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«Safety of Conversion Facilities and Uranium Enrichment Facilities Specific Safety Guide No. SSG-5 IAEA SAFETY RELATED PUBLICATIONS IAEA SAFETY ...»

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• In conversion facilities, the first step is to carry out dry mechanical cleaning, to minimize the generation of liquid waste. The uranium resulting from the dry mechanical cleaning process should be recovered.

• In diffusion enrichment facilities, ClF3 or F2 is used to convert solid uranium fluorides (e.g.UF4, UF5, UO2F2) into gaseous UF6. In addition, flushing with a gas (e.g. N2 or dry air) that does not react with UF6 and other gases present in the facility should be used to remove the residual UF6 and HF. The UF6 and other gases are pumped and recovered in cold traps and chemical traps. If the complete recovery of uranium compounds by the use of ClF3 or F2 is not feasible, dry mechanical decontamination should be performed.

• In centrifuge enrichment facilities, gaseous UF6 is pumped out and recovered in cold traps. In addition, flushing with an inert gas (e.g. N2) should be used to remove the residual UF6 and HF.

— Any grounds (surface and subsurface), groundwater, parts of buildings and equipment contaminated with radioactive material or chemical material and their levels of contamination should be identified by means of comprehensive site characterization;

— The facility should be decontaminated to the levels required by the regulatory body for cleanup operations or the lowest reasonably achievable level of residual contamination;

— Risk assessments and method statements for the licensing of the decommissioning process should be prepared.

DECOMMISSIONING PROCESS

8.4. The decommissioning of the facility should contain the following successive steps: dismantling, dry cleaning and further dismantling (for conversion facilities and diffusion enrichment facilities only) and wet cleaning.

8.5. It should be ensured that personnel carrying out the decommissioning of the facility have the necessary training, qualifications and experience for such work.

These personnel should have a clear understanding of the management system under which they are working to maintain acceptable environmental conditions and to implement the relevant environmental, health and safety standards.

8.6. Paragraphs III.34 and III.35 of Appendix III of Ref. [1] establish the requirements for active decommissioning.

8.7. In the decommissioning process, particular consideration should be given

to:

— Preventing the spread of contamination by means of appropriate techniques and procedures;

— Appropriate handling and packaging of waste as well as planning for the appropriate disposal of radioactive waste;

— Safe storage of contaminated material and radioactive waste that cannot be decontaminated or disposed of immediately.

REFERENCES

[1] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Safety of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-5, IAEA, Vienna (2008).

[2] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1, IAEA, Vienna (2000).

[3] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, The Management System for Facilities and Activities, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-3, IAEA, Vienna (2006).

[4] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Application of the Management System for Facilities and Activities, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-3.1, IAEA, Vienna (2006).

[5] FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS,

INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR

ORGANISATION, OECD NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY, PAN AMERICAN

HEALTH ORGANIZATION, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, Safety Series No. 115, IAEA, Vienna (1996).

[6] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Occupational Radiation Protection, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. RS-G-1.1, IAEA, Vienna (1999).

[7] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Manual on Safe Production, Transport, Handling and Storage of Uranium Hexafluoride, IAEA-TECDOC-771, IAEA, Vienna (1994).

[8] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Minimization of Waste from Uranium Purification, Enrichment and Fuel Fabrication, IAEA-TECDOC-1115, IAEA, Vienna (1999).

[9] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Recycle and Reuse of Materials and Components from Waste Streams of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities, IAEA-TECDOC-1130, IAEA, Vienna (1999).

[10] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Decommissioning of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. WS-G-2.4, IAEA, Vienna (2001).

–  –  –

Note: Safety function includes: (1) Criticality prevention; (2) Confinement to protect against internal exposure and chemical hazards; (3) Protection against external exposure.

–  –  –

Note: Safety function includes: (1) Criticality prevention; (2) Confinement to protect against internal exposure and chemical hazards; (3) Protection against external exposure.

–  –  –

An asterisk denotes a corresponding member. Corresponding members receive drafts for comment and other documentation but they do not generally participate in meetings. Two asterisks denote an alternate.





–  –  –

Argentina: González, A.J.; Australia: Loy, J.; Belgium: Samain, J.-P.; Brazil:

Vinhas, L.A.; Canada: Jammal, R.; China: Liu Hua; Egypt: Barakat, M.; Finland:

Laaksonen, J.; France: Lacoste, A.-C. (Chairperson); Germany: Majer, D.; India:

Sharma, S.K.; Israel: Levanon, I.; Japan: Fukushima, A.; Korea, Republic of:

Choul-Ho Yun; Lithuania: Maksimovas, G.; Pakistan: Rahman, M.S.; Russian Federation: Adamchik, S.; South Africa: Magugumela, M.T.; Spain: Barceló

Vernet, J.; Sweden: Larsson, C.M.; Ukraine: Mykolaichuk, O.; United Kingdom:

Weightman, M.; United States of America: Virgilio, M.; Vietnam: Le-chi Dung;

IAEA: Delattre, D. (Coordinator); Advisory Group on Nuclear Security:

Hashmi, J.A.; European Commission: Faross, P.; International Nuclear Safety

Group: Meserve, R.; International Commission on Radiological Protection:

Holm, L.-E.; OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Yoshimura, U.; Safety Standards Committee Chairpersons: Brach, E.W. (TRANSSC); Magnusson, S. (RASSC);

Pather, T. (WASSC); Vaughan, G.J. (NUSSC).

Nuclear Safety Standards Committee

Algeria: Merrouche, D.; Argentina: Waldman, R.; Australia: Le Cann, G.; Austria:

Sholly, S.; Belgium: De Boeck, B.; Brazil: Gromann, A.; *Bulgaria:

Gledachev, Y.; Canada: Rzentkowski, G.; China: Jingxi Li; Croatia: Valčić, I.;

*Cyprus: Demetriades, P.; Czech Republic: Šváb, M.; Egypt: Ibrahim, M.;

Finland: Järvinen, M.-L.; France: Feron, F.; Germany: Wassilew, C.; Ghana:

Emi-Reynolds, G.; *Greece: Camarinopoulos, L.; Hungary: Adorján, F.; India:

Vaze, K.; Indonesia: Antariksawan, A.; Iran, Islamic Republic of:

Asgharizadeh, F.; Israel: Hirshfeld, H.; Italy: Bava, G.; Japan: Kanda, T.; Korea,

Republic of: Hyun-Koon Kim; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya: Abuzid, O.; Lithuania:

Demčenko, M.; Malaysia: Azlina Mohammed Jais; Mexico: Carrera, A.; Morocco:

Soufi, I.; Netherlands: van der Wiel, L.; Pakistan: Habib, M.A.; Poland:

Jurkowski, M.; Romania: Biro, L.; Russian Federation: Baranaev, Y.; Slovakia:

Uhrik, P.; Slovenia: Vojnovič, D.; South Africa: Leotwane, W.; Spain:

Zarzuela, J.; Sweden: Hallman, A.; Switzerland: Flury, P.; Tunisia: Baccouche, S.;

Turkey: Bezdegumeli, U.; Ukraine: Shumkova, N.; United Kingdom:

Vaughan, G.J. (Chairperson); United States of America: Mayfield, M.; Uruguay:

Nader, A.; European Commission: Vigne, S.; FORATOM: Fourest, B.;

IAEA: Feige, G. (Coordinator); International Electrotechnical Commission:

Bouard, J.-P.; International Organization for Standardization: Sevestre, B.;

OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Reig, J.; *World Nuclear Association:

Borysova, I.

Radiation Safety Standards Committee

*Algeria: Chelbani, S.; Argentina: Massera, G.; Australia: Melbourne, A.;

*Austria: Karg, V.; Belgium: van Bladel, L.; Brazil: Rodriguez Rochedo, E.R.;

*Bulgaria: Katzarska, L.; Canada: Clement, C.; China: Huating Yang; Croatia:

Kralik, I.; *Cuba: Betancourt Hernandez, L.; *Cyprus: Demetriades, P.; Czech Republic: Petrova, K.; Denmark: Øhlenschlæger, M.; Egypt: Hassib, G.M.;

Estonia: Lust, M.; Finland: Markkanen, M.; France: Godet, J.-L.; Germany:

Helming, M.; Ghana: Amoako, J.; *Greece: Kamenopoulou, V.; Hungary:

Koblinger, L.; Iceland: Magnusson, S. (Chairperson); India: Sharma, D.N.;

Indonesia: Widodo, S.; Iran, Islamic Republic of: Kardan, M.R.; Ireland:

Colgan, T.; Israel: Koch, J.; Italy: Bologna, L.; Japan: Kiryu, Y.; Korea, Republic of: Byung-Soo Lee; *Latvia: Salmins, A.; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya: Busitta, M.;

Lithuania: Mastauskas, A.; Malaysia: Hamrah, M.A.; Mexico: Delgado Guardado, J.; Morocco: Tazi, S.; Netherlands: Zuur, C.; Norway: Saxebol, G.;

Pakistan: Ali, M.; Paraguay: Romero de Gonzalez, V.; Philippines: Valdezco, E.;

Poland: Merta, A.; Portugal: Dias de Oliveira, A.M.; Romania: Rodna, A.;

Russian Federation: Savkin, M.; Slovakia: Jurina, V.; Slovenia: Sutej, T.; South

Africa: Olivier, J.H.I.; Spain: Amor Calvo, I.; Sweden: Almen, A.; Switzerland:

Piller, G.; *Thailand: Suntarapai, P.; Tunisia: Chékir, Z.; Turkey: Okyar, H.B.;

Ukraine: Pavlenko, T.; United Kingdom: Robinson, I.; United States of America:

Lewis, R.; *Uruguay: Nader, A.; European Commission: Janssens, A.; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Byron, D.; IAEA: Boal, T.

(Coordinator); International Commission on Radiological Protection: Valentin, J.;

International Electrotechnical Commission: Thompson, I.; International Labour Office: Niu, S.; International Organization for Standardization: Rannou, A.;

International Source Suppliers and Producers Association: Fasten, W.; OECD

Nuclear Energy Agency: Lazo, T.E.; Pan American Health Organization:

Jiménez, P.; United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation: Crick, M.; World Health Organization: Carr, Z.; World Nuclear Association: Saint-Pierre, S.

Transport Safety Standards Committee

Argentina: López Vietri, J.; **Capadona, N.M.; Australia: Sarkar, S.; Austria:

Kirchnawy, F.; Belgium: Cottens, E.; Brazil: Xavier, A.M.; Bulgaria:

Bakalova, A.; Canada: Régimbald, A.; China: Xiaoqing Li; Croatia:

Belamarić, N.; *Cuba: Quevedo Garcia, J.R.; *Cyprus: Demetriades, P.; Czech Republic: Ducháček, V.; Denmark: Breddam, K.; Egypt: El-Shinawy, R.M.K.;

Finland: Lahkola, A.; France: Landier, D.; Germany: Rein, H.; *Nitsche, F.;

**Alter, U.; Ghana: Emi-Reynolds, G.; *Greece: Vogiatzi, S.; Hungary: Sáfár, J.;

India: Agarwal, S.P.; Indonesia: Wisnubroto, D.; Iran, Islamic Republic of:

Eshraghi, A.; *Emamjomeh, A.; Ireland: Duffy, J.; Israel: Koch, J.; Italy:

Trivelloni, S.; **Orsini, A.; Japan: Hanaki, I.; Korea, Republic of: Dae-Hyung

Cho; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya: Kekli, A.T.; Lithuania: Statkus, V.; Malaysia:

Sobari, M.P.M.; **Husain, Z.A.; Mexico: Bautista Arteaga, D.M.; **Delgado Guardado, J.L.; *Morocco: Allach, A.; Netherlands: Ter Morshuizen, M.; *New

Zealand: Ardouin, C.; Norway: Hornkjøl, S.; Pakistan: Rashid, M.; *Paraguay:



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