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«Martin Roussel (Hrsg.) unter Mitarbeit von Christina Borkenhagen Kreativität des Findens Figurationen des Zitats Wilhelm Fink unter dem ...»

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“On composition, you should make your works absolutely original, by utilizing your kokoro and contemplating. However, because a new kokoro is rarely born, even if the forming kokoro is the same as the old one, you should try to compose a waka with an unusual ring to it when arranging the words.”7 Thus, even when using the same kokoro as old poems, he tries to substitute ‘unusualness’ for the ‘newness’ of kokoro. We can see this ‘unusualness’ by examining his examples as extensions of these arguments.

In Teika’s waka in example C, two words, ‘yamasakura-to’ and ‘ake,’ are taken, but it is difficult to specify the honka just by these two words, because this old waka was not well known at that time. Taking such a word is against Teika’s own rule, which states that ‘you should compose in such a way as to make it possible for listeners to recognize the honka easily’. Thus, it is thought that this waka was composed with


no attempt whatsoever to renew the kokoro of the honka; indeed, he had no cognizance of taking honka.

In this waka, however, it is important that the connection between ‘yamasakura-to’ and ‘akebono’ be made evident. The word ‘yamasakura-to’ is naturally what is opened in the honka, but in Teika’s work, it becomes what is opened at dawn, because the word ‘ake’ can mean ‘dawn.’ Moreover, by adding the traditional idea that falling cherry blossoms resemble falling snow, Teika produces ‘yamazakura’, as ‘cherry blossoms,’ from the word ‘yamasakura-to,’ which just described ‘the door made from mountain cherry wood.’ Thus, by using old words bereft of the context of the old kokoro, the same words acquire new attributes and meanings. This is one aspect of Tameie’s ‘unusualness.’ In example D, the words taken by Yoshihira are ‘so wo dani’ and ‘wasure-gatami.’ It is much easier in this example than in example C to specify the honka via the two words used, because this honka was very famous. In Yoshihira’s work, however, the two words do not express the full kokoro of the honka—namely, the feeling of love for each other.

In comparing Yoshihira’s kokoro with the old one, what ‘wasuregatami’ and ‘so wo dani’ interactively describe does not change, although they do have different contexts. In both wakas, something is the memento of something, and someone hopes to do something about it at least. It means that when these two phrases emerge together, a ‘mould’ is set for the meanings of the words that come into play. He composes by filling the ‘mould’ with a typical variation on a spring waka, which is a feeling of regret at falling cherry blossoms, and with a typical metaphor involving cherry blossoms and white clouds. Applying the ‘mould’ previously used in the love waka to a spring one, the spring kokoro assumes ‘unusualness.’ In example E, the arrangement of the words ‘yume ka utsutsu ka shirakumo’ is of primary importance. There is no reference in Eiga ittei, but these words are thought to be taken from the following waka.


–  –  –

reality or a dream. The world exists, while not existing.8 (世の中は 夢かうつつか うつつとも 夢とも知らず ありてなければ)(よみ 人知らず) In this old waka, the ‘mould’ has been produced by the words ‘yume ka utsutsu ka shira-zu,’ which mean ‘I do not know whether something is a dream or a reality.’ Ietaka uses the ‘mould’ as the base idea of his composition, and fills it with cherry blossoms that fall soon after their full bloom. Then, he connects ‘shira-zu’ (‘I do not know’) to ‘shirakumo’ (‘white clouds’), the latter of which is a metaphor for cherry blossoms.

After ‘shirakumo’ draws the word of the honka, he delicately alters ‘tae-te tsure-naki,’ making it into ‘tsune-naki;’ he also produces ‘mine no harukaze’ (‘spring winds around the mountain’) as what is transient.9 Thus, when the ‘moulds’ are composed, the common subject of spring can be seen in the new work, from a new angle.

As seen previously, with regards to honka-dori making different kokoro from honka, words can acquire new attributes and meanings, and there is a ‘mould’ by which combinations of word-forms themselves can be reused within a different context. As a result, the kokoro can acquire new aspects, even if it has already been used time and again. Tameie considers such honka-dori ideal, as they offer the writer the possibility of deriving value from their elements. This is another form of medieval honka-dori.

IV. The Formation of a Quotation Database, in the Methodological Development of Honka-dori In almost all the wakas of the Shin kokin period, we can find some influence from old works; it can also be said that this is a trend not seen prior to this period. Moreover, of the wakas chosen by Shin kokin poets as representative works and complied in their collections, more than half were compiled by honka-dori. These factors indicate that in the Shin kokin period, it was not so much that honka-dori was adopted as a comShin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei, Vol. 5. Tokyo 1989; Shinpan Kokin waka-syu. Tokyo 2009. The translation and note are my own.

9 In both ‘Mini shu’ and ‘Hyabukan jika-awase,’ which are Ietaka’s collections, the fourth phrase in this waka is “Tae-te tsure-naki,” which is the same as that of the honka; however, it can be said that connecting it to the last phrase, “Mine no harukaze,” is not problematic.

›NEW NE SS‹ CREA TED BY TH E SHA RED PA ST 123 positional method; rather, the act of quoting classics had become a commonplace part of the composition, and the vector of consciousness in composition always seemed to come to a point in the past. As a result, the poets who ‘longed for old wakas’ were no longer able to stop reviewing and searching through the ‘good works’ of the past. In parallel, a large number of old works accumulated and came to be seen as a ‘database’ for composition; this occurrence corresponds exactly with the fact that Teika and Tameie considered keiko—that is, referring usually to good wakas—as more important than any other compositional practice.10 These events, taken together, make it possible to consider Teika’s and Tameie’s methods as ways to access the ‘quotation database.’ From this viewpoint, we will attempt to compare these two methods.

Teika’s method looks to achieve ‘newness’ by renewing old kokoro; how does he access the database? Referring to the examples quoted in the first section, we can discuss it by making inferences about the compositional process.

Ozora wa / Ume no nioi ni / Kasumi-tsutsu / Kumori mo hate-nu / Haru no yo no tsuki It is reasonable to infer that Teika decided to compose the waka of the hazy moon on a spring night, because he had chosen the subject of ‘spring’ prior to initiating his composition. He would have searched old wakas and found a famous one that expressed admiration for the beauty of a night with a hazy moon. It shows that in his compositional process, he would have searched the old waka, giving primary attention to the kokoro associated with his chosen theme; after that, he would have drawn the words from this waka and arranged them in a way that made it ‘possible for listeners to recognize the honka easily’.

10 In ‘Kindai shuka,’ one of Teika’s book of waka theory, he says that the waka poems from the period in which ‘Sandai shu’ (‘Kokin waka-shu,’ ‘Gosen waka-shu,’ ‘Shui waka-shu’) was compiled are excellent; he argues that simply by imitating these works, one could naturally compose good poems. In ‘Eiga no taigai,’ he similarly points to ‘Sandai shu’ as a work to emulate and reference, saying that, “You should imitate the styles of old and superior poets. (You should imitate the good styles of wakas of all ages and places.)” In ‘Maigetsu sho,’ Teika states that good wakas are naturally made only if one does not fail in performing keiko. Some as Teika, in ‘Eiga ittei,’ Tameie says, “Some people say composition does not always depend on knowledge and waka is born from heart, but one cannot be seen as an expert without keiko.”


Koma tome-te / Sode uchi-harau / Kage mo nashi / Sano no watari no / Yuki no yugure Prior to composition, it was decided that this waka would have the subject of ‘winter.’ The scope of ‘winter’ would impose too large a database search on the author, and the word ‘Sano no watari’ has no relationship to winter in the honka. Therefore, it is thought that Teika had thought of formulating the kokoro of ‘winter travel’ first, whereupon he would have searched old works and found the work about travel.

For both honka-dori, what was searched in the compositional process was the kokoro of old wakas that correspond to the primary theme. Following that search for kokoro, the selection and arrangement of words took place. It is reasonable, as Tonna explains with respect to these honka-dori wakas, that ‘the poet relives the kokoro of the honka’.

Before transforming an idea into words, an old kokoro has already served as the compositional foundation—superseding even the poet himself. When composition is initiated within this context, it is methodologically natural to conclude that he will attempt to relive the kokoro that the old poem expresses.

Let us now turn to Tameie’s method.

Na mo shirushi / Mine no arashi mo / yuki to furu / Yamasakura-to no / Akebono no sora As mentioned in the second section, in this waka, Teika is not cognizant of renewing the old kokoro. The selection of words relates closely to the subject chosen before composition was initiated—that is, ‘sankyo no haru no akebono’, or ‘dawn on a spring day in a mountain hut.’ He finds the word ‘yamasakura-to’ in the process of transforming ‘sankyo’ into a word of waka. Upon finding this word, he likely found it straightforward to connect it to the ‘akebono’ of the subject by using the relationship between ‘to’ and ‘ake’ (‘door’ and ‘open’). Clearly, what is searched by taking this compositional method is not kokoro, but the words themselves.

Chiru hana no / Wasure-gatami no / Mine no kumo / So wo dani nokose / Haru no yamakaze ›NEW NE SS‹ CREA TED BY TH E SHA RED PA ST 125 In this waka, what is searched first is also old words, because it is difficult to consider how the theme of ‘spring’ would lead the poet directly to the love waka ‘Aka-de koso’. The word ‘wasure-gatai’ (‘memento’) is found from his first idea, which is a typical variation of a spring waka— that is, the feeling of regret at the falling of cherry blossoms—and a customary metaphor drawing together cherry blossoms and white clouds (as ‘wasure-gatami’) functions to draw in the word ‘so wo dani,’ based on the renown of the honka.

Sakurabana / Yume ka utsutsu ka / Shirakumo no / Tae-te tsune-naki / Mine no harukaze The way by which one accesses the database is the same as in the aforementioned examples. To express the transience of fallen cherry blossoms, Ietaka found words that acted as a ‘mould’—namely, ‘yume ka utsutsu ka shira-zu,’ from the old waka. When the word ‘shirazu’ connects with ‘shirakumo,’ the word that can be connected to ‘shirakumo’ is searched again; almost automatically, the word ‘tae-te tsune naki’ can be found in the old waka.

As discussed, the two methods differ completely in terms of what is searched in the database. This implies that in the methodological development of honka-dori, the quality of the database elements would necessarily change. It was kokoro that an old waka would first express, but it, so to speak, would ‘fall apart’ and become a collection of individual words.

What, then, are the aspects of each database? The database in which old kokoro that form one waka are searched as data seems to take an orderly form, such as in an anthology. However, it is naturally difficult to derive feedback on renewed kokoro from the database; this is because the feedback there refers to old kokoro that have been renewed and stored as information that can be searched, reused and renewed again.

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