«The third generation of Indians in Britain Cultural identity and cultural change Vorgelegt von: Abgabedatum: 16.10.2008 Judith Frübing 1. Gutachter: ...»
Furthermore, four teenagers filled the questionnaire out on the street in Brent. They are counted to the Brent Council sample. Another five teenagers completed the questionnaire at the Indian Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, the institute for Indian art and culture in London. It turned out that all these girls were Tamil. For this reason and their attachment to Indian culture and Hindu religion they are included in the sampradaya sample.
About half of Brent’s population belongs to non-white ethnic groups. Of them British Indians form the majority (18.5% of the whole population). Consequently, Hindus are the second largest religious group (17%) after Christians (48%). 12% of the population is Muslim (Brent Council: 2007).
Frübing, 107 These accidentally took part in the survey as part of the Brent sample. Their questionnaires were included in the analysis because their answering patterns did not differ significantly from that of British Indian Hindus.
All names have been changed by the author for reasons of anonymity.
The programme is called Bal Vika meaning child development (Nesbitt 2007: 62) The dimension concerning discrimination was left out. First, being a very sensitive topic, it was expected that the teenagers would not answer honestly. And second, discrimination and racism take more subtle forms today, which cannot be explored in binary answering categories.
Lickert scales are the most common scales. They have 5 answering categories ranging form strongly agree to strongly disagree. In my questionnaire each answering category is attached to a value between 2 and -2.
Hereby, 2 points are given for the most “western” answer and -2 for the most “traditional” answer. Counting all answers together every individual has its own acculturation score. The highest reachable scores were 60 and with 0 points for a completely equilibrated point of view.
It is important to keep in mind that the acculturation score can only give a first orientation for general attitudes. The method has been criticized because the same score may be reached in different ways. A respondent can reach a score of 0 by always ticking “undecided”. Another teenager may have agreed to acculturation in half of the questions and ticked towards retaining traditions in the other half. He will also get the same score. Nevertheless, the acculturation score gives a first orientation. And, the questionnaires were checked for their meaningfulness and reliability before being analysed.
The Dudden Hill community centre runs Gujarati classes. Children can even gain a GCSE in this South Indian language. On Saturdays the centre runs several classes with schoolchildren of different ages but the situation is rather crowded. However, the chairman Naginbhai Mistry and all teachers and staff are doing their best to maintain order and concentration.
In the Hare Krishna Movement English has always been the predominant language as the movement has started in the USA. The London temple is extremely international so that English is the only language everyone understands. Most other temples like the Shree Ganapathi temple are bilingual; announcements are made in English and posters and information are put up in Tamil and English.
Ravanan and Veeran comment:
Veeran: …and everytime you go to India you learn a lot more about your culture like when you go… Ravanan: When you go to the temple… Veeran: and the famous temples and also like there’re different foods and stuff like that. When we went there my dad was showing me like the fruits and the different types of trees and stuff that he was brought up with, that I never knew about: like that’s a jackfruit tree and we don’t have those here so I didn’t know about it, so its also getting about… The boli is the oral family history. It is derived from the Hindi word boli meaning speech.
During the Vedic period women were considered equal to men. Later in Indian history this changed and the rights and freedoms of women were curtailed becoming increasingly subordinated (Klostermaier 2003: 209).
Bhatti’s research mostly covered Muslim and Sikh teenagers. Their communities tend to be stricter on issues of gender and courtship.
Gillespie’s study was conducted in Southall, an area mainly Sikh populated. Sikhs tend to be stricter on gender and marriage issues than Hindus. Nevertheless, in principle Hindu girls may also face these double standards.
Frübing, 108 Pradeep said: “After understanding the values of spiritual life and seeing what it’s given me, [...] I think that too free mixing of boys and girls especially at a teenage age is not productive, you know. It’s just like a massive distraction. Like the whole time my mind was just elsewhere. I should been sitting down and studying and developing my ideas and my morals and I was just off getting drunk, doing nonsense. So, I wouldn’t want my kids to have relationships before they got married. [...] I mean yeah, I don’t wanna sound like a fuddy-duddy, but no I think marriage is there for a purpose and if you have these desires to go and fool about, then get married. But I don’t think that before marriage [there should] just be unrestricted messing about, you know.” This also has to do with the low degree of acceptance of divorce in the Indian community. Buddhdev Pandya however indicated that this has started to change as women become more self-conscious and independent through western education and work. Therefore, divorce and single parenthood is growing.
It is necessary to keep in mind that the forms and motivations of racism have changed significantly over the last decades. Nowadays, cultural motivations have replaced argumentations of skin colour. Thus, more and more cultural difference is used to discriminate and harass people or to demand assimilation. Nevertheless, racism has not become entirely independent from race. Still, race is perceived as a marker of difference. It is applied to categorize people into culturally defined groups (Modood 1997: 353, Allen 1971: 23).
The full-text version of the interview sequence is quoted beneath:
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Appendix 1: Attitude Scale………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………..1 Appendix 2: Background questionnaire…………………………………………………………………………………………………....…3 Appendix 3: Interview guide.
Appendix 4: GCSE results according to ethic groups.
Appendix 5: Sample data
4. Family’s social class
5. Family’s Origin
6. Language spoken at home
Appendix 6: Data from the questionnaire
1. Retention of Indian culture
2. Attitudes towards community-language learning
3. Attitudes towards religion
4. Attitudes towards India
5. Caste awareness
6. Attitudes on gender roles and relations
7. Attitudes towards courtship and marriage
9. Cultural preferences
We should not speak English with family members.
I am religious.
I want to learn more about my religion.
I do not know which caste my family belongs to.
I feel rather British than Indian.
We have few common interests with white teenagers.
I would like to have more white friends.
Boys and girls from my community should mix with white kids.
I would not mind being the only British Asian in class.
I would like to go to India for a year.
I prefer to go on holiday elsewhere than India.
We are better off living with people from our community.
I like having many Asian families in the neighbourhood.
We should always try to fulfill our parent's wishes.
Grandparents should not intervene in family matters.
Sisters and brothers should be treated equally.
Our girls should not behave like white girls.
Indian films are more entertaining than English ones.
There should be more Asian programmes on telly.
We should keep our customs and traditions.
It is ok to have a boyfriend or a girlfriend.
Marriages should be arranged by the family.
There should be more mixed marriages.
Grandparents should live with their children and grandchildren.
Our grandparents have done a great job settling here.
Grandparents should adapt more to the English ways of life.
Most parents are to westernized.
I have only little knowledge about my family's origin.
Appendix 3: Interview guide:
Introduction of the why, what and how of the interview.
I. Attitude towards retention of Indian/ Hindu culture How do you feel about your family’s origin/ culture/ religion?
Appendix 4: GCSE results according to ethic groups:
Pupils achieving 5 or more A*-C at GCSE/GNVQ: by sex and ethnic group, 2004, England (National Statistics. “Education: Chinese pupils have best GCSE results.” National statistics: Ethnicity and Identity. 21 February 2006. 01 August 2008. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=461.) Appendices: Frübing, 7 Appendix 5: Sample data1
4. Family’s social class:
Social class is differentiated following the parents’ professions.
I = professional occupations II = managerial and technical occupations III N = skilled non-manual occupations III M = skilled manual occupations ( no parents worked in IV = partly skilled or V = unskilled occupations)
68, 8% 47, 6% 38, 1% 21, 9% 6, 3% 4, 8% 4, 8% 4, 8% 3, 1%
29, 0% 29, 0% 19, 4% 19, 4% 20, 0% 20, 0% 20, 0% 20, 0% 20, 0% 3, 2%
61, 9% 31, 3% 28, 1% 25, 0% 28, 6% 9, 4% 9, 5% 6, 3%
40, 6% 57, 1% 28, 1% 25, 0% 19, 0% 9, 5% 9, 5% 6, 3% 4, 8%
28, 1% 28, 1% 33, 3% 33, 3% 21, 9% 15, 6% 19, 0% 9, 5% 4, 8% 3, 1% 3, 1%
43, 5%43, 5% 46, 7% 40, 0% 33, 3% 26, 7% 26, 7% 13, 3% 8, 7% 6, 7% 6, 7% 4, 3%
33,3% 46,7% 40,0% 25,0% 20,8% 20,8% 33,3% 20,0% 20,0% 13,3% 13,3% 6,7% 6,7%
50,0% 53,3% 46,7% 33,3% 12,5% 12,5%12,5%12,5% 20,0% 13,3% 13,3%13,3% 6,7%
In most diagrams the categories “not answered“ or “not stated” is omitted for reasons of clarity.