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«Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 Chapter 6: Innovating Clean Energy Technologies in Advanced Manufacturing Technology Assessments Additive ...»

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DOE Combined Heat and Power Installation Database. Available at: https://doe.icfwebservices.com/chpdb/.

The DOE Combined Heat and Power database contains information on all known CHP systems in operation in the United States today. It the best available comprehensive estimate of the CHP market, but still only an estimate owing to the constantly changing numbers (new additions, existing capacity either shut down or put on standby, or changes in operation [e.g., operating fewer hours per year]). These numbers may differ somewhat from the estimates in the U.S. Energy Information Agency’s Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). MECS data does not include third party owned and operated CHP. The MECS estimates also only include CHP in the manufacturing sector and as such do not include CHP in the commercial/institutional, agricultural, or mining sectors.

DOE Combined Heat and Power Installation Database. Available at: https://doe.icfwebservices.com/chpdb/.

CHP systems are typically fueled by natural gas. For discussion, see “Catalog of CHP Technologies,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Combined Heat and Power Partnership. March 2015. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/chp/documents/catalog_chptech_full.pdf.

Source: DOE Combined Heat and Power Installation Database. Available at: https://doe.icfwebservices.com/chpdb/. Note that 2015 and 2016 are anticipated figures based on ICF International personal communications regarding planned additions; no data is available yet. Note that the ICF analysis did not cover all CHP opportunity in the United States, it focuses on systems 5 MW because of the large untapped technical potential in this size range. System characteristics and other opportunity analysis data are from “The Opportunity for CHP in the United States.” ICF International. May 2013.

Source: DOE Combined Heat and Power Installation Database. Available at: https://doe.icfwebservices.com/chpdb/.

Source: ICF International internal estimates. 2014.

Personal communication with Thornton, R., International District Energy Association, and the IEA CHP and DHC Collaborative—CHP/ DHC Country Scorecard: United States. August 21, 2015. Available at: http://www.iea.org/publications/insights/insightpublications/US_ CountryScorecard_FINAL.pdf.

See, for example, EPA’s Combined Heat and Power Partnership. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/chp/aboutus/partners.html.

See the report by the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force for approaches to improve grid resiliency, including CHP and microgrids.

Available at: http://www.eenews.net/assets/2013/08/19/document_pm_03.pdf.

One advantage of microgrids are that they can decouple from the grid and run in island mode during an interruption (see the Case Study on Island Mode in this Technology Assessment), and then be able to autonomously resynchronize and reconnect with the grid when the disruption is over. For a detailed analysis of challenges and opportunities regarding microgrids, see “The Advanced Microgrid-Integration and Interoperability,” Sandia National Lab report 2014-1535, March 2014. Which can be accessed here: http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/12/ f19/AdvancedMicrogrid_Integration-Interoperability_March2014.pdf Efficiency targets of 75%+, on the basis of higher heating value, are sought for traditional CHP systems that are sized to a facility’s thermal

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32 Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 TA 6.D: Combined Heat and Power Efficiency targets of 70%+, on the basis of higher heating value, are sought for potential CHP systems that can be sized to meet a facility’s electrical demand, with ratios up to ~1.5.

More information about the CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (TAPs) can be found here: http://www.energy.gov/eere/amo/chp-technicalassistance-partnerships-chp-taps The First Law of Thermodynamics is an energy accounting, and efficiency is defined as the ratio of useful output to resource input. The Second Law of Thermodynamics defines the maximum useful total output of a system in its environment. That is, all real systems have losses, and Second Law analysis helps to define the upper bounds of efficiency.

Internal DOE analysis to estimate impact of expanded CHP market applications.

This analysis focuses on systems 5 MW because of the large untapped technical potential in this size range. System characteristics and other opportunity analysis data are from “The Opportunity for CHP in the United States.” ICF International. May 2013.

Frangopoulos, C. A. “A Method to Determine the Power to Heat Ratio: The Cogenerated Electricity and the Primary Energy Savings of Cogeneration Systems After the European Directive.” Energy (45:1), 2012; pp.52-61.

In order to achieve a ratio of 1.5 while maintaining the same overall system efficiencies, there would need to be electrical efficiencies of 47.8% and 46.6% for small and large systems, respectively. These efficiency levels are technically achievable with single cycle reciprocating gas engines but fall near the high end of reasonably achievable efficiencies (High Efficiency Distributed Electrical Generation). More research will be needed in the areas of low-temperature thermal energy recovery in order to enable high electrical efficiencies in a CHP application.

The sectors in this analysis include those that typically have higher electrical loads relative to thermal loads. Markets such as pulp and paper, chemicals, refineries, hospitals, and universities were not included because they are already well served by CHP technologies.

We adopt conservative literature values for inverter and electrical generator efficiencies. Listed efficiencies for commercial systems are approximately 97-98% for inverters in the 1-5 MW range (e.g., see: Satcon PowerGate Plus PV Inverter (http://www.satcon.com/uploads/ products/en/1MW-PG-US-UL.pdf); ABB Central Solar Inverter (https://library.e.abb.com/public/e2508291cc16d124c1257d490049abe5/17237_ PVS800_central%20inverters%20flyer%20EN_3AUA0000057380_RevL_lowres.pdf); and GE Brilliance Solar Inverter (http://site.ge-energy.com/prod_serv/products/solar/en/downloads/GEA18380_1MW_PV_Inverter_r4.pdf)). For generators, efficiencies can run as high as 98-99% (e.g., see: GE generators (https://powergen.gepower.com/content/dam/gepower-pgdp/global/en_US/documents/product/ generators/Fact%20Sheet/generator-fact-sheet-2015.pdf); and Siemens generators (http://www.energy.siemens.com/hq/en/fossil-powergeneration/generators/)). These efficiency differences could affect the overall FTEE estimates by 1-2%, depending on the system configuration.

Elson, A.; Tidball, R.; Hampson, A. “Waste Heat to Power Market Assessment.” ORNL/TM-2014/620. March 2015. Available at: http://info.ornl.


This report analyzes the technical and economic potential for industrial waste heat to power (WHP) in the United States. The report includes information on WHP technologies, industrial market sectors with significant WHP potential, existing WHP installations, market drivers, and current policies impacting WHP. The primary focus of the report is on waste heat stream temperatures above 450°F, although lower temperature waste heat streams are also considered. The technical potential for WHP above 450°F was determined to be approximately 8.8 GW. On the basis of this technical potential, the economic potential showed an expected market penetration of 2.9 GW of WHP.

Wang, D., “Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas.” Final Technical Report, DOE Award Number DE‐NT0005350. Report issued June, 2012. Available at: https://www.netl.doe.gov/File%20Library/Research/Coal/ewr/water/5350FinalTechReport.pdf Capstone Turbine Corporation, “Combined Heat and Power Systems Technology Development and Demonstration 370 kW High Efficiency Microturbine.” Final Technical Report, DOE Project ID # DE-EE0004258. Report issued October 14, 2015. Available at: http://www.osti.gov/ scitech/biblio/1224801 A fact sheet entitled “Flexible CHP System with Low NOX, CO and VOC Emissions” describing the project to develop a flexible CHP system which combines an ultra-low NOX burner, microturbine, and heat recovery boiler can be accessed here: http://www.energy.gov/eere/amo/ flexible-chp-system-low-nox-co-and-voc-emissions Plahn, P., Keele, K., and Pendray, J., “330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions.” Final Technical Report, DOE Award Number DE-EE0003392. Report issued March 31, 2015. Available at: http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1223435 Castaldini, C., and Darby, E., “CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers.” Final Technical Report, DOE Grant Number EE-0004354.

Report issued July 10, 2013. Available at: http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1111427 Seaman, J., “Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture.” Final Technical Report, DOE Award Number DE-EE0002729.

Report issued January 14, 2013. Available at: http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1082429 A case study entitled “Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions” describing two Recovery Act funded projects can be accessed here: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/rd/pdfs/chp_landfillgas_casestudy.pdf A case study entitled “Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings at Large University” describes Recovery Act funded projects at Texas A&M that includes a new CHP system install plus improvements to the campus-wide district energy system can be accessed here: https://utilities.tamu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/DOE-Recovery-Act-Case-Study.pdf A project profile entitled “Texas Medical Center and TECO 48-MW CHP System” describing a project that has demonstrated energy cost savings of $6-12 million per year can be accessed here: http://www.southwestchptap.org/data/sites/1/documents/profiles/Texas_Medical_ Center-Project_Profile.pdf 33 Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 TA 6.D: Combined Heat and Power A fact sheet entitled “Combined Heat and Power System Increases Reliability and Reduces Emissions” describing a project that demonstrates high potential for CHP in food processing industry can be accessed here: http://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2015/08/f26/PepsiCo%20FritoLay%20CHP%20Case%20Study_07.02.15.pdf For an overview of these barriers, see “Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency.” Section V. U.S. Department of Energy Report to Congress. June

2015. Available at: http://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2015/06/f23/EXEC-2014-005846_6%20Report_signed_v2.pdf.

For more information on the case study, see: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), “Combined Heat and Power Case Study: Project Demonstrates High Potential for CHP in Food Processing Industry.” Available at: http://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2015/08/f26/PepsiCo%20FritoLay%20CHP%20Case%20Study_07.02.15.pdf Kane, B. “Distributed Generation Kept Lights on After Irene.” Hartford Business Journal. Posted September 5, 2011. Available at: http://www.


National Institute of Standards and Technology, Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (REFPROP): Version 9.1.

Available at: http://www.nist.gov/srd/nist23.cfm.

Rokni, M. “Thermodynamic Analysis of SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell)—Stirling Hybrid Plants Using Alternative Fuels.” Energy (61), 2013; pp.


Rao, A. D.; Samuelsen, G. S. “A Thermodynamic Analysis of Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Based Hybrid Systems.” Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power (125), 2003; pp. 59-66.

Massardo, A. F.; Lubelli, F. “Internal Reforming Solid Oxide Fuel-Cell Gas Turbine Combined Cycles (IRSOFC-GT): Part A—Cell Model and Cycle Thermodynamic Analysis.” Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power (122), 2000; pp. 27-35.

Palsson, J.; Selimovic, A.; Sjunnesson, L. “Combined Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Gas Turbine Systems for Efficient Power and Heat Generation.” Journal of Power Sources (86), 2000; pp. 442-448.

Haseli, Y.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G. F. “Thermodynamic Modeling of a Gas Turbine Cycle Combined with a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (33), 2008; pp. 5811-5822.

Chan, S. H.; Ho, H. K.; Tian, Y. “Multi-level Modeling of SOFC-Gas Turbine Hybrid System.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (28), 2003; pp. 889-900.

Rokni, M. “Thermodynamic Analysis of an Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cycle with a Rankine Cycle.” Energy Conversion and Management (51:12), 2010; pp. 2724-2732.

See “GE Fuel Cells—The Power of Tomorrow.”2015. ; p. 18. Available at: https://www.ge.com/sites/default/files/GE_FuelCells.pdf.

34 Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 TA 6.D: Combined Heat and Power

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36 Quadrennial Technology Review 2015

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