«A Comparative Case Study of North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) and Ireland by Melanie Liese B.A. School of Applied Languages and Intercultural Studies ...»
The Representation of the Ethnic and Cultural
‘Other’ in Primary School Textbooks
A Comparative Case Study
of North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) and Ireland
Melanie Liese B.A.
School of Applied Languages and Intercultural Studies
A Thesis submitted
to Dublin City University in
candidacy for the degree of Master of Arts
Supervisor: Dr. Angela Leahy
School of Applied Languages and Intercultural Studies
Dublin City University
I hereby certify that this material, which I now submit for assessment on the programme of study leading to the award Master of Arts is entirely my own work, that I have exercised reasonable care to ensure that the work is original, and does not to the best of my knowledge breach any law of copyright, and has not been taken from the work of others save and to the extent that such work has been cited and acknowledged within the text of my work.
Signed: (Candidate) ID No.: 53148932
Acknowledgements I thank everyone who supported me while working on this dissertation. In particular, I would like to sincerely thank my supervisor Dr. Angela Leahy for her great advice and exceptional support, making it a great journey of learning for me. I also thank Mary and Caroline for their assistance.
I am grateful to the publishers, who kindly allowed me to use their materials for this research. Many thanks also go to my dear friend Carmel for her kind support.
Finally, this work could not be done without the generous support, patience and great encouragement from my husband and children, to whom I dedicate this dissertation.
Table of Contents
i List of Abbreviations ii List of Graphs iii Chapter 1: Introduction 1 1.1 Research Aims 2 1.2 Background 3 1.2.1 Migration in Germany 4 184.108.40.206 Migration in North Rhine-Westphalia 9 1.2.2 Migration in Ireland 12 Society and Textbooks – 1.3 14 The Normative Function of Textbooks 1.4 Structure of this Study 17 Literature Review 18
2.1 Introduction 19 2.2 Textbook Research 20 2.3 Review of Some R
This study examines and compares the representation of the ethnic and cultural ‘other’ in primary school textbooks in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), which has an established immigration history, and Ireland, where immigration is as a relatively new phenomenon. As a result of increased migration over the last decade, societies in both contexts have become more ethnically and culturally diverse. For this purpose, this study examines textbooks that are used in third and fourth grade for the subject of German in North Rhine-Westphalia and for the subject of English in Ireland.
This study explores how teaching and learning materials can represent diversity to their users. It asks whether the increased ethnic and cultural diversity in North Rhine-Westphalia and Ireland is reflected in primary school textbooks in each context. Using a combination of Critical Discourse Analysis and Thematic Discourse Analysis and considering the normative functions of textbooks, this study aims to determines the specific ways in which the ethnic or cultural ‘other’ is presented and establishes the differences and similarities of representation between both contexts.
The analysis finds that textbooks in North Rhine-Westphalia and Ireland each engage with the topic of ethnic and cultural diversity. However, their approaches to representation differ greatly. In the German textbooks the ‘other’ is often explicitly defined in the text or an accompanying image and a clear divide between the majority and the minority of society is frequently emphasised. In contrast, in the Irish case, the textbooks tend to present the ethnic and cultural ‘other’ implicitly as a ‘normal’ part of society. However, representation of the ‘other’ within an Irish context is quite infrequent. The reasons for/ and implications of this are explored in the final chapter.
DWDS. Das Digitale Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache ESRI Economic and Social Research Institute Ireland GEI Georg-Eckert-Institute for International Textbook Research
Graph 1 People with a Migrant Background living in Germany 7 Graph 2 Number of Foreigners in the German Federal States 8 Graph 3 Distribution of Migrants in North Rhine-Westphalia 9 Graph 4 Largest Migrant Groups by Nationality in Ireland 11
1.1 Research Aims North Rhine-Westphalia and Ireland have different migration histories. While work migrants migrated to Germany since the late 19th century (Oltmer 2005), Ireland was considered a country of emigration until the early 1990s (Ruhs 2009). However, today both countries are ethnically and culturally diverse because of increased migration over the last decades.
This study analyses and compares the representation of the ethnic and cultural „other‟1 in primary school textbooks in North Rhine-Westphalia and Ireland.
It asks whether the increased ethnic and cultural diversity in North Rhine-Westphalia and Ireland is reflected in primary school textbooks in each context. For this purpose primary school textbooks for third and fourth grade, which teach literature and reading as well as incorporating elements of grammar and orthography in the main language of each case2, namely German in North Rhine-Westphalia and English in Ireland, were chosen as a sample.
Furthermore, using a combination of Critical Discourse Analysis and Thematic Discourse Analysis and considering the normative functions of textbooks, this study determines the specific ways in which the ethnic and cultural „other‟ is presented and establishes any differences and similarities of representation between both contexts.
Please refer to chapter 4.4 The Approach Used in this Study for a definition of the „other‟.
The author acknowledges that other languages (such as Sorbian or Low German in Germany and Irish in Ireland) are also spoken in both countries.
1.2 Background North Rhine-Westphalia3 is one of sixteen Federal States that make up the The Federal Republic of Germany. Because Germany has a federal political system, each federal state has “its own administrative system [which] enforces the laws that apply in that particular state” (Hartmann 2008). North Rhine-Westphalia is the most populated Federal State (IT.NRW 2010a) and has the highest representation of migrants (LAGA 2005). For these reasons, this study uses North Rhine-Westphalia as a case.
North Rhine-Westphalia and Ireland have very different migration histories. While a large number of migrants arrived in North Rhine-Westphalia particularly in the 1950s as a result of the recruitment of foreign labour (Nuscheler 2004, pp.126-127), “Ireland experienced a significant inflow of migrants” (Ruhs 2009) forty years later, in the 1990s. However, both countries share a common context, that of being part of the European Union and being perceived as „modern‟ and „westernised‟. As a result of increased migration over the last decades, societies in both cases have become more ethnically and culturally diverse.
The English translation of Nordrhein-Westfalen, namely „North Rhine-Westphalia‟, will be used in this dissertation, except when used as part of a name, in titles or in citations.
1.2.1 Migration in Germany Migration to Germany has a long-established history, most notably due to Germany‟s need for labourers since the 1880s and due to displacement and escape after the first and second World Wars (Oltmer 2005). As a result of an economic upsurge, commonly known as the “Wirtschaftswunder” [economic miracle] in the 1950s, Germany actively recruited foreign labour. In 1955 the German government signed its first recruitment treaty with Italy (Erdem and Mattes 2003, p.168). Thus Italian workers were recruited in Italy to come and work in Germany. These workers were known as “Gastarbeiter”4. In the agreement “wurde auf Druck der Gewerkschaften die prinzipielle sozialpolitische Gleichstellung der “Gastarbeiter” formal garantiert” [due to pressure from trade unions the permanent social-political equalisation of the guest workers was formally guaranteed] (Finkelstein 2006, p.14).
Subsequently, further labour treaties were agreed in 1960 with Spain and Greece, in 1961 with Turkey, in 1963 with Morocco, in 1964 with Portugal, in 1965 with Tunisia, and with the former Yugoslavia in 1968. As a result of the recruitment of foreign labour the number of migrants in Germany increased from 686,000 in 1961 to 2.7 million in 1970 (Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung 2008, p.2). However, with the oil crisis and economic recession at the beginning of the 1970s, Germany banned the recruitment of foreign labour in 1973 in an attempt to reduce the then number of migrants from 2.6 million to 1.8 million (Flam 2007, p.294). Contrary to the expectations of the German government, which anticipated that migrants would return to their respective countries, many stayed and asked their families to join them in Germany.
Diese Ausländer begannen also, sich ganz gegen jede Planung als Menschen und nicht als verschiebbare Arbeitsmasse zu gebärden. Politik und Wirtschaft nahmen verblüfft zur Kenntnis, dass der Anwerbestopp folglich nicht etwa zu einer Kostensenkung geführt hatte, sondern genau das Gegenteil erreichte (Finkelstein 2006, pp.17-18).
The term “Gastarbeiter” [guest worker] is seen as controversial in public discourse today and is only applied in a historical context. The argument is that the term implies that these workers are only guests in Germany, rather than members of German society. However, these labourers and their families have been living in Germany for more than fifty years and therefore cannot be termed as guests (Mazza 1998, Stötzel and Wengeler 1994).
[Thus these foreigners5, against every plan, began to behave as people and not as a mobile labour mass. Politics and economy were taken aback and realised that the ban on recruitment consequently did not cause a decline in costs, but rather achieved the exact opposite.] The German government expected migrants to return to their home countries because of a shortage of employment in Germany as a result of the economic recession. In this regard, Finkelstein (2006) implies that because they stayed, more workers were available than there were jobs and therefore the government came under pressure.
In order to further encourage migrants to return to their countries of origin, the German government passed the so-called Rückkehrhilfegesetz [legislation to assist returning migrants] in 1983. According to this law, migrants were offered financial and practical assistance for one year if they were willing to return to their countries of origin. Nonetheless, the law had little effect and the migrant population grew to around 5.6 per cent in 1990 due to the growing numbers of migrant families arriving in Germany, as well as to the increasing numbers of people seeking asylum and refuge in Germany (Finkelstein 2006, pp.23-25).
Although the number of migrants in Germany more than doubled between 1970 and 2006 (Bundeszentrale für Politische Bildung 2008), the German government did not consider Germany to be a country of immigration for most of that time and therefore with the Rückkehrhilfegesetz [legislation to assist returning migrants], mentioned above, politically encouraged a return of migrants to their native countries (Finkelstein 2006, p.21) in preference to working towards the integration of migrants.
However, in 2002 the German government acknowledged Germany to be a country of immigration officially. Under the new Staatsbürgerschaftsrecht [citizenship law], the acquisition of German citizenship by ius soli (right of soil) in compliance with certain requirements is now possible (Böll 2005). Furthermore, the The term migrant is used throughout this study to refer to people from/ with a background from a country other than Germany and Ireland respectively. However, in German public discourse the term “Ausländer”[foreigner] is widely used. Therefore, some translations from German to English refer to „foreigner‟ rather than migrant (see also Chapter 4 on Methodology).
Zuwanderungsgesetz [immigration law], which aims to control and restrict immigration as well as to regulate integration benefits, came into effect in 2005 (Bundesministerium des Innern 2005).