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«Die Nematoden des Breitenbachs – Struktur, Dynamik und mögliche Funktion im Ökosystem eines Mittelgebirgsbachs Article Source: OAI READS ...»

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See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/36725211

Die Nematoden des Breitenbachs – Struktur,

Dynamik und mögliche Funktion im Ökosystem

eines Mittelgebirgsbachs

Article

Source: OAI

READS

1 author:

Heino Christl

tier3 solutions GmbH

3 PUBLICATIONS 5 CITATIONS

SEE PROFILE

Available from: Heino Christl

Retrieved on: 20 May 2016

Die Nematoden des Breitenbachs –

Struktur, Dynamik und mögliche Funktion im Ökosystem eines Mittelgebirgsbachs Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Naturwissenschaften (Dr. rer. nat.) dem Fachbereich Biologie der Philipps-Universität Marburg vorgelegt von Heino Christl aus Frankfurt am Main Marburg/Lahn 2008 Die Nematoden des Breitenbachs Heino Christl There's a worm at the bottom of the stream bed And his name is Wiggly Woo There's a worm at the bottom of my stream bed And all he seems to do Is wiggle all day… And wiggle all night And the microbes say "What a terrible sight!" There's a worm at the bottom of my stream bed And his name is Wiggly Woo.

There's a worm at the bottom of the stream bed And his name is Wiggly Woo There's a worm at the bottom my stream bed And all that he can do Is wiggle all night...

And wiggle all day...

And wiggle wiggle wiggle the day away;

There's a worm at the bottom of the stream bed And his name is Wiggly Woo Nursery rhyme from Moritz' school, slightly adapted (three words changed) Copyright status unknown Vom Fachbereich Biologie der Philipps-Universität Marburg als Dissertation

–  –  –

Danksagung Meinen Eltern danke ich, dass sie mir das Studium ermöglicht haben.

Prof. Peter Zwick danke ich für die Überlassung des herausfordernden Themas und für seine anhaltende Unterstützung.

Mein herzlicher Dank gilt auch:

Allen Mitarbeitern der Limnologischen Flussstation für eine sehr gute Arbeitsatmosphäre;

Der Max-Planck - Gesellschaft für ein dreijähriges Doktorandenstipendium;

Dr. Andreas Overhoff für zahlreiche anregende und ermutigende Diskussionen um Extraktionsverfahren und Hilfe bei meinen ersten Bestimmungsversuchen;

Dr. Franz Riemann für wertvolle Informationen betreffs Ernährungsökologie und Exoenzymbildung durch Nematoden und vor allem für die Kopie seiner Monhystera s.l. – Kartei;

Dr. Mike Hodda für den entscheidenden Tipp, es doch mal mit Ludox® zu versuchen Dr. Paul Neumann danke ich, dass er mich dazu ermutigte, selbst zu programmieren und dafür, dass er die essentielle Voraussetzung in Form einer Schnittstelle zum Digitalisierbrett gleich selbst programmierte;

Den Praktikanten und Praktikantinnen, vor allem aber unseren unermüdlichen FÖJ-lerinnen, danke ich herzlich für die vielen Stunden, die sie mit der nicht gerade spannenden Fleißarbeit des "Nematoden aus Extrakten heraussuchen" verbracht haben, allen voran Julia Straube, Steffi von Fumetti, Dagmar Hensel und Anke Schmunk.

Dr. Björn Hendel danke ich für Hilfe beim Prioritäten setzen, bei den Messungen des Phospholipidgehalts, für ausgezeichnete Stimmung beim weltbesten Capuccino und Unterstützung aller Art.

Dr. Michael Obach gilt mein Dank für die versuchsweise Einspeisung einer Teilmenge der vorhandenen Daten in eine von ihm programmierte neuronale Netzwerkssimulation;

Dr. Hans-Heinrich Schmidt für die Temperatur- und Abflussdaten des Untersuchungszeitraumes.

Dr. Jochen Fischer für eine Einweisung in die Nutzung des Laser-Partikelzählers der Gesamthochschule Kassel (GHK), Abt. Siedlungswasserwirtschaft;

Dr. Klemens Ekschmidt gab hilfreiche Hinweise zur Entwicklung des Bestimmungsmakros mit Glockenkurve und zu Interferenzen bei der Abschätzung der Generationszeiten.

Dr. Udo Hommen verdanke ich einen vergleichsweise glatten Einstieg in die multivariate Statistik, einige Analysen des Materials, die ich nicht hinbekommen hätte, und nicht zuletzt wertvolle Kommentare zu den statistischen Teilen des Manuskripts.

Dr. D. Hope verdanke ich, dass er mir eine frühe Version des durch Rosanne D'Aprile Johnson aus dem Russischen übersetzten Manuskripts von Tsalolikhin 1983 zur Verfügung stellte.

Vielen alten Hasen danke ich, dass sie im Rahmen von nematologischen Treffen bereitwillig die Schutzhülle vom Mikroskop genommen und Individuen nachbestimmt haben, bei denen ich unsicher war oder die ich gar nicht kannte, allen voran Dr. Tom Bongers und Dr. Andreas Overhoff, weiterhin Dr. Dietrich Blohme, Pieter Loof, Prof. Walter Sudhaus, Dr. Dieter Sturhan und Prof. Walter Traunspurger; letzterem danke ich auch sehr, dass er sich als Gutachter und Prüfer zur Verfügung gestellt hat.

Lavinia und Moritz danke ich für Geduld mit ihrem zerstreuten Vater und meiner Frau danke ich, dass sie trotzdem zu mir gehalten hat!

–  –  –

1 Abstract The nematodes of the Breitenbach – community structure, dynamics and potential function in the ecosystem of a first-order submountain stream Heino Christl (2008) Doctoral Thesis; Marburg/Lahn Free-living nematodes inhabiting the sediments of the Breitenbach stream were investigated from 1992 until 1995. The Breitenbach is a submontaneous 1st-order stream in Eastern Hesse, Germany. The study aimed to generate an inventory of free-living nematode species, determining their abundance, the composition of the communities and their fluctuation in space and time in relation to selected biotic and abiotic environmental variables.





Furthermore data on the number of generations per year, biomass and production were required to allow a comparison with the respective data of other organism groups in the Breitenbach as well as with the corresponding literature data from different aquatic communities.

The investigated sediment generally ranged between sand and fine gravel, the organic matter content ranged between 0.27 and 6.7% of fresh sediment weight, and the discharge ranged between 2 and 386 L/sec in the period of the study.

With all tested extraction methods the presence of fine detritus in the extracts proved to impede recovery of the nematodes. For the Breitenbach sediment, the most suitable method was a flotation technique using diluted Ludox® as the extraction medium. When an aqueous magnesium sulphate solution was used as the medium, only one third to half of the nematode abundance was recovered compared to Ludox®. Furthermore some samples were processed repeatedly, again using Ludox® as the extraction agent. The first run recovered only between 48% and 82% of those numbers obtained from four runs, indicating that the extraction method is not rigorously quantitative even when the most efficient extraction agent is used.

Using the available identification keys, the majority of adult Monhysterida proved to be indeterminable. The dominant species was new to science, Eumonhystera breitenbachi n.

sp. Even with specimens that apparently belonged to known species, the identification process was cumbersome and prone to errors, particularly since there are both inconsistencies within the keys and disagreements between different keys. In order to obtain more reliable and reproducible identification results, a computerized polytomous identification system was developed as an Excel macro that was linked to the digitising tablet and the microscope. This allowed instant comparison of all measured morphometric parameters with literature data.

This system was extended by an Index-System, assuming unimodal distribution of morphometric characters, which enables the user to examine complete data bases automatically.

The Breitenbach sediments were inhabited by an abundant and diverse nematode community. 241 taxa were recorded; of these 53 were generally aquatic species, another 98 species are considered to be amphibious and the rest of 90 species are classified as terrestrial.

Die Nematoden des Breitenbachs Heino Christl However, the steady and dominant species generally were the aquatic ones. The average abundance was determined to be 51 Individuals per millilitre sediment (3 – 787 ind./mL), corresponding to a density of ca 2.55*106/m². Abundances could vary between replicates by an order of magnitude. No clear seasonality could be detected, but there were consistent differences between sampling areas along the stream. Summarizing abundance data are displayed in tables and for the important species also in charts.

Abundances were affected by a winter flood event in the lower reach, less distinctly in the central and upper reach. However, composition of the nematode community changed in all three sampling areas, particularly the abundance and contribution of monhysterids decreased after the flood, whereas the populations of large Triplonchida and Enoplida remained more stable and hence their relative contribution increased. These changes partly coincided with distinct changes in the abiotic sediment parameters.

Ordination analysis revealed patterns in the community and allowed both the effects to be visualized and the influence of measured environmental variables to be quantified. 34 to 60% of the total variance could be captured in the first four axes (indirect methods). When latent variables were constrained to linear combinations of measured environmental variables (direct, constrained method) 17 to 30% of the total variance was captured as speciesenvironment interaction (and used in the model) whereas 29 to 41% of the variance was allotted to the covariable sampling date. These results that were in part highly significant show that there are links between abiotic parameters and the composition of the community, but also that there must be further environmental variables that have an effect on the nematode community but that were not measured. From the environmental variables that were measured the sediment grain size (median) showed the strongest link with the latent variables, followed by water content and content of organic matter. Also the amount of very fine mineral particles (less than 5 µm) and the microbial activity in the sediment had effects on the composition of the nematode community, however these links were less pronounced than expected.

R-strategic bacterial feeders dominated in the Breitenbach in terms of abundance, whereas in terms of biomass larger and K-strategic species were dominant. Generation times ranged between 23 and 365 days, some longer ones were directly observed but the majority was allometrically estimated. This corresponds to 1 – 17 generations per year, although the upper margin of this range contains considerable uncertainty. Nematode biomass (standing stock) was approximately 0.45 g fresh weight per square meter and the production was estimated to be 0.6 g carbon per square-meter and year.

Nematodes convert microscopic bacterial biomass into macroscopic animal tissue. It was therefore assumed that they might act as an important link between bacterial production and the production of higher trophic levels, as has been demonstrated for marine meiobenthic communities. However, the Breitenbach data on biomass and production indicate that this pathway in the trophic net of the sediment is quantitatively only of minor importance: The nematode biomass- and production values were by far too low compared to the values determined for bacterial and macrozoobenthic biomass and production; these were more than an order of magnitude higher compared to those of the nematodes.

Die Nematoden des Breitenbachs Heino Christl Further functions the nematodes might have in the benthic community such as generating hot spots of increased bacterial production or producing rare exoenzymes are discussed, although it was not the aim of this study to test these hypotheses. However, observations from this study indicate that links between nematodes and other biota tend to be bidirectional, i.e. nematodes can predate on ciliates, but at the same time become prey of ciliates. This type of bidirectional interaction appears not to be an exception, but the rule, and the same could apply to the majority of interactions between nematodes and other organisms.

2 Inhaltsverzeichnis 1

Abstract

2 Inhaltsverzeichnis

3 Einleitung

4 Sektion A: Untersuchungsgebiet, Extraktion von Nematoden aus Sediment, sonstige Methoden und nachgeordnete Aspekte

4.1 Material und Methoden

4.1.1 Allgemeine Probencharakterisierung

4.1.1.1 Untersuchungsgebiet

4.1.1.2 Probenstellen

4.1.1.3 Zeitraum der Probennahme

4.1.1.4 Entnahmemethodik



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