ 41

3.7. Summary__________________________________________________________45 Chapter IV: 3D structural model___________________________________49

4.1. Introduction_______________________________________________________ 49

4.2. Present-day structure_______________________________________________ 50 4.2.1. Permian salt___________________________________________________50 I 4.2.2. Triassic deposits_______________________________________________ 52 4.2.2.1. Uppermost Middle Triassic plus Upper Triassic (Keuper)_______54 4.2.3. Preserved Jurassic sediments_____________________________________56 4.2.4. Lower Cretaceous_____________________________________________ 57 4.2.5. Upper Cretaceous_____________________________________________ 59 4.2.6. Paleogene____________________________________________________61 4.2.7. Quaternary –Neogene__________________________________________ 62

4.3. Regional structural features of the GG________________________________ 64

4.4. Summary_________________________________________________________69 Chapter V: 3D modelling________________________________________73

5.1. Introduction______________________________________________________ 73

5.2. Analytical and numerical approaches________________________________ 74

5.3. Results of 3D reverse modelling______________________________________76 5.3.1. Modelling concept____________________________________________ 76 5.3.2. Reconstruction of the initial distribution of sediments________________ 78 5.3.2.1. Triassic______________________________________________80 5.3.2.2. Jurassic______________________________________________81 5.3.2.3. Lower Cretaceous_____________________________________ 83 5.3.2.4. Upper Cretaceous_____________________________________ 84 5.3.2.5. Paleogene___________________________________________ 86 5.3.3. Results of the modelling________________________________________87

5.4. Results of 3D forward modelling_____________________________________90

5.5. Summary________________________________________________________93 Chapter VI: Conclusions________________________________________97 References____________________________________________________________101 Appendix A, B_________________________________________________________109 Erklärung____________________________________________________________ 123 Curriculum Vitae_____________________________________________________ 124 List of publications_____________________________________________________ 126 II List of figures Figure 1.1. Location of the study area (frame 1) in relation to major structural units within 2 the Central European Basin System (compiled after Ziegler, 1990b; Lockhorst et al., 1998; Pharaoh, 1999, Bayer et al., 2002). STZ: Sorgenfrei-Tornqist Zone, TTZ: Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone, EOL: Elbe-Odra Line, EFZ: Elbe Fault Zone, VF: Variscan Front.





Figure 1.2.

Location of the study area in relation to major Triassic subsidence centers within 3 the Central European Basin System (compiled after Van Horn, 1987; Ziegler, 1990; Vejbaek, 1990; Baldschuhn et al., 1996 and 2001; Scheck et al., 2003;

Bayer et al., 2002). CG: Central Graben; DB: Danish Basin; GG: Glueckstadt Graben; LSB: Lower Saxony Basin; PT: Polish Trough; RFH: RingkoebingFyn High; RT: Rheinsberg Trough; SPB: Sole Pit Basin.

Figure 1.3.

Tectonic map of the Glueckstadt Graben (frame 1 in the Fig. 1.1; position of salt 5 domes after Baldschuhn et al., 1996).

Figure 1.4.

(a) Present thickness of the sedimentary cover down to top Upper Permian 7 (Zechstein) in the Glueckstadt Graben and its surrounding area (based on Baldschuhn et al., 1996). (b) Regional NW–SE cross-section across the Glueckstadt Graben, showing main structural features (vertical slice from the 3D model of the Glueckstadt Graben). Stratigraphic key: P1 -C-D = Undivided Lower Permian (Rotliegend), Carboniferous and Devonian deposits; P2 = Upper Permian (Zechstein); T = Triassic; J = Jurassic; K = Cretaceous; Q-Pg = Paleogene-Quaternary (including Neogene).

Figure 1.5.

Lithostratigraphic chart and main tectonic events of the Glueckstadt Graben. 9 Lithologies are taken from well data.

Figure 1.6.

Available seismic data coverage of the study area and the location of available 11 wells.

Figure 1.7.

3D structural model of the area under consideration. For stratigraphic key see 13 Figure 1.4.

Figure 2.1.

3D view on the present-day top of the Permian salt in the Glueckstadt Graben 16 and adjacent areas.

Figure 2.2.

Detailed Rotliegend (Lower Permian) salt-rich section, gamma-ray log of Well 17 1.

Figure 2.3.

Detailed Zechstein (Upper Permian) salt section, gamma-ray log of Well 2. 18 Figure 2.4. Detailed Keuper (Upper Triassic) salt-rich section, gamma-ray log of Well 3. 19 Figure 3.1. Simplified tectonic map of the Glueckstadt Graben (frame 1 in the Fig. 1) 22 showing the location of seismic lines and boreholes mentioned in the text (position of salt domes after Baldschuhn et al., 1996).

Figure 3.2.

Interpreted northwest-southeast transect through Schleswig-Holstein (profile 1 in 24 the Fig. 3.1). Stratigraphic key for this and other figures: C-D = Undivided Carboniferous and Devonian deposits; P1-C2 = Lower Rotliegend and uppermost Carboniferous; P1(s) = upper part of the Lower Permian (salt-rich Rotliegend); P2 = Upper Permian (Zechstein); P2+P1(s) = upper part of the Lower Permian and Upper Permian (undivided Zechstein and salt-rich Rotliegend); T1 = Lower Triassic (Buntsandstein); T2 = Middle Triassic without uppermost part (Muschelkalk); T2-3 = uppermost part of Middle Triassic and Upper Triassic (Keuper); J = Jurassic; K1 = Lower Cretaceous; K2 – Upper Cretaceous; Q-Pg = Paleogene-Quaternary.

Figure 3.3.

Interpreted seismic profile 2. A typical structure from the NW flank of the basin 26 (Westschleswig block) is shown (visible erosinal unconformity is indicated by wavy line). See Fig. 3.1 for location. For stratigraphic key see Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.4.

Interpreted seismic profiles 3 and 4. A typical structure from the NE part of the 28 SE flank of the basin (Eastholstei-Mecklenburg block) is shown (visible III erosinal unconformity is indicated by wavy lines). See Fig. 3.1 for location. For stratigraphic key see Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.5.

Interpretation of line 5 showing structural features along the Eastholstein- 30 Mecklenburg block (visible erosinal unconformities are indicated by wavy lines; arrows show on- and toplap of the reflection terminations). Late Carboniferous-Early Permian extension tectonics is shown beneath Permian salt pillow. See Fig. 3.1 for location. For stratigraphic key see Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.6.

Interpreted seismic profile 6. A typical structure along the southern margin of 32 the Hamburger Trough is shown (visible erosinal unconformity is indicated by wavy line; grey arrows show on- and toplap of the reflection terminations;

white arrows indicate the depocentres of sedimentation). See Fig. 3.1 for location. For stratigraphic key see Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.7.

Interpreted seismic reflection line 7 from the Eastholstein Trough. Two 34 Cenozoic unconformities are shown by wavy lines. See Fig. 3.1 for location.

For stratigraphic key see Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.8.

Interpreted seismic profile 8 showing a salt structure which collapsed during 36 Paleogene-Neogene. The section shows the transition from the NW flank towards the center of the GG (arrows show onlap of the reflection terminations). The gray wedge corresponds to the salt-rich Keuper sequence.

See Fig. 3.1 for location. For stratigraphic key see Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.9.

Interpreted seismic profile 9 showing the structure of a salt diapir within the northern part of the Central Triassic Graben (visible erosinal unconformities are indicated by wavy lines; arrows show on- and toplap of the reflection terminations). See Fig. 3.1 for location. For stratigraphic key see Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.10.

Interpreted seismic profile 10 across the central part of the Glueckstadt Graben, showing onlapping strata due to salt diapir formation within the Keuper, Jurassic and Paleogene-Neogene (onlapping strata are indicated by arrows;

visible erosinal unconformity are shown by wavy line). See Fig. 3.1 for location. For stratigraphic key see Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.11.

Structural features of the Keuper salt-rich layers across the Central Triassic Graben Depth. (a) Depth converted seismic section 11 (see Fig. 3.1 for location). (b) Interpreted time section 1. (c) Time section 11 without an interpretation. Grey areas correspond to salt rich layers. For stratigraphic key see Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.12.

Structural features of the Keuper salt-rich layers along the Central Triassic Graben. (a) Depth converted seismic section 12 (see Fig. 3.1 for location). (b) Interpreted time section 2. (c) Time section 12 without an interpretation. Grey areas correspond to salt rich layers. For stratigraphic key see Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.13.

Structural evolution of the Glueckstadt Graben along south-eastern part of the seismic reflection profile 1 as visualized by flattening the SE part of line 1 to selected stratigraphic levels (for location see Figs. 3.1 and 3.2; visible erosinal unconformity is indicated by wavy line; arrows show on- and toplap of the reflection terminations). (a) Present-day structure; (b) Reconstruction to the base of Cretaceous. Late Jurassic – Early Cretatious regional erosional event is shown; (c) Reconstruction to the base of Keuper. Possible syn-rift faults and erosion are shown. For stratigraphic key see Fig. 3.2.

Figure 4.1.



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