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«Protecting the poor A microinsurance compendium Edited by Craig Churchill Protecting the poor A microinsurance compendium Protecting the poor A ...»

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Pulse Holdings Ltd.Madison Insurance, ZambiaLemmy Manje, May 2005, Case Study No. 10

Pulse is an MFI that began in 1995 with support from CARE International to address urban poverty by providing microcredit. In 2001, it was incorporated as an independent organization, Pulse Holdings Limited. It offers two types of business loans and two emergency products. It is located in the capital and had around 2,000 clients in 2004. It offers microinsurance in partnership with Madison Insurance, but instead of earning a commission, Pulse has a profit-sharing arrangement with the insurer.

Seguro Basico de Salud (SBS) Health microinsurance: A comparison of four publicly-run schemes, Latin America Jens Holst, November 2005, Case Study No. 18 The Seguro Basico de Salud was a public health insurance scheme in Bolivia created in 1999. It targeted the urban and non-urban poor and the benefit package was for pregnant women, children under five years of age and people affected by some communicable diseases. Health services were provided primarily through public health facilities. Funding of the programme was tax-based with supplements for certain programmes, and there were no copayments for users. Health providers were paid by municipal governments according to a fee-for-service remuneration schedule. In 2003, the Seguro Basico de Salud merged into the Seguro Universal Materno Infantil.

Seguro Integral (SI) Health microinsurance: A comparison of four publicly-run schemes, Latin America Jens Holst, November 2005, Case Study No. 18 The Seguro Integral is a public health insurance scheme in Paraguay that was started in 2002. Coverage will eventually be extended to all regions and population groups, but the target group for the pilot project are women of childbearing age and children under the age of five in the region of Caazapá. Since 2004, beneficiaries have obtained healthcare at primary providers within the public health system. There is a referral system to access secondary and tertiary level care. Funding for the programme is supposed to come from the health ministry, the district government and the municipal government, as well as from enrolees’ monthly contributions. There are no co-payments.

Description of microinsurance providers 613 Seguro Materno-Infantil (SMI) Health microinsurance: A comparison of four publicly-run schemes, Latin America Jens Holst, November 2005, Case Study No. 18 The Seguro Materno-Infantil, created in 1998, was a public health insurance scheme in Peru targeting the health needs of pregnant women, new mothers and children under the age of five years. It merged into the Seguro Integral de Salud in 2001, which serves a broader public. The Seguro Materno-Infantil was designed to fight against some of the most important causes of mortality.

At its peak in 2001, the programme covered 22 health districts and there were around 350,000 beneficiaries. Healthcare services were provided by public providers (ranging from health centres to hospitals), where members were enrolled. Financing of the programme was primarily tax-based. However, at the time of enrolment, members had to pay a fee, though it was waived for a significant proportion of members. Provider payment was on a fee-for-service system with limitations on the frequency of use. There were no co-payments.

ServiPerú ServiPerú, Perú Máximo U. Rodríguez and Bernardo Miranda, January 2004, Case Study No. 1 As a result of changes in regulations and in the market in the early 1990s, cooperative insurer SEGUROSCOOP could no longer keep its licence.

Instead, in 1994, it recreated itself as ServiPerú, an insurance broker and service provider that serves as a link between cooperatives and insurance companies. It offers an integrated health and funeral insurance product and had around 94,000 beneficiaries in 2003. There are co-payments on all covered health benefits. In addition to the integrated microinsurance product, ServiPerú offers motor insurance, life savings and credit life insurance services.

Shepherd Microinsurance and microfinance institutions: Evidence from India James Roth, Craig Churchill, Gabriele Ramm and Namerta, September 2005, Case Study No. 15

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health insurance products and had around 15,000 beneficiaries in 2004. Following a partner-agent model, Shepherd is linked to two state insurance companies, which bear all the risk of the products.

Society for Social Services (SSS) Health microinsurance: A comparative study of three examples in Bangladesh Mosleh U Ahmed, Syed Khairul Islam, Md. Abul Quashem and Nabil Ahmed, September 2005, Case Study No. 13 Society for Social Services is a multipurpose NGO that provides microcredit and a range of social services. Its health insurance scheme, started in 1996, serves six sub-districts and had a membership of around 27,000 families in

2004. It offers an annual insurance product for curative health services.

Enrolment in the scheme is compulsory for people borrowing from the NGO. Healthcare is provided by SSS through one urban hospital, 16 rural clinics and health workers. There are co-payments on certain services but full subsidies are possible for the “ultra-poor”. Services are provided through community health workers, traditional birth attendants and qualified medical professionals who are based in the urban hospital but who travel to the clinics periodically.





Spandana Microinsurance and microfinance institutions: Evidence from India James Roth, Craig Churchill, Gabriele Ramm and Namerta, September 2005, Case Study No. 15 Spandana is an Indian NGO formed in 1992. It operates in the municipality of Guntur, among other places, and offers microcredit, initially following the Grameen model but later developing its credit provision model. It first offered microinsurance products in 1998. In 1994, it offered an integrated insurance product covering credit life, spouse’s death, and limited asset loss.

Death and destruction caused by epidemics and natural disasters were excluded from coverage. The product was compulsory for people who borrowed from Spandana and had around 390,000 policyholders in 2004. Its self-insurance scheme was not regulated.

Description of microinsurance providers 615 Tao Yeu May’s Mutual Assistance Fund (TYM) TYM’s Mutual Assistance Fund, Viet Nam Nhu-An Tran and Tan See Yun, June 2004, Case Study No. 3 Tao Yeu May’s Mutual Assistance Fund is a Grameen replication project that was launched in 1993 by Vietnamese Women’s Union. It works primarily in the northern provinces. Its core business is microcredit for women and it has offered an integrated credit life, health, disability and funeral product since

1996. Around 68,000 people (borrowers and spouses) were insured with TYM in 2004. TYM’s microinsurance programme, operating on a self-insurance basis, aims to provide financial support in times of crisis; however, it is not intended to cover all the expenses associated with the crisis.

Tata-AIG Life Insurance Company TATA-AIG Life Insurance Company Ltd., India James Roth and Vijay Athreye, September 2005, Case Study No. 14 Tata-AIG is a private-for-profit life insurance company, organized as a joint venture between a large Indian conglomerate and the American International Group. The company started microinsurance operations in 2001 to comply with Indian insurance regulations, and now offers three voluntary life insurance and savings products through partner NGOs and micro-agents. There were over 13,000 microinsurance policyholders in 2005. Tata-AIG has collaborated with over 50 NGOs and most of the selling and servicing is done through them, either directly or indirectly. In its micro-agent model, TataAIG obtains recommendations from NGOs on members of the community who could be good agents for microinsurance policies (micro-agents). The NGO then assists the agents with training and administrative support. The products for rural low-income persons are voluntary.

Taytay Sa Kauswagan (TSKI) Technical assistance for the promotion of microinsurance: The experience of Opportunity International Richard Leftley, June 2005, Case Study No. 11

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TUW SKOK

TUW SKOK, Poland Craig Churchill and Terry Pepler, May 2004, Case Study No. 2 TUW SKOK is the primary insurance provider of credit unions in Poland.

Its predecessor was created in 1993 and TUW SKOK started operations in

1998. It offers a property product, a savings completion product, and three accidental death and disability products that can be considered microinsurance. It had around 93,000 low-income policyholders and a total membership of around 925,000 in 2003. All TUW SKOK’s microinsurance products are sold as group insurance. The organization outsources many activities such as actuarial services and sales, which are done through credit unions.

Additionally, the organization also offers a range of insurance products for credit unions themselves, including deposit insurance.

Union des Mutuelles de Santé de Guinée Forestière (UMSGF) L’Union des Mutuelles de Santé de Guinée Forestière, Guinea Bruno Gautier, Allan Boutbien and Bruno Galland, October 2005, Case Study No. 17 The Union des Mutuelles de Santé de Guinée Forestière is a network of mutual health organizations. Established in 1999, the network provides representation for the MHOs in dealings with their various partners. The MHOs offer health insurance products covering around 14,000 persons in

2005. The product is aimed at low-income groups in both rural and urban settings. The insurance offered by the MHOs tends to cover cost of transport to hospitals, inpatient care and even outpatient care in some packages. Covered health services are provided only at public health facilities.

Union Technique de la Mutualité Malienne (UTM) L’Union Technique de la Mutualité Malienne, Mali Klaus Fischer, Issa Sissouma, Ibrahima Hathie, August 2006, Case Study No. 23 The Union Technique de la Mutualité Malienne (UTM), an apex body of MHOs, was created in 1998 with support from Mutualité Française. Thirtytwo MHOs are affiliated to the UTM, covering approximately 40,000 persons. The insurance benefit typically covers between 60 and 75 per cent of the user fees required to gain access to services offered in public health institutions. In addition, UTM has also designed a standard health microinsurance product that it administers. The MHOs have the option of offering either the standard health insurance product or more tailored products. Each Description of microinsurance providers 617 MHO is a legally recognized as a mutual, a separate institution owned by its members. MHOs are the primary insurance providers and risk carriers. The UTM is registered as a second-tier mutual institution, owned by the primary level member MHOs. The UTM provides support to the MHOs, acting as intermediary between MHOs and other stakeholders, helping with the development of new MHOs, contracting health service providers and developing new products. The UTM also has a certain supervisory function over the operations of the individual MHOs.

Vimo Self-Employed Women’s Association (Vimo SEWA) VimoSEWA, India Denis Garand, October 2005, Case Study No. 16 The Self-Employed Women’s Association is an Indian trade union for selfemployed women founded in 1972 in the state of Gujarat. It set up a special department for insurance in 1992, VimoSEWA, which acts as an insurance broker. VimoSEWA offers a voluntary product with life, health and asset benefits covering more than 110,000 persons in 2004. The insurance product offered by VimoSEWA has undergone many changes and is now offered in partnership with two private-sector insurance companies.

Yeshasvini Trust Yeshasvini Trust, Karnataka, India Ralf Radermacher, Natasha Wig, Olga van Putten-Rademaker, Verena Müller and David Dror, November 2005, Case Study No. 20 Yeshasvini Co-operative Farmers Health Care Trust is a charitable trust in Karnataka. Yeshasvini’s microinsurance activities were initiated in 2002 in cooperation with state authorities and cooperatives. The trust offers health insurance, covering approximately 1.45 million persons in 2004. The benefits are primarily limited to surgery, but also include outpatient care and tests in certain circumstances. The benefits, which are provided cashless to the clients, can only be accessed at certified partner hospitals. The trust outsources certain activities to third-party administrators, but manages the risk in-house. Distribution of the product is done through local cooperatives.

618 Appendix I Yasiru Mutual Provident Fund (Yasiru) ALMAO and YASIRU, Sri Lanka Sven Enarsson and Kjell Wirén, October 2005, Case Study No. 22 The Yasiru Mutual Provident Fund (Yasiru) is a microinsurance provider in Sri Lanka and was registered as a special society in 2000. Yasiru was initially linked to the ACCDC, a network of community-based organizations in seven districts, but the microinsurer has now entered into partnerships with several other NGOs. Yasiru offers an integrated accident, disability, life and hospitalization microinsurance product covering around 24,000 persons in

2004. The microinsurance product is targeted at the whole family, which can choose from five different levels of coverage.

About the authors

Appendix 11About the authors

Mosleh Uddin Ahmed is a UK-qualified chartered accountant and an independent consultant on microinsurance and migrants’ remittances. Mosleh has over 15 years’ experience in microfinance in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Nepal and Sri Lanka. He worked with Gono-Grameen Bima of Delta Life Insurance in Bangladesh as Deputy Managing Director and as the financial controller for the Rural Employment Sector Programme (RESP) in Bangladesh, a poverty alleviation programme funded by SIDA. He is at present CEO of Microinsurance Research Centre – a “not-for-profit” organization based in the UK and Bangladesh. He is a member of the UK All Party Parliamentary Group on Microfinance, London Microfinance Club and PlanetFinance UK.

Gloria Almeyda started her international credit union (CU) career with CUNA Mutual as an intern from EAFIT University in her native country, Colombia. Later, she joined WOCCU’s international technical operations and worked in Latin America, Asia and Africa. Upon her return to Colombia, she became Executive Director of EDUCONAL – the Technical Corporation of the Colombian national CU federation. She also led the microenterprise programme of Fundación para el Desarrollo Integral, and collaborated with other institutions in microenterprise-related policy, promotion and development. She is currently a Regional Coordinator for Central America/Caribbean and Mexico, at the Center for Inter-Cultural Education and Development (CIED) of Georgetown University.

Felipe Botero has worked in the insurance industry for over 20 years. As an information technology specialist, Felipe has seen the evolution of technology from the days of overnight batch-processing and mainframe computers, to today’s Internet-based world of straight-through processing and customer self-service. Throughout his career with MetLife, headquartered in New York City, Felipe has supported life, health, disability and annuity systems. While attending the MBA in Finance programme at New York University, Felipe became interested in microfinance and has dedicated himself to developing a microinsurance practice within MetLife.

Grzegorz Buczkowski is president of TUW SKOK, a mutual property and casualty insurance com´ pany (since 1997), and TU SKOK Zycie SA, a life insurance company of the Polish credit union system (since 2003). He has 16 years’ experience with Polish credit unions, starting as Foreign Relations Officer with Foundation for Polish Credit Unions. He spent five years as managing director at TU SKOK Benefit SA, a joint insurance operation of CUNA Mutual Group and Foundation for Polish Credit Unions. Mr Buczkowski holds a MA in English Literature from Gdansk University, Poland and an MBA from Gdansk University and Strathclyde University, Glasgow, Scotland. In 2001, he received one of the first WOCCU Young Credit Union Professional Awards.

Doubell Chamberlain heads the Access to Financial Services Practice at Genesis Analytics and holds a Masters in Economics (cum laude) from the University of Stellenbosch. Over the last five years, he has worked on numerous projects relating to developing strategies to extend financial services (including insurance) to the poor in southern Africa and the review and assessment of regulatory impacts on various components of the financial and non-financial sectors. He is currently leading a multi-country study on the impact of Anti Money Laundering/Combating the Financing of TerAbout the authors 621 rorism (AML/CFT) regulations on access to financial services in developing countries as well as an IDRC study on developing the principles for regulating microinsurance.

Arup Chatterjee is Deputy Director, Insurance Regulatory And Development Authority of India and currently on deputation as an Advisor to the International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS), Switzerland. Besides an honours degree in economics, he possesses a master’s in international economics and a master’s in international business. His experience includes a rare blend of hardcore insurance business operations with expertise in insurance regulation and supervision. This combination has helped him gain a deep insight into development and regulation of insurance in emerging markets.

Craig Churchill joined the ILO’s Social Finance Programme in 2001. Craig has microfinance experience in both developed and developing countries having previously worked for Get Ahead Foundation in South Africa, ACCION International, the MicroFinance Network and Calmeadow. In his current position, he focuses primarily on the role of financial services that the poor can use to manage risks and reduce their vulnerability, including microinsurance. He serves as Chair of the CGAP Working Group on Microinsurance and on the editorial boards of the MicroBanking Bulletin and the Journal of Microfinance. Craig has authored and edited dozens of articles, papers and monographs on various microfinance topics including microinsurance, customer loyalty, organizational development and management, governance, lending methodologies, and regulation and supervision.

Monique Cohen is President of Microfinance Opportunities, a non-profit organization founded in

2002. She is a recognized expert on the poor’s use of financial services and client assessment, including market research and impact assessment in microfinance. Dr. Cohen has pioneered the introduction of financial education for poor people in developing countries. She designed and led the AIMS project at USAID in Washington, where she served as Senior Technical Advisor in the Office of Microenterprise Development, 1994–2002. She is co-author with Jennefer Sebstad of “Microfinance, risk management and poverty”, and “Reducing vulnerability: The demand for microinsurance”. Dr.

Cohen has published extensively on microfinance and has taught at the Boulder Microfinance Training Program. Monique Cohen has a PhD from Clark University in Massachusetts.

David Dror’s experience in social security dates back to the mid-1970s when he was responsible for negotiating a comprehensive pension agreement for private-sector employers in Israel and a nationwide wage-indexation system. He also held key positions on the Council of the National Insurance Institute and served as Delegate to the International Labour Conference (Geneva). From 1981 to 2003 Dror worked for the ILO. From 1989, his work focused on applied health insurance, as practitioner and later as researcher, which included developing innovative pro-poor options for the extension of health insurance in low-income countries. The “Social Re” concept that he developed offers a new approach to sustainable community health financing. Since retiring from the ILO, and with a PhD and DBA, he has been teaching in two universities, conducting and supervising research, and overseeing the implementation of technical support to health insurance schemes for the poor in India, South Africa and elsewhere.

Iddo Dror is a doctoral candidate at the University of Geneva’s Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences, where he is researching the provision of health microinsurance in developing countries. In addition to his research, Iddo is actively involved in developing management competencies for international organizations, notably through an innovative MBA programme specializing in international organizations (cf. www.iomba.ch), which he helped create and still coordinates.

Sven Enarsson (BA in economics at Stockholm University) started working in development cooperation in 1970. Has worked with projects in Africa for 15 years, as a field worker, a project leader and a regional representative of the Swedish Cooperative Centre. Employed by the Swedish Cooperative Centre from 1986 to 2003, he has worked mainly in the development of rural and urban savings and credit cooperatives in eastern and southern Africa. He has also supported cooperative banking in Kenya and has lately been involved in cooperative finance and insurance. Sven is now working as a consultant.

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mental and applied research results. Significant recent activities to note are his role as a leader of a three-year project involving researchers from South America, Africa and Asia and as principal researcher in a World Bank-sponsored team research effort, both on the subject of network organizations and the regulation and supervision of mutual financial intermediaries.

Bénédicte Fonteneau is a sociologist and senior researcher at the Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium). Her fields of research include not-for-profit organizations, microinsurance schemes, HIV/AIDS, community-based organizations, and access to healthcare and health systems. Using fundamental and applied research methods, she examines the emergence and the organizational issues of associations dealing with health-related concerns (e.g. access to healthcare, health insurance, prevention and care) and their relations with the health sector at the micro (health providers) and macro level (health authorities). She gives special emphasis to the influence of international cooperation in this context. Her research has concentrated on West Africa.

Bruno Galland is Director of Research at CIDR in the field of participatory microinsurance schemes and the performance of health services. CIDR is involved in the design, implementation and evaluation of health microinsurance programmes in various African countries. By analysing and documenting the experiences of these programmes, CIDR contributes to increasing the expertise and competence of local actors. Bruno Galland has published various practical guides and documents and has organized training with other organizations, including the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, GTZ, ILO/STEP and CGAP.

Denis Garand (FCIA, FSA) worked for nearly 20 years for a Canadian cooperative insurance company as Group Actuary, Director of Marketing and Vice-President of Group Insurance, as well as an advisor to developing cooperative insurers. Since 2001, Denis has been an independent consultant, focusing on the Canadian group insurance industry and international microinsurance programmes.

Canadian assignments have included strategic reviews, capital management, training, product development, pricing, mergers, insurance company start-up and the development of the first Canadian disability incidence study. International assignments for BearingPoint, CGAP, ILO, GTZ, CCA and ICMIF have been in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, the Philippines, Benin, Rwanda and Barbados on all aspects of microinsurance.

Christian Jacquier (engineer and PhD) is the Coordinator of the ILO global programme “Strategies and Tools against Social Exclusion and Poverty” (www.ilo.org/step). As a specialist in the extension of social protection, Jacquier helped launch the concept of “micro-insurance” in 1999 through an article in ISSA review (Dror-Jacquier). He serves as the coordinator of the International Alliance for the Extension of Social Protection, composed of ILO, ISSA, ICMIF, AIM, ICA, IHCO and WIEGO (www.social-protection.org) and is a member of WIEGO, a global research-policy network that seeks to improve the status of the working poor, especially women, in the informal economy.

Rüdiger Krech (MPH, PhD) is Head of Social Protection Section at GTZ. He joined GTZ in 2003 and is assigned to numerous national and international task forces on social protection and is a member of the German delegation at the UN Social and Economic Commission. Between 1992 and 2003 he worked at the WHO Regional Office for Europe, where he coordinated the WHO European strategy “Health for All for the 21st Century”, and was the WHO’s focal point for Europe on Ageing. Previously, he worked in child psychiatry before he took up a position as a senior lecturer for health in social work at a German college. Dr. Krech has a professional background in educational sciences, medicine and public health.

Richard Lacasse is currently Program Director for Latin America and the Caribbean at SOCODEVI, a Canadian NGO specializing in cooperative development in Africa, Asia and Latin America.

With a master’s in cooperative management, Richard Lacasse has during the past twenty years developed solid experience in planning and implementing development programmes, and partnershipbuilding oriented towards local ownership and economic development. He has recognized expertisein cooperative organizational development, combining the needs for a solid democratic participation and governance with viable economic activities.

About the authors 623 Alexia Latortue leads CGAP’s work on improving the effectiveness of funding for microfinance.

She managed the Microfinance Donor Peer Reviews in 2002, and now provides strategic and technical services to funding agencies. Ms. Latortue has written extensively on aid effectiveness in microfinance. She is the focal point for the CGAP Working Group on Microinsurance. Previously, Ms.

Latortueworked with Development Alternatives, Inc. She spent three years in Haiti, managing technical services to financial institutions and working on industry infrastructure issues. Ms. Latortue holds a master’s in development economics from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University. She is fluent in French, Creole and German.

Richard Leftley joined Opportunity International in 2002 as insurance product development manager having previously worked as a reinsurance broker for Benfield Greig. Richard pioneered the introduction of insurance products within the Opportunity Network with impressive results: at the end of 2005, a range of insurance products were available to over 2.6 million Opportunity clients and family members in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In 2004, Richard became Vice-President for Planning & Operations and leads a team of specialist consultants providing technical assistance to Opportunity partners in 29 countries. During 2005, Opportunity International launched the Micro Insurance Agency to provide a larger number of clients with access to insurance products; as President of the agency, Richard has established the organization and is setting its strategic direction.

Dominic Liber is a director of Quindiem Consulting and a qualified actuary with many years’ experience in providing life insurance product design, risk management, and strategy to insurers, reinsurers, corporations, NGOs, microlenders, industry bodies and other consulting firms. He has been extensively involved in the development of risk solutions for the low-income markets, and the development of pricing models for a range of healthcare, disability, life and business risks including AIDSrelated risks. He is the convener of the AIDS Committee of the Actuarial Society of South Africa and author of several manuals and guides on microinsurance and microfinance risk management.

Roland Lindenthal is currently on leave from the German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). From 2003 to 2005, he was the Senior Advisor on social policy, employment and labour market policy for the United Nations Support Facility for Indonesian Recovery (UNSFIR). Prior to this appointment, he headed UNDP’s Governance Department in Zimbabwe (2001–2002) and was Deputy Chief of the UN Division at the BMZ (1996–2000). From 1991 to 1996, he worked for the Enterprise Development Department of the ILO in Geneva. Mr. Lindenthal has a master’s degree in economics.

Philippe Marcadent is the Technical Coordinator of the “Strategies and Tools against Social Exclusion and Poverty” (STEP) Programme of the International Labour Organization. He is also in charge of policy development for the informal economy at the ILO Social Security Department. He leads research, policy and project design, the production of tools and publications, and the provision of technical advice related to the extension of social protection. Prior to joining the STEP Programme in 1998, he worked for 12 years as an expert in several technical cooperation programmes aimed at fighting poverty in Africa and Latin America. He is a development economist.

Michael J. McCord is the President of The MicroInsurance Centre, an organization dedicated to creating partnerships to provide specially designed insurance products to low-income markets.

Michael combines experience as controller of a US commercial bank, CEO of an MFI in Uganda, Regional Director for microfinance programmes in Africa, and now the MicroInsurance Centre, to provide a depth of knowledge on developing and managing microinsurance products. His specializations include institutional development, new product development, and assessment and analysis of microinsurance programmes. He has written extensively on microinsurance, as well as on subjects as varied as pilot testing, rollout and the feedback loop for microfinance institutions, MFI accounting and analysis, and the function of laws.

Gerry Noble (MB, DCH, DObs, DTM&H) is an Irish physician and health-financing specialist with ten years’ experience in health management and systems development in sub-Saharan Africa.

He founded Microcare, a health microinsurer giving low-income groups in Uganda access to quality affordable healthcare. Networking a central Oracle database with computerized clinic check-in desks and client Smart Cards, Microcare integrates on-site client identity verification and real-time 624 Appendix II claims processing with centralized insurance management. This prevents fraud, contains treatment costs and monitors quality of care.

Zahid Qureshi is President of International Development & Communication Services, Inc.

(ID&CS). His experience includes 23 years with a group of insurance and financial services companies in North America and 12 years of insurance development in various markets for ICMIF, an international organization based in Europe that has member insurers in some 70 countries. His introduction to development work came in San Francisco as an intern at The Asia Foundation, which promotes democratic and self-help institutions. Earlier he had served as a copy editor on two daily newspapers. Zahid has master’s degrees in journalism (with a major in international relations) and English literature.

Ralf Radermacher is an economist at the University of Cologne, Germany. Working at the Department for Cooperative Studies, he is involved in research and teaching in the fields of health insurance for the poor, microfinance institutions and cooperatives. In his research, he combines qualitative and quantitative methods as well as experimental economics. His main interest is health microinsurance;

the current focus of work is India. Ralf Radermacher also works as a freelance consultant in the area of microinsurance.

Gabriele Ramm manages the microinsurance public-private partnership between Allianz and GTZ in India and Indonesia. As a senior advisor to GTZ, she has focused on social protection in the informal economy and microinsurance. Prior to this, Gaby Ramm was GTZ Programme Director in India heading poverty alleviation projects that included microfinance and microinsurance. Her previous work for the Friedrich Naumann Foundation in Nepal and Pakistan included projects on industrial relations, social security, decentralization policy and training of environmental journalists.

She has also worked for German television (WDR), the Foundation for International Development (now InWEnt) and the German Adult Education Association. Gaby has published several studies and articles on microinsurance/social protection and visual literacy. She holds master’s degrees in political science/mass communication and engineering.

James Roth’s work has focused on developing financial services for the poor. His PhD at the University of Cambridge looked at the variety and depth of financial services available to the poor in a small South African Township. His subsequent work has focused on selecting, researching and promoting innovative financial instruments and institutions. He has assisted governments and donors in developing policies conducive to an inclusive financial sector, including work on credit guarantee funds, microcredit and microinsurance. From 2000 to 2004, he worked for the Social Finance Programme of the ILO in Geneva. In 2004, he was Chief Technical Adviser on a microinsurance project in Bangalore, India financed by GTZ and the ILO. He is currently a partner in The Microinsurance Centre, a specialized consulting firm.

Stuart Rutherford has been a microfinance practitioner, researcher, writer and teacher for twentyfive years. His interest is in understanding how poor people manage their money, hence the title of his best-known work, The poor and their money. He has taught at the Boulder Microfinance Training Program and the Institute for Development Policy and Management at the University of Manchester, United Kingdom, where he is a Senior Visiting Fellow. He lived for many years in Bangladesh, where he was a board member of the Association for Social Advancement (ASA), and founded SafeSave, an MFI that provides highly flexible financial services to slum dwellers. He is currently researching Grameen II, Grameen Bank’s recent major reworking of its products. He now lives in Japan.

Priyanka Saksena is a health economist. She did her graduate studies at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and her undergraduate studies at McGill University. Her research so far has concentrated on modelling social health insurance systems and on costing health microinsurance schemes.

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responsible (with a team of microinsurance and ICT experts) for the development of an electronic platform on microinsurance and social protection that provides technical tools and opportunities for practitioners to exchange experiences. Before joining STEP in 2003, Valérie worked in the health insurance sector in France. She graduated from Hautes Études Commerciales (Jouy-en-Josas, France) and has a Delta master’s degree in economics (Paris, France).

Jennefer Sebstad is a development specialist with 25 years of experience in Africa and Asia on programmes to expand income, employment and asset building opportunities for low-income people.

She has worked as a researcher, evaluator and donor in the areas of microfinance, enterprise development, and livelihood-pro-gramming. Her recent work has included research on the demand for microinsurance in Nepal, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, the development of guidelines for research on the demand for microinsurance, and financial education related to risk management/insurance.

She has a master’s in urban planning from UCLA and a bachelor’s from the University of Michigan.

Sabine Trommershäuser is Senior Expert at GTZ´s Social Protection Section and coordinates projects in the field of microinsurance. She joined GTZ in 1997 as Labour Market Expert for Eastern Europe and was the Head of GTZ’s Social Protection Section before she went on parental leave in

2004. Previously she worked as Programme Officer for the ILO’s International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) in Geneva, Switzerland and for the German Cooperative Bank in Frankfurt, Germany. She studied economics at the University of Giessen and holds a postgraduate degree from the Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Germany.

Thomas Wiechers is studying for his MSc in economics at University of Marburg, Germany. He is a student researcher in the project “Strengthening Micro Health Insurance Units for the Poor in India”, and works on a freelance basis with GTZ in the fields of microinsurance, social protection and financial systems development. He has studied business administration at University of Cologne, Germany, and has worked with various organizations and companies in the field of international youth exchange, sustainable development and corporate social responsibility on a volunteer or freelance basis.

Martina Wiedmaier-Pfister is an active member of the CGAP Working Group on Microinsurance on behalf of a GTZ sector project on financial system development commissioned by BMZ. In 2003, she developed the study on “Microinsurance Regulation and Supervision” followed by a country study of microinsurance carried out in Sri Lanka. In this function, she currently represents GTZ in international fora and in the cooperation with the International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS) as well as with other support agencies dedicated to microinsurance. Her contribution to this book has been completed under a GTZ assignment. She holds a master’s in business administration and worked for ten years in the cooperative banking sector in Germany before she dedicated herself to financial systems development in developing countries in 1992.

John J. Wipf worked for a Canadian cooperative insurer from 1988–1997 in Group Actuarial and Corporate Actuarial departments. During that time he also undertook several assignments in the Philippines as Actuarial Advisor for a cooperative insurer and as ICMIF Asia Regional Advisor.

Since 1997, John has lived in the Philippines and worked as an Actuarial Advisor on numerous microinsurance projects in the Philippines, Ghana, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Cambodia and India. He specializes in actuarial modelling, product design and pricing, developing actuarial and administration software, and microinsurance business planning. John has also been involved in several longterm disability study projects in Canada.

Kjell Wirén lives in Stockholm, Sweden. After receiving a bachelor’s degree at the University of Uppsala, Kjell joined Folksam in 1971. At Folksam, he has mainly been working in general insurance except for four years in the Life Division. In 1985, he was appointed Product Manager of the non-life business, and in 1993 he was given full responsibility for all General Insurance at Folksam.

During his time with Folksam, Kjell has also been involved as an adviser in Folksam’s development work in eastern and southern Africa. Today, Kjell works as a Senior Adviser to the CEO and is also responsible for Folksam’s international activities. Kjell is the author, together with Sven Enarsson, of two microinsurance case studies, in Malawi (2004) and Sri Lanka (2005).

Bibliography

–  –  –

Brown, W.; Churchill, C.F. 1999. Providing Churchill, C. 2005. “What is microinsurance?”, insurance to low income households – Part I: A presentation to the Microinsurance Conference, primer on insurance principles and products Munich Re Foundation and CGAP Working (Bethesda, MD, USAID’s Microenterprise Best Group on Microinsurance, Schloss HohenkamPractices, Development Alternatives Inc.). mer, Germany, Oct.

–  –  –

Chamberlain, D.; Smith, A.; Walker, R. 2006. Cook, T.; CGAP staff. 2005. “Maximising aid Distribution of insurance through retail outlets: effectiveness in microfinance”, Donor Brief No.

South African case study (Johannesburg, Genesis 22 (Washington, DC, CGAP), at:

Analytics). www.cgap.org/docs/DonorBrief_22.pdf.

–  –  –

—. 2002c. Social security: Standards for the Kasten, E. 2004. “Agriculture and agricultural XXIst Century (Geneva, ILO International insurance”, presentation to ICMIF Agricultural Labour Standards Department). Insurance Network, Tunis, Tunisia.

–  –  –

—. 1983. Demokratie und Management – Grundlagen einer Managementtheorie genossenschaftlich-demokratisch verfaßter Unternehmen (Göttingen, Marburger Schriften zum Genossenschaftswesen), Vol. 59.

Index Note: Page numbers in italic denote tables, figures or boxes. The letter a appended to a page number denotes an appendix entry; a subscript numeral denotes a footnote. While the terms ‘insurance’, ‘insurers’, etc., refer to microinsurance unless otherwise indicated, ‘microinsurance’, etc., is used where necessary for added clarity.

–  –  –

The book allows readers to benefit from the valuable lessons learned from a project launched by the CGAP Working Group on Microinsurance analysing operations around the world. Essential reading for insurance professionals, practitioners and anyone involved with offering insurance to low-income persons, this volume covers the many aspects of microinsurance in detail including product design, marketing, premium collection and governance.

It also discusses the various institutional arrangements available for delivery such as the community-based approach, insurance companies owned by networks of savings and credit cooperatives and microfinance institutions.The roles of key stakeholders are also explored and the book offers insightful strategies for achieving the right balance between coverage, costs and price.

ILO and Munich Re Foundation, Publishers ISBN 978-92-2-119254-1



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