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«Ethnographic Study of Children under Five Diarrhea in Ponjo Bugis Ethnic in Pinrang Regency South Sulawesi Province Arman1, Dewi Yuliana2*, Suharni1 ...»

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A conducted therapy measure for this diarrhea is massaging patient’s abdomen which is intended to normalize the Aorta abdominal function. A patient with this type diarrhea is not treated using traditional medication and he/she can be left because it is believed that the diarrhea will heal by itself and has no death impact for who sufferers it(9,10).

Traditional medication to treat the diarrhea is by palm of hand root concoction (Elephantopusscaber), betel leaves concoction (Piper betle), and pinang fruit concoction (Areca catechu). The pharmacology effect of betel leaves and pinang fruit has medically been proven as a drug for diarrhea therapy(11).

5. Jambanglempu diarrhea type

Jambanglempu diarrhea cause is convinced as the influence of body fluid imbalance of a patient (body disharmonisation) because a child under fiveyears old is beginning to grow his/her milk teeth or studying to stand by his/herself. These identification diarrhea signs and symptoms at once as a basis maintenance diagnosis for the diarrhea cause are the child diarrhea patient feces which have no smell and/her appetite to breastfeeding is still high. Medically, it is likely that the Jambanglempu diarrhea type is a diarrhea which is caused by Entamoeba coli bacteria(12,13) A traditional medicine to treat this diarrhea is using guava leaves (Psidiumguajava), cooked palm oil (Oleumcocosnuciferae), and pulai concoction (Alstoniaspectabilis). The pharmacology effect of guava leaf concoction has medically been proven as a drug for diarrhea therapy in Psidii folium extractumsiccum form.

6. Diarrhea which is cause by dyspepsia or food factor This diarrhea causeis considered as anconsequences of body fluid imbalance in patients body (body disharmonisation) which is evoked by fat malabsorption, carbohydrate, protein or lactose intolerance.

Dewi Yuliana et al /Int.J.PharmTech Res.2014,6(2),pp 641-645. 645 The identified signs and symptoms of the diarrhea are little volume of feces but it is frequently occurred thus patient’s rectum is pain (smarting)(14) Guava leaves concoction (Psidiumguajava) and pulai concoction (Alstoniaspectabilis) is used as traditional medicine to treat this diarrhea type. The pharmacology effect of guava leaf concoction has medically been proven as drug therapy for the diarrhea in Psidii folium extractumsiccum form.

Conclusion Every kind of diarrhea suffered by children under five years old has its special sign and symptoms and has become its basic maintenance diagnosis. The treatment is performed using traditional medicinefrom plants which grown around their environment. Several kinds of traditional medicine plants that have been used are guava leaves (Psidiumguajava), pulai (Alstoniascholaris), candlenut (Aleuritismoluccana), turmeric (Curcuma domestica), sirih (Piper betle), and pepper (Piperisnigri).

Acknowledgment The authors were grateful to DirektoratJenderalPendidikanTinggi (DIKTI) and Moslem University of Indonesian for financing this research through Dikti fundamental grant.

References

1. Jones ACC dan Farthing MJG, 2004. Management of infectious diarrhea. Gut, An International Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology; 53:296

2. Depkes, 2007. ProfilKesehatanNasionalTahun 2011. Jakarta.

3. DinkesSulsel, 2011. ProfilKesehatanProvinsi Sulawesi Selatan Tahun 2009. Makassar.

4. Dyson L, 2003. MetodaEtnografi. JurnalMasyarakat, KebudayaandanPolitik, Th XVI, No. 1, Januari 2003, 29 – 38.

5. Spradley JP, 1980. Participant Observation. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., Orlando, Florida.

6. Lofland and Lofland, 1984. Analyzing Social Settings:A Guide to Qualitative Observationand Analysis.

Wadsworth Publishing Company. Belmont, California.

7. Brewer JD, 2005. Ethnography. Open University Press. Celtic Court 22. Ballmoor Buckingham.

8. Pelras C, 1996. The Bugis. First Edition.Blackwell Publishers Ltd. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

9. Ciesla WP, Guerrant RL, 2003. Infectious Diarrhea. In: Wilson WR, Drew WL, Henry NK, et al., ed.

Current Diagnosis and Treatment in Infectious Disease. Lange Medical Books,225 - 68. New York.

10. Guerrant RL, Gilder TV, dan Steiner TS, 2001. Practice Guidelines for the Management of Infectious Diarrhea. Clinical Infectious Diseases

11. Ahmed IS, 1994. Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices Of Mothers Regarding Diarrhea Among Children In A Sudanese Rural Community. East African Medical Journal.

12. Bukenya GB, 1990. The Relationship of Mothers’ Perception of Babies’ Faeces and Other Factors to Childhood Diarrhoea in An Urban Settlement of Papua New Guinea. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics

13. Lee KK and Choi JD, 1999. The Effects of Areca Catechu L Extract on Anti Inflammation and Anti Melanogenesis. International Journal of Cosmetic Science 21(4):275-284.

14. Lung E, 2003. Acute Diarrheal Disease. In, Friedman SL, McQuaid KR, Grendell JH, ed. Current Diagnosis and Treatment in Gastroenterology. Lange Medical Books. 131. second edition. New York.

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