WWW.BOOK.DISLIB.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Books, dissertations, abstract
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 7 | 8 || 10 | 11 |   ...   | 24 |

«A Comparative Case Study of North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) and Ireland by Melanie Liese B.A. School of Applied Languages and Intercultural Studies ...»

-- [ Page 9 ] --

Each society has its own regime of truth, its „general politics‟ of truth; that is, the types of discourses which it accepts and makes function as true; the mechanisms and instances which enable one to distinguish between true and false statements, the means by which each is sanctioned, the techniques and procedures accorded value by the acquisition of truth; the status of those who are charged with saying what counts as true (Foucault 1980, in Plant 2001, p.103).

Derived from his concept of „truth‟ in society, Critical Discourse Analysts believe, that the application of certain linguistic features within a discourse are a matter of choice, “employed to maintain and reproduce the status quo” of a society, i.e. to uphold a society‟s „regime of truth‟ (Wodak, et al. 1999, p.8).

4.3 Thematic Discourse Analysis (TDA) Thematic Discourse Analysis can be understood as a derivative of CDA, which has been prominently applied in Education Studies in Germany and in particular in the area of Textbook Research. It is often referred to as Thematische Diskursanalyse or TDA.

Die TDA lässt sich in einer ersten Charakterisierung als theoriegeleitet, rekonstruktiv und empirisch kennzeichnen. Es geht dabei um die Rekonstruktion spezifischer semantisch-thematischer Grundstrukturen von diskursivem, d.h. sprachlich- zeichenhaftem Material, woraus sich das Attribut „thematisch„ [...] herleitet (Höhne 2004, p.389-390).

[TDA, in an initial characterisation, can be described as being informed by reconstructive and empirical theory. It is about the reconstruction of specific semantic-thematic frameworks of discursive, i.e. linguistic-emblematic material, from which the attribute can be „thematically‟ uncovered.] Accordingly, TDA allows researchers to reconstruct a thematic framework of a specific discourse as they uncover certain recurring attributes that shape the particular discourse.

As a derivative of CDA, TDA furthermore presumes “dass Diskurse primär thematisch gebunden sind” [that discourses are primarily linked thematically] (Höhne 2004, p.390) and therefore exhibit certain thematically linked characteristics, also called “Typizität” (ibid, p.391). Through the use of TDA, researchers seek to identify the “Typizität eines Diskurses bzw. die Regelhaftigkeit des Auftretens spezifischer Aussagen” [typicality of a discourse and the regularity of the occurrence of specific statements] (ibid, p.391).

In this context, Thematic Discourse Analysts emphasise that the attributes or characteristics, which construct a certain discourse, “sind von struktureller Ähnlichkeit im Sinne einer Paraphrase” [are of structural similarity in the sense of a

paraphrase] (Höhne, Kunz and Radtke 2005, p.29):

Es handelt sich also nicht um wörtliche Wiederholungen oder die Verwendung identischer Begriffe, sondern um strukturelle Ähnlichkeiten – etwa wenn im selben thematischen Diskurs in verschiedenen Wissensbereichen unterschiedliche Metaphern verwendet werden, die aber innerhalb des Diskurses jeweils die gleiche Funktion erfüllen (ibid, p.29).

[Thus, it is not a matter of literal repetition or the use of identical terms, but a matter of structural similarity – for instance when in the same thematic discourse in different academic areas, different metaphors are used, which, however, within the discourse achieve the same function.] According to Höhne, Kunz and Radtke (2005), who have carried out a major study entitled “Bilder von Fremden” [Pictures of Foreigners], which examines and analyses textbooks in order to establish what a typical student might learn about migrants from them, thematic discourse develops through two complementary methods.

Thematisierungsweisen beruhen zum einen auf bestimmte Differenzsetzungen, durch die in Form von Worten, Phrasen, Bildern, Sequencen usw. semantisch selegiert wird. Zum anderen werden spezifische Verknüpfungen in Form von Prädikationen oder Kopplungen hergestellt und fixiert (p.38, emphasis added).

[The manner by which a theme is created is, on the one hand, based on certain processes of differentiation, which are semantically selected in the form of words, phrases, illustrations, sequences, etc. On the other hand, specific connections are made and attached in the form of predications or links.] Borrowing from the study of Höhne, Kunz and Radtke (2005), an example of the processes of differentiation and predication is developed here: If a phrase “an Arab family lives in our street” were to appear in a German textbook, the adjective „Arab‟ differentiates this family from the families of the majority. Although they live in „our‟ street, they are different, i.e., not like us, they are „Arab‟. Through the process of differentiation here, a message is communicated that the „Arab‟ family does not really belong there. If this phrase is, for example, accompanied by a picture showing women wearing head scarves, another message is implied, namely that the „Arab family‟ mentioned in the phrase are also Muslims. The process of predication therefore connects the differentiating attribute „Arab‟ to the predicate of the „head scarf‟ in the image and reinforces the difference between the Arab family and the majority in Germany. If the same manner of differentiation and predication is used in a few instances within a specific discourse, a theme is created which in turn characterises that discourse.





The complementary interaction of the processes of differentiation and predication therefore allows for the analysis of texts as well as illustrations. The latter often reinforce a message given in a text.

4.4 The Approach Used in this Study 4.4.1 Background Having looked at CDA and Thematic Discourse it is now appropriate to look at the methodology of this study.

Drawing from the theories of both CDA and TDA, this study assumes that a certain discourse of the ethnic and cultural „other‟ is present at a macro level in society. It asks how this discourse is reflected at a micro level in texts and illustrations in primary school textbooks. Furthermore, this study takes into account the “ideological effect” of “discursive practices” (Fairclough and Wodak 1997, p.258). Thus, by examining the types of representations of the „other‟ in the selected textbooks, it can determine whether the ethnic and cultural „other‟ in the selected texts is portrayed as “unequal” in relation to the majority, for example, through the use of stereotypes or victimisation. In this study therefore, the textbook is not just seen as a medium for transferring the knowledge of a society from generation to generation but also as a means of conveying certain societal norms and views, be they in North RhineWestphalia or Ireland.

4.4.2 Methodological Approach of this Study

While CDA sets the field, TDA informs the methods used in this study. Aspects of TDA have been applied to identify certain attributes relating to the discourse of the ethnic and cultural „other‟ in the selected German and Irish textbooks. The aim is to determine whether and in what specific ways the ethnic or cultural „other‟ is presented and to establish any differences and/ or similarities of representation between both contexts.

The definition of the ethnic and cultural „other‟ “umfasst nicht nur den subjektiven Glauben an die eigene Abstammungsgemeinschaft, sondern auch Differenzkonstruktionen, nach denen andere Menschen fremden ethnischen Gruppen mit entsprechenden kulturellen Merkmalen zugeordnet werden” [includes not just the subjective belief about one‟s own group of origin, but also the constructions of difference with which other people are attributed and assigned to foreign ethnic groups according to cultural characteristics] (Weber 2007, p.308). Therefore “the identification of the ethnic others is closely related to national frameworks, which allow for the distinction between “us” and “them” in the first place” (Schissler 2006).

For the purposes of this study, the “national framework” is the ethnic and cultural majority in each country, i.e., the German majority in North Rhine-Westphalia and the Irish majority in Ireland. The „other‟ is defined against this majority on the basis of ethnic and cultural difference, such as origin, skin colour, religion, language, traditions and customs.

Using the two processes of “Differenzsetzung” [process of differentiation] and “Prädikation” [predication] through which a thematic discourse develops (Höhne, Kunz and Radtke 2005, p.38), this study seeks to show how the ethnic and cultural „other‟ has been constructed, hence how a discourse on the ethnic and cultural „other‟ has been created, against the national majority in the textbooks of each case.

The process of differentiation constructs the „other‟ through the use of attributes which would be used for the majority. For example, in the sentence “Bei uns leben viele Türken.” [Many Turks live in our city], the plural noun “Turks” defines this particular group as being different, i.e., they are Turks and not Germans, while the possessive article “our” is understood to refer to the German majority. Often a text is accompanied by an illustration, for example, in the text “Tante Wilma riecht nach Knoblauch” [Aunt Wilma smells of Garlic] (Überall ist Lesezeit 4, pp.58-60 – see book). Here, the text repeatedly talks about “Türken” [Turks] and two illustrations above the text include a woman with headscarf (ibid, pp.59-60). A specific relationship through predication is established between the „Turks‟ in the text and the woman with the scarf, implying that the „Turks‟, mentioned in the text, are also Muslim. This concept is also reinforced through the following sentence: “Und es sind nicht einmal Christen!” [And they are not even Christians!] (p.59). Although it is not said that they are Muslims, an implied link has been established between the „Turks‟, who are not German and the woman with the head scarf, who is not Christian. As this representation repeatedly appears in texts a thematic discourse develops.

TDA is not just concerned with one medium of discourse, such as the textbook, but also investigates how established characteristics relate, affirm and correspond to the wider use of a specific discourse in various areas and indeed in a society (Höhne, Kunz and Radtke 2005, p.28). This has been partly realised in this study as the representation of the ethnic and cultural „other‟ in education policies, such as the curricula of North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) and Ireland have also been considered (see Chapter 3 Overview and Curricula).

Although this study will touch on the reflection of social reality, in terms of the presence of ethnic and cultural minorities in textbooks, it is beyond the scope of this work to examine this in its entirety. Furthermore, studies in Textbook Research often take into account the position of a text within the overall structure of the textbook or how much space within a book a certain subject receives in order to establish a possible imbalance of how topics are treated. However, as indicated, this piece of research is primarily concerned with the question of whether and how the „other‟ is presented. This study does not look at the discourse of the ethnic and cultural „other‟ in relation to other discourses, such as for example the discourses of Islam or Christianity, and this has therefore not been analysed here.

4.5 Corpus Selection 4.5.1 Selection of Textbooks for North Rhine-Westphalia In Germany, teaching material is regulated by the respective federal states. In the case of North Rhine-Westphalia, the Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung [the Ministry for School and Further Education] publishes a list of approved teaching resources on their website. All Lesebücher12 [textbooks for reading] and LeseSprachbücher [textbooks for reading that incorporate a focus on language] available for third and fourth grade for the school year 2007/ 2008 for the subject of German have been analysed on the basis of this list (see Bibliography, Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen 2008).

The textbooks examined for North Rhine-Westphalia mainly contain extracts from children‟s literature, short stories, didactical and informational texts as well as poems and songs. The content is partitioned into several chapters according to specific themes. Some textbooks incorporate grammatical and language exercises, as mentioned above, and are known as Lese-Sprachbücher.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 7 | 8 || 10 | 11 |   ...   | 24 |


Similar works:

«L 2 VG 44/10 S 11 VG 32/08 SG Lübeck SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEINISCHES LANDESSOZIALGERICHT verkündet am 29. März 2011 Justizangestellte als Urkundsbeamtin der Geschäftsstelle IM NAMEN DES VOLKES URTEIL In dem Rechtsstreit Klägerin und Berufungsbeklagte Prozessbevollmächtigte: gegen die Freie und Hansestadt H Behörde für Soziales, Familie, Gesundheit und Verbraucherschutz, Versorgungsamt, Adolph-Schönfelder-Straße 5, 22083 H, Beklagte und Berufungsklägerin hat der 2. Senat des...»

«Das Epochenjahr 1917 Die Beurteilung des Jahres 1917 als Epochenjahr der Folgen des Ersten Weltgeschichte ist aufs engste verknüpft mit einer Beurteilung der Weltkriegs geschichtlichen Folgen des Ersten Weltkrieges, und hier insbesondere der Folgen, die das Deutsche Reich mit der Anzettelung dieses Krieges ausgelöst hat. Das 1964 geschriebene Buch des Publizisten Sebastian Haffner Die sieben Todsünden des Deutschen Reiches im Ersten Weltkrieg liefert wesentliche Aspekte für die Beurteilung...»

«Jahresbericht EUROPÄISCHE STIFTUNG zur Verbesserung der Lebensund Arbeitsbedingungen Allgemeine Informationen Die Europäische Stiftung zur Verbesserung der Lebensund Arbeitsbedingungen wurde durch die Verordnung (EWG) Nr. 1365/75 des Rates vom 26. Mai 1975 gegründet. Ihr Ziel besteht darin, „zur Konzipierung und Schaffung besserer Lebensund Arbeitsbedingungen durch eine Aktion zur Förderung und Verbreitung von Kenntnissen beizutragen, die geeignet sind, diese Entwicklung zu unterstützen....»

«( Remote Control „HT-6“ 2,4 GHz Item no. 1310037 Version 04/15 Table of Contents ( Page 1. Introduction 2. Explanation of Symbols 3. Intended Use 4. Product Description 5. Scope of Delivery 6. Safety Information a) General Information b) Operation 7. Notes on Batteries and Rechargeable Batteries 8. Charging Rechargeable Batteries 9. Transmitter Controls 10. Setting Up the Transmitter a) Inserting the Batteries b) Switching on the Transmitter c) Modifying the Throttle Function d) Setting the...»

«Informationen zu den Workshops und Anregungen für einen individuellen Ausstellungsbesuch mit Schulklassen «Flex-Sil Reloaded – eine Hommage an Roman Signer» (24. Mai – 4. August 2013) Ausstellungsansichten: Roman Signer, Navid Nuur, Valentin Carron, Raphael Hefti, Nina Canell Photo: Kunst Halle Sankt Gallen, Gunnar Meier Inhalt Einführung 2 Workshops in der Ausstellung «Flex-Sil Reloaded» Zur Ausstellung, Inhalt Workshops, Zeitraum, Zielgruppen, Zeitaufwand, Ablauf 3 Individueller...»

«ECOPlus Digitaler ECOMETER · Bedienungsund Montageanleitung Digital ECOMETER · Operating and Installation Instructions ECOMETER numérique · Instructions de service et de montage 04.001.21.24.0 BPW-EA-ECOMETER-EP 37011401 2 04.001.21.24.0 V4 02.04.2014 Digitaler ECOMETER · Bedienungsund Montageanleitung Digital ECOMETER · Operating and Installation Instructions ECOMETER numérique · Instructions de service et de montage BPW Bergische Achsen KG TÜV 07 ATEX 7486 X Deutsch Typ EM02 -30°C =...»

«©Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte VIERTELJAHRSHEFTE FÜR Zeitgeschichte Im Auftrag des Instituts für Zeitgeschichte München herausgegeben von KARL D I E T R I C H B R A C H E R H A N S P E T E R SCHWARZ HORST MÖLLER in Verbindung mit Theodor Eschenburg, Rudolf v. Albertini, Dietrich Geyer, Hans Mommsen, Arnulf Baring und Gerhard A. Ritter Redaktion: Hellmuth Auerbach, Norbert Frei, Udo Wengst Chefredakteur: Hans Woller Stellvertreter: Andreas Wirsching Institut für Zeitgeschichte,...»

«on tour Oman olf von Oman Vereinigte Arabische Emirate adi Shab Tiwi Qalhat Sur Ras al-Hadd Fita yi Al-Hadd 23 ala F di Ras al-Jinz NaturschutzWa gebiet ’AL AN i Asylah i h 21 AlAshkharah Beschriftungsende Kartenrand Beschriftungsende Zeichnungsgrenze black Beschnitt NEU Erlebnis Wüste: Eine Nacht im Sand xxx Superluxus: Dubais 7-Sterne-Hotel xxx Spektakulär: Kamelrennen in Al-Ain xxx on tour Oman Vereinigte Arabische Emirate Der Autor Henning Neuschäffer lebte und arbeitete mehrere Jahre...»

«Dokumentvorlage, Version vom 20.01.2011 Dossier zur Nutzenbewertung gemäß § 35a SGB V Aflibercept (Eylea®) Bayer Vital GmbH Modul 2 Allgemeine Angaben zum Arzneimittel, zugelassene Anwendungsgebiete Stand: 12.12.2012 Dossier zur Nutzenbewertung – Modul 2 Stand: 12.12.2012 Allgemeine Angaben zum Arzneimittel, zugelassene Anwendungsgebiete Inhaltsverzeichnis Seite Tabellenverzeichnis Abbildungsverzeichnis Abkürzungsverzeichnis Modul 2 – allgemeine Informationen 2.1 Allgemeine Angaben zum...»

«D Bedienungsanleitung GB Instruction manual FR 2125/E Fritteuse Deep-Fryer Produktbeschreibung / Product description D GB 1 Bedieneinheit control element 2 Gehäuse casing 3 Deckel cover 4 Frittierbehälter frying container 5 Frittierkorb frying basket 6 Verschluss shutter D – Inhaltsverzeichnis GB – Contents page Seite Product description Produktbeschreibung Introduction Einleitung Intended use Bestimmungsgemäßer Gebrauch Technical data Technische Daten Scope of supply Lieferumfang...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.book.dislib.info - Free e-library - Books, dissertations, abstract

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.