«A Comparative Case Study of North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) and Ireland by Melanie Liese B.A. School of Applied Languages and Intercultural Studies ...»
Having described the methodologies applied as well as the corpus that has been selected for the purpose of this study, the next chapters will outline the analyses of the textbooks examined. It will start with an analysis of the textbooks from North Rhine-Westphalia and follow with those from Ireland.
Analysis of Textbooks from North Rhine-Westphalia
5.1 Introduction This chapter investigates how the ethnic and cultural „other‟ is represented in a sample of textbooks from North Rhine-Westphalia. For this purpose, textbooks for the subject of German in third and fourth grade have been examined.
As has been outlined in Chapter 4, the ethnic and cultural „other‟, represented in a German context in the textbooks examined for this study, can be classified into nine sub-categories. Through use of Thematic Discourse Analysis in the texts and images examined, eight of these sub-categories have been identified as markers or themes which appear in texts in association with the ethnic and cultural „other‟. Accordingly, the „other‟ is marked as such on account of origin, language, skin colour, religious difference, experience of hostility, questions of identity, as the „other‟ in need or the „other‟ as a stereotype. As outlined in Chapter 4 these themes are of structural similarity and emerge in more than one text. Thus, they form the discourse of the ethnic and cultural „other‟. However, the ninth sub-category includes examples, where the „other‟ is dealt with in an integrated way through use of a name or image and without the attribution of any specific marker.
The analysis is arranged according to sub-categories, based on the identified markers mentioned above and in Chapter 4. The texts analysed include stories, poems and didactic texts. For the purpose of this study, each text is referenced according to the book in which it appears. However, details on authors are given in Chapter 4, where each book and story used in this study has been listed. A copy of each text analysed appears in Appendix B. The texts in the Appendix appear in the order in which they were presented in Chapter 4. Those texts, which do not appear in the Appendix, were not granted copyright permission. As previously explained, these texts can be found by examiners in the books which accompany this dissertation. When a reference to an image is made, a copy of the image is included in the body of this analysis where possible. However, where a permission to use material from the textbooks examined in this study could not be obtained, an image could not be shown.
Because multiple themes run through some of the stories, these stories appear in more than one category. Furthermore, some stories emerge more than once in different textbooks. However, it is indicated in the analysis, what story is referred to.
5.2 Analysis of Textbooks Examined in North Rhine-Westphalia:
Sub-Categories 5.2.1 Origin The ethnic and cultural „other‟ can be identified as such due to a direct or indirect reference to an ethnic or cultural origin or background which is not German. One of the most common ways of presenting the „other‟ in the German textbooks is through naming his/ her ethnic or cultural origins within a text. Doing so separates the defined individual/s from mainstream society creating an immediate „we/them‟ setting on the basis of their origin and excludes the possibility of the „other‟ being bicultural or fully integrated. A direct reference to the origins of the ethnic and cultural „other‟ in Germany/ a German context has been found in 22 texts.
In an extract from Paul Maar‟s story, entitled “Lippels Traum” [Lippel‟s Dream] (Das Auer Lesebuch 4, pp.176-179, Appendix B, p.XIV-XVI), the parents of a young boy named Lippel travel for a week to Vienna. While they are away, Lippel is being looked after by Mrs Jakob, who scolds him for reading his new book “Die Erzählungen aus Tausendundein Nächten” [Stories from a Thousand and One Arabian Nights], when he should be going to sleep instead. When Lippel goes to school, his teacher introduces two new students, namely Hamide and Arslan, to the class. When one girl asks “Frau Klobe, sind das Ausländer?” [Mrs Klobe, are these foreigners?] (ibid, p.177) the teacher replies: “Sie sind Türken.” [They are Turks.] (ibid). Hamide and Arslan become friends and are also part of Lippel‟s Dream, which features a story from his new book “Tales of a Thousand and One Arabian Nights”. In the dream, Hamide and Arslan, who is renamed Asslan in the dream, play the role of a prince and princess from the Orient: “Ich bin Prinz Asslam, der einzige Sohn des Königs und Thronerbe. Und das hier ist Prinzessin Hamide, meine jüngste Schwester”, sagte Asslam würdevoll.“ [“I am prince Asslam, the only son of the king and heir. And this is princess Hamide, my youngest sister”, Asslam said in a dignified manner.] (ibid).
“Die beiden türkischen Kinder” [The two Turkish children] are also briefly referred to in “Der erste Traum” [The first Dream], which is also an extract from Paul Maar‟s story “Lippels Traum” [Lippel‟s Dream] and appears in the textbook Lesereise 3 (2004, pp.78-79, see book).
Another boy, who is of Turkish origin, appears in the text “Gökan hat Mut” [Gökan has courage] (Das Auer Lesebuch 3, pp.82-83, Appendix B, p.VII-VIII). Here Gökan
is introduced as part of the wider Turkish community in Germany:
In unserer Stadt gibt es viele Türken. Ihre Kinder gehen mit uns in die Schule. Auch in meiner Klasse sind sechs; zwei Mädchen und vier Jungen.
Einer von ihnen heißt Gökan, der hat mir von Anfang an gefallen. Ich hätte mich gern mal mit ihm unterhalten, über die Türkei und wie es dort ist. Aber Till hatte uns gesagt, dass wir nicht mit den Türken reden sollten. Und was Till sagte, taten wir auch (ibid, p.82).
[In our city there are many Turks. Their children go to school with us. There are six in my class; two girls and four boys. One of them is called Gökan, I liked him from the start. I would have liked to talk to him, about Turkey and what it is like there. But Till had told us that we should not talk to the Turks.
And we did what Till said.] The introduction here separates the Turkish students from the majority of the presumably German students. In the story, Gökan stands up to Till, who is the class bully. When Till threatens to punish Gökan, the other children join Gökan‟s side and defend him.
Direct reference to a Turkish woman is made in the story “Es gibt ihn nicht!” [He does not exist!] (Überall ist Lesezeit 3, pp.51-53, see book). Here, Moritz comes home one day complaining about Murat, who is disliked by everyone at school (ibid, p.52). Moritz tells his mother that Murat is “total blöd” [totally stupid] (ibid) because he does not know the date of his birthday, when he is asked about it by his teacher. Trying to explain why Murat might not know his birthday, Moritz‟s mother says that people know the date of their birth here (Germany), but that this is not significant everywhere. She illustrates her point by means of an example and tells Moritz that when she gave birth to Moritz‟s sister, Tina, a woman from Turkey shared a hospital room with her. “Sie hat einen Buben bekommen, ihr zweites Kind.
Und als die Ärztin fragte, wann der Erste geboren wurde, sagte die Frau: “Als die Mandelbäume geblüht haben.“ Den Tag hat sie nicht gewusst, aber dass die Mandelbäume geblüht haben, das hat sie gewusst.“ [She had a boy, her second child. When the doctor asked when the first child was born, the lady said: “When the almond trees blossomed.” She did not know the day, but she knew that it was when the almond trees blossomed.] (ibid, p.53). Understanding his mother‟s story and accepting his error about Murat, Moritz made an effort to get to know him and suggested that he could invite Murat home. While Murat‟s origins are not directly named in the story, they are implied through the mother‟s example of the Turkish lady in the hospital and by his name.
In “Die Flaschenpost: Lika and Bob” [The Message in a Bottle: Lika and Bob] (Primo 4, pp.32-33, Appendix B, p.XXV), the Turkish characters are associated with the service industry in Germany. The story takes place in Berlin and Lika has just moved to a new neighbourhood where she meets Bob. “Seine Eltern waren Türken, ihnen gehörte die kleine Änderungsschneiderei an der Ecke Solinger Straße.” [His parents were Turks, they owned the little alteration shop at the corner of Solinger Straße] (ibid, p.32).
Güneş14 is another character of Turkish origin, who tells readers about her experience of Easter. In the text, entitled “Warum gibt es eigentlich Ostern?” [Why do we actually have Easter?] (Das Auer Lesebuch 4, p.118, Appendix B, p.IX), the reader is told that Güneş was six when she came to Germany and, although she speaks German at school, at home she speaks Turkish: “Jetzt gehe ich schon 5 Jahre in die deutsche Schule, aber zu Hause sprechen wir immer Türkisch.” [I am going to the German school for 5 years now, but at home we always speak Turkish.] (ibid).
Furthermore, Güneş refers to her religion as follows: “Damals, als wir ankamen, war gerade Ostern. Das ist für uns ein fremdes Fest, weil wir eine andere Religion haben.Wir sind Muslime.” [It was Easter at the time when we arrived. This is a foreign celebration for us, because we have a different religion. We are Muslims.] (ibid).
This text also appears in Überall ist Lesezeit 3, page 50 under the title “Güneş”.
Another perspective on Easter is given by Antonio in “Warum gibt es eigentlich Ostern?” [Why do we actually have Easter?] (Das Auer Lesebuch 4, p.118, Appendix B, p.IX). Antonio is from Italy and tells readers about his family‟s Easter tradition: “Als wir noch zu Hause in Sizilien waren, sind wir am Ostersonntag immer in die große Kathedrale in Palermo gegangen.“ [When we were at home in Sicily, we always went to the big cathedral in Palermo on Easter Sunday.] (ibid).
A newspaper article entitled “Gewalt auf Klassenfahrt” [Violence on a School Outing] (Papiertiger 4, p.183, Appendix B, p. XXIII) describes a verbal xenophobic attack on children while on a school outing. The victim is referred to as a “Türkischer Schüler aus Kreuzberg” [Turkish student from Kreuzberg] (ibid, p.183). Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg has traditionally been a multicultural district in Berlin. The multicultural diversity is reflected in the mix of students from the school in Kreuzberg: “Die deutschen, arabischen und türkischen Kinder seien bei einem Spaziergang mit ausländerfeindlichen Parolen beschimpft worden” [The German, Arab and Turkish children were verbally harassed with xenophobic slogans while taking a walk] (ibid, p.183).
A rather negative association with being Turkish is implied in “Tante Wilma riecht nach Knoblauch” [Aunt Wilma smells of Garlic] (Überall ist Lesezeit 4, pp.58-60, see book). When the owner of the house where Aunt Wilma lives sells the house, he asks her to move out. Because her contract says that she has a right to remain in the house until the end of her life, the landlord is unable to move her. However, the landlord has a plan for scaring Aunt Wilma out of the building by asking a Turkish
family to move into a flat in the house:
Da ließ sich der neue Hausbesitzer was einfallen, um die Tante aus dem Haus zu graulen. “Stell dir vor”, berichtete Tante Wilma meiner Großmutter bestürzt, “ins untere Stockwerk sind Türken eingezogen!” “Großartig”, sagte meine Großmutter. “Da kommt wieder Leben ins Haus.” “Du hörst mir ja gar nicht richtig zu!”, klagte Tante Wilma. “Es handelt sich um Türken!
Um echte Türken! Eine Familie mit sechs oder sieben Kindern und das ganze Treppenhaus riecht schon nach Knoblauch. Wie soll ich mir den die Flöhe vom Leib halten? Und es sind nicht einmal Christen! (ibid, pp.58-59).
[Then the new landlord came up with an idea to scare the aunt out of the house. “Imagine”, reported a distraught Aunt Wilma to my grandmother, “Turks have moved in on the ground floor!” “Great”, said my grandmother.