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«Molly Allen Nancy Steblay, Ph.D., Ben Denkinger, Ph.D. Psychology Eyewitness Memory Procedure with Older Adults Older adults make more identification ...»

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In this study, the effect that wild-type ASF and boiled wild-type ASF has on the flagellar motility of the PAO1 and PA14 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined by using video analysis. Wild-type ASF inhibited the speeds of both PAO1 and PA14 and boiled wild-type ASF failed to inhibit the speeds of both strains, leading us to predict that this inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is due to an inhibitory protein. The upper limit to the size of this inhibitory protein found in wild-type ASF was also identified as being less than 250 kDa by using fractioned wild-type ASF.

Malina Gore Diane Pike, Ph.D.

Sociology Restaurant Observation: Server Attitudes and Seating Patterns Previous research has shown that certain groups have been found to give less appealing tips than others, but little research has been done to assess the effects of these beliefs in where guests are seated in the restaurant. A systematic observational study was conducted among five casual dining restaurants. Over eight shifts, data was collected on 175 tables to describe seating patterns among restaurants.

Complementary confidential surveys and interviews were conducted with servers and restaurant managers regarding the perception of seating patterns in the restaurant. The average party consisted of two to three white, middle aged males or females. There were no significant findings between the variables of perceived age, race, or gender and the area of the restaurant that the guests were placed.

Michelle Grafelman Matthew Beckman, Ph.D.

Biology Characterization and Staging of Daphnia magna Eye Development At the earliest appearance of eye structures in Daphnia magna embryos, two distinct eye spots are present, which gradually grow and fuse together, leaving adult daphnids with a cyclopean eye. Though the growth of the individual ommatidia making up the compound eye has been studied and used to describe this apparent eye fusion, a visual timeline of eye development and a means for determining the progression of an embryo through its eye development have not been established (Flaster & Macagno, 1984). Therefore, in the current study, a timeline and staging system were developed in order to better characterize this eye maturation process. Five distinct stages of eye development were identified and described. To define the progression of embryos through these eye development stages, the determined stages of the embryos were compared to the overall developmental stages, as defined by Mittmann, et al.

(2014), as well as to embryo body lengths and multiple eye separation measurements. These data suggest that the D. magna eye spots grow larger and closer together throughout development to produce the characteristic cyclopic eye.

Cory Haight-Nali Pavel Belik, Ph.D.

Mathematics The Effects of Rotational Symmetry on the Performance of Laguerre's Method Laguerre's Method is an iterative method for finding roots of polynomials that is intriguing for exhibiting a high rate of convergence. Furthermore, in many cases, it appears to work with any (real or complex) initial approximation of a root. After investigating the complex set of initial approximations to a root that lead to convergence, we found that rotational symmetry negatively impacts the size of these sets, and that breaking this rotational symmetry allows for a far greater range of initial guesses that eventually converge to a root. We present computational results that demonstrate this phenomenon and theoretical results that provide good estimates of the size of the region in which convergence occurs.

Ellyn Holiday-Kaufmann Anthony Clapp, Ph.D.

Exercise Science Effects of a 6-week regiment weight training program on body composition in pre and post- menopausal women Regiment weight training (RWT) consisting of low volume weight training 2-4x weekly, exhibits immense health benefits for women particularly as they approach the menopausal development stage where the risk of gaining body fat and experiencing altered body fat distribution increases. Moreover, RWT is correlated with chronic elevation in daily energy expenditure and fat oxidation; further implying that RWT is an optimal method in managing body composition. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body fat percentage upon implementing a 6-week RWT program for pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women. METHODS: Four pre-menopausal women (Age=24.75 ± 2.25 yrs, Body Fat=21.63 ± 8.77 %) and four post-menopausal women (Age=56.50 ± 5.5 yrs, Body Fat=25.95 ± 1.65 %) executed a RWT program consisting of four multi-joint lifts (bench, 3 sets of 8 reps; overhead press, 3x8;

squat 3x8; deadlift, 3x5) 2x a week for 6 weeks. All participants completed an initial strength assessment to establish an appropriate resistance level for each lift. The participants’ body composition was obtained with BodPod air displacement plethysmography prior to and post the 6-week program. Additionally, all

participants completed a qualitative questionnaire at the end of each week to provide feedback regarding:

level of soreness, daily energy level, and overall satisfaction with life. RESULTS: Three of the four postmenopausal women withdrew from the study due to family emergencies. Of the five remaining participants, three participants showed a decrease in body fat averaging -1.7%. The mean body fat percentage for the five participants who completed the RWT program decreased from 22.8 ± 7.6 % to

22.2 ± 7.6 % (p 0.05). Where as, the data collected from qualitative questionnaire concluded an increase in overall satisfaction with life for all participants. CONCLUSION: Despite that the RWT study resulted in an average loss of body fat percentage and an overall increase in sense of satisfaction, there were no statistically significant improvements to be reported.

Brent HorwartPhillip Adamo, Ph.D.HistoryAugsburg and the Environment

Augsburg College is one of the Twin Cities' many private colleges, but its history with the regard to the environment stands out among them as being one of the longest and most ideologically conflicted.

Starting with a rural feel on the outskirts of a much smaller Minneapolis than we know today, Augsburg Seminary gathered its own water, cultivated the earth to feed its animals, and harvested wood to heat the campus. This labor intensive, yet sustainable lifestyle was abandoned as Minneapolis became the “gateway to the Midwest” and slowly enveloped the college in a grid of interlocking streets, utilities, pollution and cramped living conditions. Past historians have labeled Augsburg’s journey to understand its environmental impact with works like “Fjord to Freeway” and more recently “Rural to Urban." Such labels capture the dynamic shifts that occurred at the college over its first century and a half. My study builds on these earlier works and seeks to understand Augsburg's evolving environmental consciousness.

Mandy Isaacson Jill Dawe, DMA.

Music The Viola Concerto in Middle to Late 18th-Century Germany The violin and cello have a number of 18th-century concerti by well-known composers such as Mozart and Haydn, but for a number of interesting historical reasons, viola repertoire from this era is generally thought to lack musical depth and variety. This project gathered information about, and made archival recordings of, seven relatively unknown 18th-century German viola concerti by the lesser-known composers Joseph Schmitt, Josef Reicha, Anton Stamitz, Johann Gottfried Arnold, Johann Stamitz, and Ernst Wilhelm Wolf. Performing and recording the pieces, and comparing them to standards set by the American String Teacher's Association revealed that although these pieces are not standard repertoire, they contain musical and pedagogical qualities that may deserve wider recognition.

Andrew Jewell David Crowe, Ph.D.

Biology Modeling NMDAR-dependent action potential coincidences using a spiking neural network Background: Spiking neural networks can be modeled using a set of differential equations. Using the model put forth by Xiao-Jing Wang and Jaciento Pereira in their 2014 paper, I assembled a LeakyIntegrate and Fire model, approximating the function of a fully connected network of 1000 neurons in Matlab programming language. This model will be used to test hypotheses related to schizophrenia. Our laboratory has recently obtained data that systemic injection of the NMDA receptor antagonist phencyclidine decreases the number of action potential coincidences in the prefrontal cortex. The goal of the current research is to test this behavior in the model and to quantify the parameters that give rise to this effect. Results: Assembling the model was a challenge due to the limited scope of the initial parameters that the model is functional for. I tested the model for varying amounts of randomized external input to find what amounts would cause the network to replicate biologically plausible neural activity. In addition to these tests, I performed voltage clamp-style experiments on the network to determine the value of various other parameters such as the external magnesium ion concentration or the differential equation’s modeling time step (the accuracy to which each millisecond is modelled). The model is currently close to the point where I will be able to mimic NMDA receptor blockade by decreasing the NMDA conductivity variable in the model neurons.

Demond Johnson, Sean Adams, Austin Conery Nancy Steblay, Ph.D.

Psychology Assessment of Structural Lineup Bias in Real Police Lineups A police lineup may be biased against the suspect, thereby putting an innocent suspect at risk of false identification. The problem of structural lineup bias is that it allows the eyewitness to identify the suspect without reliance on recognition memory. This on-going laboratory study tests 120 real photo lineups from violent crime cases in four U.S. cities. The research question is whether the lineups are biased against the suspect. The mock-witness procedure is used to test the lineups. 50 lab participants view each of 20 six-person lineups. For each lineup, participants are asked to read the description of the culprit provided by the real eyewitness and then to decide which lineup member is most likely the accused. Our measure of lineup bias is the proportion of mock-witnesses who identify the police suspect. If a lineup is fairly constructed, the mock-witnesses (who did not see the crime) should identify the suspect at a rate no greater than chance. Chance is equal to a 17% selection rate from a six-person lineup. Data are available for the first 19 of the 120 lineups. The lineups produced a suspect identification rate of 16%, not significantly different from chance, X2 (1) =.09, p =.76, h =.03. Therefore, this first set of 20 lineups shows no structural bias. We are currently testing the second set of 20 lineups. The complete data set will allow us to assess the relationship between lineup bias and real eyewitness decisions.

Sean Jordan, Haeley Hendrickson, Jacob Kraft Nancy Steblay, Ph.D.

Psychology Eye-Tracking the Effect of the Appearance Change Instruction on Attention and Lineup Identification Accuracy The Appearance Change Instruction (ACI) is used by police departments nationally as a part of standard lineup procedure recommended by the U.S. Department of Justice. The ACI cautions eyewitnesses that “individuals depicted in lineup photos may not appear exactly as they did on the date of the incident because features such as head and facial hair are subject to change.” The intended effect of the ACI is to increase the accuracy of eyewitness identification decisions. We tested this assumption in a laboratory study. Participants watched a short video of a crime and then attempted to identify the guilty perpetrator from a six-person photo lineup. The research used a 2 X 3 between-subjects factorial design, with participants randomly assigned to six conditions. Half of the participants received the ACI prior to viewing the lineup and half did not. Participants viewed one of three versions of a lineup: the culprit was present with no appearance change, the culprit was present with an altered appearance, or an innocent suspect replaced the culprit. The participants’ eye movements and fixations were monitored during the lineup presentation. It is hypothesized that the ACI will increase correct identification decisions. It is also expected that the ACI will produce more eye fixations on stable facial features, linking witness visual attention with identification decision. The study is currently ongoing. Full results will be presented at the conference.

Andrew Julkowski Michael Wentzel, Ph.D.

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