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May be measured at local, regional, or national levels. Usually quantitative in nature, although may be formed from data originally gathered in a qualitative format. Includes outputs, outcomes, and meso- and macro-leel indicators, as discussed below. For USAID’s purposes, good indicators are valid (the measurement is in accordance with the underlying concept), cross-nationally comparable, and reliable (different applications of the indicator result in similar if not identical measurements).
Macro-level indicators: Measure country-level features at a highly aggregated level (e.g., democracy). Used for country assessment.
Meso- or sectoral-level indicators: Measure country-level features in some rather specific policy area (e.g., elections). Used for country assessment and, very occasionally, for program/project ealuation.
Outcomes: Measure the impact of an intervention on some aspect of society. Used for program/project ealuation.
Outputs: Measure the specific targets of a program. Often used for program/project monitoring
SUBSTANTIvE CONCEPTSAuthoritarian regimes: Governments in which leaders are not chosen by competitive elections and in which all political opposition is repressed. All media, local government, judiciary, and legislature are tightly controlled by the executive.
Democracy: Generally, rule by the people; also known as popular sovereignty; an aspect of goernance. In reaching for a more specific definition, two general strategies may be identified. Minimalist definitions usually center on the idea of contestation (competition). Maximalist (ideal-type) definitions add additional qualifiers such as liberty/freedom, accountability, responsiveness, deliberation, participation, political equality, and social equality.
Full democracy: A system of government in which leaders are chosen by open and fair electoral competition and in which all of the political liberties and rights needed to ensure such open and fair competition—personal security and nondiscrimination, rule of law, accountability of officials, civilian control, and freedom of speech, assembly, and media—are well institutionalized and protected.
0 IMPROVING DEMOCRACY ASSISTANCE Governance: The quality of government (e.g., rule of law, low corruption, high efficiency, high performance on dimensions deemed valuable for improving human welfare). May include some or all features of democracy.
Partial democracy: A system of government in which leaders are chosen by electoral competition, but such competition is not fully open or fair, and in which many of the political liberties and rights needed to ensure open and fair competition are absent or irregular. Elections are often marked by violence or disorders, elected officials are not fully accountable, and certain groups may be excluded from politics or disadvantaged by state control of media or electoral procedures.
Semiauthoritarian regimes: Governments in which leaders are not chosen by competitive elections but in which some political liberties are allowed.
Leaders do stand for elections, but the eligibility and activities of the opposition are so tightly constrained that the outcome is never in doubt.
There may be some independent media, some opposition political parties, and some diversity of representation in parliament or local governments.
There may be some elements of the judiciary or electoral monitoring that function with autonomy.
Biographical Sketches of Committee Members
Jack A. goldstone—(Chair), george Mason University Jack A. Goldstone is the Virginia E. and John T. Hazel Jr. Professor at the George Mason School of Public Policy and a senior research scholar at the Mercatus Institute. His work on social movements, revolutions, democratization, and economic growth has won the Distinguished Scholarly Publication Award of the American Sociological Association, and Fellowships from the U.S. Institute for Peace, the MacArthur Foundation, and the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. He is a senior member of the Political Instability Task Force and is director of the Center for Global Policy at George Mason. The author or editor of nine books and nearly 100 research articles, Goldstone is a consultant to the U.S.
State Department, intelligence agencies, and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). His areas of expertise include revolutions and social movements, comparative economic development, comparative politics, conflict and rebellion, democracy, fragile states, and political demography.
Larry garber, New Israel Fund Larry Garber joined the New Israel Fund following five years as director of USAID’s West Bank and Gaza mission. Previously, he was senior policy advisor and deputy assistant administrator of the Bureau of Policy and Program Coordination at USAID. Garber was a senior associate at the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs from 1988 to 1993, organizing international election observer missions leading to historic APPENDIX A governmental transitions in the Philippines, Chile, Pakistan, Panama, Bulgaria, and Zambia. He has also served as an advisor to a number of governments on election law reform issues. Garber served as legal director of the International Human Rights Law Group from 1983 to 1988, preparing the first-ever guide for international election observers. He has served as a member of the adjunct faculty of the Washington College of Law of American University and as a consultant to the United Nations, the Organization of American States, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. Garber is a 1980 graduate of Columbia University with a joint J.D. and M.A. in international affairs. He received his B.A. in 1976, from Queens College of the City University of New York and spent a year of his undergraduate studies at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.
John gerring, Boston University John Gerring received his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1993. He is currently an associate professor of political science at Boston University where he teaches courses on methodology and comparative politics.
His books include Party Ideologies in America, - (Cambridge University Press, 1998), Social Science Methodology: A Criterial Framework (Cambridge University Press, 2001), Case Study Research:
Principles and Practices (Cambridge University Press, 2007), Global Justice: A Prioritarian Manifesto (under review), and Centripetalism: A Theory of Democratic Goernance (with Strom Thacker; under review), Concepts and Method: Gioanni Sartori and His Legacy (with David Collier; under review), and Democracy and Deelopment: A Historical Perspectie (with Strom Thacker; in process).
His articles have appeared in the American Political Science Reiew, British Journal of Political Science, International Organization, Journal of Policy History, Journal of Theoretical Politics, Party Politics, Political Research Quarterly, Polity, Social Science History, Studies in American Political Deelopment, and World Politics. He was a fellow of the School of Social Science at the Institute of Advanced Study (2002-2003). He is the former editor of Qualitatie Methods: Newsletter of the American Political Science Association Organized Section on Qualitatie Methods and president-elect of the Qualitative Methods section.
Clark C. gibson, University of California, San Diego Clark Gibson is professor of political science and director of the International Studies Program at University of California, San Diego. He studies the politics of development, democracy, and the environment. He has explored issues related to these topics in Africa, Central and South America, and the United States. The results of his work have appeared APPENDIX A in journals such as Comparatie Politics, World Deelopment, Annual Reiew of Political Science, Social Science Quarterly, Human Ecology, Conseration Biology, Ecological Economics, and African Affairs. Gibson’s research about the politics of wildlife policy in Africa appears in his book, Politicians and Poachers: The Political Economy of Wildlife Policy in Africa. He has also co-edited two volumes: People and Forests: Communities, Institutions, and Goernance, which uses techniques from the natural and social sciences to examine the local governance of forests; and Communities and the Enironment: Ethnicity, Gender, and the State in Community-Based Conseration, which explores the complex and multilayered links between members and their natural resources. Gibson’s latest coauthored book, Samaritan’s Dilemma: The Political Economy of Deelopment Aid, analyzes the political economy of foreign aid and offers suggestions for its improvement. His current research focuses on the accountability between governments and citizens in Africa.
Mitchell A. Seligson, vanderbilt University Mitchell A. Seligson is the Centennial Professor of Political Science at Vanderbilt University and is also a fellow at the Center for the Americas at Vanderbilt. He founded and directs the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP). LAPOP has conducted over 60 surveys of public opinion, mainly focused on democracy, in many countries in Latin America, but more recently has included projects in Africa and the Balkans. Prior to joining the faculty at Vanderbilt, he held the Daniel H. Wallace Chair of Political Science at the University of Pittsburgh, and also served there as director of the Center for Latin American Studies. He has held grants and fellowships from the Rockefeller Foundation, the Ford Foundation, the National Science Foundation, the Howard Heinz Foundation, Fulbright, USAID, and others, and has published over 80 articles and more than a dozen books and monographs. In addition to consulting for USAID, he also consults for the World Bank, the United Nations Development Program, and the Inter-American Development Bank. His most recent books are Elections and Democracy in Central America, Reisited, co-edited with John Booth, and Deelopment and Underdeelopment, the Political Economy of Global Inequality (3rd ed., 2003), co-edited with John Passé-Smith.
Jeremy M. Weinstein, Stanford University Jeremy M. Weinstein is Assistant Professor of Political Science at Stanford University, an affiliated faculty member at the Center for Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law and the Center for International Security and Cooperation, and a nonresident fellow at the Center for Global Development. His research focuses on civil wars and communal violence, ethnic politics and the provision of public goods, postconflict reconstrucAPPENDIX A tion, and democracy promotion. He is the author of Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence (Cambridge University Press, 2007). He has also published articles in the American Political Science Reiew, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Foreign Affairs, Journal of Democracy, World Policy Journal, and the SAIS Reiew. Previously, Weinstein directed the bipartisan Commission on Weak States and U.S. National Security. He has also worked on the National Security Council staff, served as a visiting scholar at the World Bank, and held fellowships at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Brookings Institution. He is a term member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Weinstein received a B.A. with high honors from Swarthmore College, and an M.A. and Ph.D.
in political economy and government from Harvard University.
B Committee Meetings and Participants
OPEN SESSION10:15 Meeting begins
• Opening remarks by committee chair
• Introduction of committee members
• Brief project overview
• Plan for the meeting 10:30 General Remarks Overview of USAID’s DG programs
• USAID’s DG strategy APPENDIX B
• Typical programs
• Coordination with other U.S. government agencies and donors Open discussion with committee members Overview of USAID Evaluation and Performance Management
• Budget and strategic planning
• Assessments and evaluations
• Performance management plans 12:00 Lunch 1:00 Overview of the Strategic and Operational Research Agenda (SORA)
• Introduction and background on SORA
• Previous studies, including the Quantitative Study
• Expectations for this study Open discussion with committee members 1:45 Discussion with USAID of Key Committee Tasks