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«Managing Regulatory Body Competence IAEA SAFETY STANDARDS AND RELATED PUBLICATIONS IAEA SAFETY STANDARDS Under the terms of Article III of its ...»

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Although the design of NPPs is robust and the probability of any accident of severe nature is extremely low, accidents such as the Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima have still occurred. Accordingly, the need for adequate preparedness at national and international levels for dealing with accidents and emergencies cannot be undermined. The role of the regulatory body is very important in this area, as it has to regulate to ensure that adequate measures have been taken, and arrangements are in place to deal with any emergency situation and regular drills or exercises are conducted to demonstrate the adequacy of such measures and arrangements. In addition, the regulatory body also has to advise the government on necessary intervention measures, inform and communicate with the public and media on emergency situation, and interact with the international community for providing the necessary information about the emergency. The regulatory body is, therefore, required to develop necessary competences (KSAs) to perform these tasks.

Examples of KSAs could be:

(a) Quadrant 1: Competences related to the legal, regulatory and organizational

basis:

(i) Appreciation of the mandate, mission and objectives of the organization;

(ii) Comprehension of the central government’s nuclear laws and decrees as well as other laws and decrees that are applicable in case of nuclear and radiological emergencies;

(iii) Appreciation and comprehension of the applicability to the nuclear industry of the laws and decrees of the local jurisdictions and authorities that can provide assistance in case of nuclear and radiological emergencies;

(iv) Appreciation and comprehension of the roles and responsibilities of national and international organizations with legal or administrative roles in managing, and responding to, nuclear or radiological emergencies, including: emergency management organizations; law enforcement agencies; federal, provincial, state or local government;

and organizations providing medical assistance;

(v) Demonstrated ability to relate legal requirements to routine tasks associated with the emergency preparedness and response;

(vi) Comprehension of IAEA safety standards, particularly those relating to emergency preparedness and response, relevant international instruments as well as the practices of other States with established nuclear power programmes;

(vii) Comprehension and demonstrated use of the regulatory body’s regulations within limits regarding interpretations offered by legal counsels and recorded experience;

(viii) Appreciation and demonstrated comprehension of the responsibilities and functions of all interested parties affected directly or indirectly by the provisions of the legal basis of the regulatory body;

(ix) Appreciation and comprehension of the interrelationship between legal documents, regulatory guidance documents and licensing documents;

(x) Comprehension of relevant policies, procedures, guidance documents and documents that are used in conducting specific regulatory tasks in relation to emergency preparedness and response as defined in the legal basis;

(xi) Appreciation of responsibilities and steps to respond to an emergency rigorously and in a timely manner.

(b) Quadrant 2: Technical disciplines competences:

(i) Deep comprehension of defence concepts and application of relevant operating procedures and guidelines with respect to nuclear and radiological emergencies;

(ii) Comprehension of the application of radiation protection principles at nuclear facilities;

(iii) Comprehension of safety and risk assessment tools and techniques, and how safety and risk assessment is applied within the regulatory framework of the regulatory body;

(iv) Comprehension of design basis accidents related to the specific design of nuclear facilities;

(v) Comprehension of plant procedures, especially those which lie under the scope of emergency planning and preparedness.

(c) Quadrant 3: Competences related to a regulatory body’s practices:

(i) Comprehension of the processes and procedures of the regulatory body, especially those related to emergency preparedness;

(ii) Comprehension of regulations and regulatory guidance documents related to emergency preparedness;

(iii) Appreciation and comprehension of activities related to emergency preparedness during authorization, review and assessment, and inspection processes;

(iv) Comprehension of inspection procedures, especially with respect to inspection of emergency drills and exercises.

(d) Quadrant 4: Personal and behavioural competences:

(i) Demonstrated ability to build effective liaison with others at all levels inside and outside the organization to respond to the emergency effectively;

(ii) Demonstrated ability to adapt behaviour to cope with very stressful situations and to sustain mental effort to achieve objectives of the regulatory body in emergency situations;

(iii) Demonstrated ability to use effectively and maintain formal and informal networks inside and outside the regulatory body to gather data, seek input to the cause of an emergency, build consensus for any initiative to cope with the emergency situation and to evaluate the impacts of possible initiatives and solutions;

(iv) Demonstrated ability to respond appropriately to media and to provide valuable recommendations (i.e. based on factual data and engineering judgement and out-of-the-box thinking) to governments during nuclear and radiological emergencies;





(v) Demonstrated ability to explain clearly and to articulate the regulatory body’s position in a manner that avoids any misinterpretation in emergency circumstances;

(vi) Demonstrated ability to communicate with authority and to maintain composure at time of emergency to disseminate information and achieve desired results.

V.3.7. International cooperation

International cooperation is a function in which the regulatory body establishes arrangements for the exchange of safety related information to fulfil safety obligations and to promote cooperation. International cooperation consists of entering into international conventions and treaties (e.g. Convention on Nuclear Safety, Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident), exchange of information, mutual assistance in safety matters, staff training and other relevant matters.

V.3.7.1. Actions in SSG-16 [6]

–  –  –

(a) All the relevant organizations should participate in the global nuclear safety framework (Action 14).

(b) All relevant organizations should strengthen their cooperation on safety related matters with States with advanced nuclear power programmes (Action 16).

(c) The regulatory body should begin establishing a suitable working relationship with the operating organization and with international organizations (Action 32).

(d) All relevant organizations should support the safety related training of prospective nuclear staff in nuclear organizations in other States (Action 91).

(e) The regulatory body and the organizations in charge of the transport of radioactive material should participate in international activities and networks to provide mutual support (Action 191).

In Phase 3:

(a) All the relevant organizations should ensure continued participation in international activities and international networks for strengthening safety (Action 17).

(b) The regulatory body should implement a cooperation programme with the vendor State and with other regulatory bodies that have experience of oversight of NPPs of the same type as that selected (Action 19).

(c) All the relevant organizations should be aware of international efforts and progress with regard to the disposal of radioactive waste (Action 132).

V.3.7.2. Related competences

International cooperation requires knowledge of different international legal instruments, such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety, the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, as well as the State’s foreign policy. To develop good relations with the international nuclear community, there is a need to identify mutual areas of interest and to develop a mechanism for the mutual sharing of information, experience and assistance, and to carry out combined research and development and training activities.

Examples of KSAs could be:

(a) Quadrant 1: Competences related to the legal, regulatory and organizational

basis:

(i) Comprehension of international instruments including, among others:

— Convention on Nuclear Safety;

— Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management;

— Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident;

— Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency.

(ii) Comprehension of the central government’s nuclear laws and decrees as well as other laws and decrees that apply to a licensed nuclear facility.

(iii) Comprehension of the State’s foreign policy and strategy.

(iv) Comprehension and appreciation of the State’s international commitments.

(v) Comprehension and appreciation of the international obligations assigned or applied to the regulatory body.

(vi) Comprehension of the roles, responsibilities and mandate of the regulatory body.

(vii) Comprehension of the structure of the regulatory body’s management system.

(b) Quadrant 2: Technical disciplines competences:

(i) Comprehension of one of the science fields at a basic level but not necessarily applied to nuclear industry applications, problems or situations;

(ii) Comprehension of one of the engineering fields at a basic level but not necessarily applied to nuclear industry applications, problems or situations;

(iii) Basic understanding of the technical aspects of the NPP (i.e. reactor technology, accident analysis, structures, systems and components related to safety, instrumentation and control).

(c) Quadrant 3: Competences related to a regulatory body’s practices:

(i) Comprehension of the policies, practices and management system of the regulatory body;

(ii) Comprehension of regulations and regulatory guidance documents;

(iii) Comprehension of regulatory processes (i.e. authorization process, enforcement process).

(d) Quadrant 4: Personal and behavioural competences:

(i) Demonstrated ability to gather information and also to rely on professional judgement and experience to arrive at sound conclusions;

(ii) Demonstrated ability to deliver quality work that is timely, complete and accurate;

(iii) Demonstrated ability to switch from one type of problem to another quickly and easily, distinguishing between essential and non-essential details;

(iv) Demonstrated ability to make adjustments in response to feedback;

(v) Demonstrated ability to understand organizational norms and expectations;

(vi) Demonstrated ability to provide timely and relevant information to others;

(vii) Demonstrated ability to use effectively and maintain formal and informal networks inside and outside the regulatory body to gather intelligence, seek input to problems or build support for initiatives;

(viii) Demonstrated ability to produce clear, concise and informed written reports appropriate to the needs of the reader;

(ix) Demonstrated ability to adapt behaviour to accommodate the sensitivities of others, cope with stressful situations and sustain mental effort to achieve objectives;

(x) Demonstrated ability to talk effectively in small groups and to large audiences;

(xi) Demonstrated appreciation of the needs, interests and expectations of various national and international groups and organizations;

(xii) Demonstrated ability to communicate complex issues clearly and to understand the communication norms of international community practice;

(xiii) Demonstrated ability to cooperate well with other team members and to maintain a positive and productive atmosphere;

(xiv) Demonstrated ability to be approachable and open to suggestions from others;

(xv) Demonstrated ability to resolve differences by encouraging alternative proposals, taking into account the positions of all interested parties, and facilitating open discussion;



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